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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325576 matches for " S. Lyons "
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Grade Retention and Seventh-Grade Depression Symptoms in the Course of School Dropout among High-Risk Adolescents  [PDF]
Cintia V. Quiroga, Michel Janosz, John S. Lyons, Alexandre J. S. Morin
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.329113
Abstract: The relationship between grade retention and adolescent depression in the course of school dropout is poorly understood. Improving knowledge of the mechanisms involving these variables would shed light on at-risk youth development. This study examines whether depression in adolescence moderates the relationship between grade retention and school dropout in a high-risk sample. Seventh-grade students (n = 453) from two low-SES secondary schools in Montreal (Quebec, Canada) were followed from 2000 to 2006. Self-reported lifetime and seventh-grade depression were measured with the Inventory to Diagnose Depression. Primary school grade retention, and secondary school dropout status was obtained through the Ministry of Education of Quebec registries. Sixteen percent of participants reported lifetime depression, and 13% reported depression in seventh-grade. Nearly one third (32%) of the sample dropped out of school. Logistic regression models were used to estimate moderation effects predicting school dropout six years later. Findings indicated that students with grade retention were 5.54 times more likely to drop out of school. Depression in seventh grade increased by 2.75 times the likelihood of school dropout. The probability of dropping out for adolescents combining both grade retention and seventh-grade depression was 7.26 times higher than it was for those reporting grade retention only. The moderating effect of depression was similar for boys and girls. Depression is a significant vulnerability factor of low educational attainment aggravating the risk associated with grade retention. Experiencing depression at the beginning of secondary school can interfere with school perseverance particularly for students who experienced early academic failure.
Sensory Attenuation of Self-Produced Feedback: The Lombard Effect Revisited
Amanda S. Therrien, James Lyons, Ramesh Balasubramaniam
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049370
Abstract: The Lombard effect describes the automatic and involuntary increase in vocal intensity that speakers exhibit in a noisy environment. Previous studies of the Lombard effect have typically focused on the relationship between speaking and hearing. Automatic and involuntary increases in motor output have also been noted in studies of finger force production, an effect attributed to mechanisms of sensory attenuation. The present study tested the hypothesis that sensory attenuation mechanisms also underlie expression of the Lombard effect. Participants vocalized phonemes in time with a metronome, while auditory and visual feedback of their performance were manipulated or removed during the course of the trial. We demonstrate that providing a visual reference to calibrate somatosensory-based judgments of current vocal intensity resulted in reduced expression of the Lombard effect. Our results suggest that sensory attenuation effects typically seen in fingertip force production play an important role in the control of speech volume.
Uncomplicated term vaginal delivery following magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery for uterine fibroids
S Zaher,D Lyons,L Regan
Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.2349/biij.6.2.e28
Abstract:
Random Orderings and Unique Ergodicity of Automorphism Groups
Omer Angel,Alexander S. Kechris,Russell Lyons
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: We show that the only random orderings of finite graphs that are invariant under isomorphism and induced subgraph are the uniform random orderings. We show how this implies the unique ergodicity of the automorphism group of the random graph. We give similar theorems for other structures, including, for example, metric spaces. These give the first examples of uniquely ergodic groups, other than compact groups and extremely amenable groups, after Glasner and Weiss's example of the group of all permutations of the integers. We also contrast these results to those for certain special classes of graphs and metric spaces in which such random orderings can be found that are not uniform.
Series Expansion Approximations of Brownian Motion for Non-Linear Kalman Filtering of Diffusion Processes
Simon Lyons,Simo S?rkk?,Amos Storkey
Statistics , 2013, DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2014.2303430
Abstract: In this paper, we describe a novel application of sigma-point methods to continuous-discrete filtering. In principle, the nonlinear continuous- discrete filtering problem can be solved exactly. In practice, the solution contains terms that are computationally intractible. Assumed density filtering methods attempt to match statistics of the filtering distribution to some set of more tractible probability distributions. We describe a novel method that decomposes the Brownian motion driving the signal in a generalised Fourier series, which is truncated after a number of terms. This approximation to Brownian can be described using a relatively small number of Fourier coefficients, and allows us to compute statistics of the filtering distribution with a single application of a sigma-point method. Assumed density filters that exist in the literature usually rely on discretisation of the signal dynamics followed by iterated application of a sigma point transform (or a limiting case thereof). Iterating the transform in this manner can lead to loss of information about the filtering distri- bution in highly nonlinear settings. We demonstrate that our method is better equipped to cope with such problems.
Heavy Elements in the Lyman-$α$\ Forest: Abundances and Clustering at z=3
D. S. Womble,W. L. W. Sargent,R. S. Lyons
Physics , 1995,
Abstract: For the purpose of studying the properties of heavy-elements associated with the Lyman-$\alpha$\ forest, we observed the gravitational lens Q1422+2309. We used the HIRES instrument on the W.M. Keck telescope to obtain a high-resolution, very high signal-to-noise spectrum of this z=3.63 quasar; the spectrum covers wavelengths from below Lyman-$\beta$\ up to the C IV emission line. Consistent with previous estimates, we find that a moderate fraction of the Ly-$\alpha$\ forest clouds have been enriched with heavy elements at a level significantly below solar abundance. However, unlike the fairly uniform distribution of Ly-$\alpha$\ forest lines, we show that the C IV absorption lines are clustered on large velocity scales.
Myostatin Expression, Lymphocyte Population, and Potential Cytokine Production Correlate with Predisposition to High-Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Mice
Jeri-Anne Lyons,Jodie S. Haring,Peggy R. Biga
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012928
Abstract: A strong relationship exists between increased inflammatory cytokines and muscle insulin resistance in obesity. This study focused on identifying a relationship between metabolic propensity and myostatin expression in muscle and spleen cells in response to high-fat diet intake. Using a comparative approach, we analyzed the effects of high-fat diet intake on myostatin and follistatin expression, spleen cell composition, and potential cytokine expression in high-fat diet induced obesity (HFDIO) resistant (SWR/J) and susceptible (C57BL/6) mice models. Results demonstrated overall increased myostatin expression in muscle following high-fat diet intake in HFDIO-susceptible mice, while myostatin expression levels decreased initially in muscle from high-fat diet fed resistant mice. In HFDIO-resistant mice, myostatin expression decreased in spleen, while myostatin increased in spleen tissue from HFDIO-susceptible mice. Proinflammatory cytokine (IL-17, IL-1β, and IFNγ) potential increased in splenocytes from HFDIO-susceptible mice. In comparison, C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited higher frequencies of CD4+/CD44hi and CD8+/CD44hi cells in the spleen compared to control fed mice. Together, these results suggest that susceptibility to high-fat diet induced obesity could be influenced by local myostatin activity in a tissue-specific manner and that splenocytes exhibit differential cytokine production in a strain-dependent manner. This study sets the stage for future investigations into the interactions between growth, inflammation, and metabolism.
Spasmodic dysphonia may respond to bilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation
M Lyons, C Adler, S Bansberg, V Evidente
African Journal of Neurological Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Background Spasmodic dysphonia is a primary focal dystonia manifested by loss of control of the vocal muscles during speech secondary to laryngeal muscle spasms. The pathophysiology is not well understood. Deep brain stimulation surgery (DBS) for other focal dystonias has been well reported. Methods We report the first case of bilateral thalamic DBS improving spasmodic dystonia (SD) in a patient with essential tremor. Results This case demonstrates the beneficial of effects of bilateral thalamic DBS for both ET of the hands and AdSD of the vocal cords. Conclusions The potential pathophysiologic mechanisms of this finding are discussed.
Safety threats and opportunities to improve interfacility care transitions: insights from patients and family members
Jeffs L, Kitto S, Merkley J, Lyons RF, Bell CM
Patient Preference and Adherence , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S36797
Abstract: fety threats and opportunities to improve interfacility care transitions: insights from patients and family members Original Research (1121) Total Article Views Authors: Jeffs L, Kitto S, Merkley J, Lyons RF, Bell CM Published Date October 2012 Volume 2012:6 Pages 711 - 718 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S36797 Received: 06 August 2012 Accepted: 30 August 2012 Published: 05 October 2012 Lianne Jeffs,1 Simon Kitto,1 Jane Merkley,2 Renee F Lyons,2 Chaim M Bell1 1Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 2Bridgepoint Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Aim: To explore patients’ and family members’ perspectives on how safety threats are detected and managed across care transitions and strategies that improve care transitions from acute care hospitals to complex continuing care and rehabilitation health care organizations. Background: Poorly executed care transitions can result in additional health care spending due to adverse outcomes and delays as patients wait to transfer from acute care to facilities providing different levels of care. Patients and their families play an integral role in ensuring they receive safe care, as they are the one constant in care transitions processes. However, patients’ and family members’ perspectives on how safety threats are detected and managed across care transitions from health care facility to health care facility remain poorly understood. Methods: This qualitative study used semistructured interviews with patients (15) and family members (seven) who were transferred from an acute care hospital to a complex continuing care/rehabilitation care facility. Data were analyzed using a directed content analytical approach. Results: Our results revealed three key overarching themes in the perceptions: lacking information, getting “funneled through” too soon, and difficulty adjusting to the shift from total care to almost self-care. Several patients and families described their expectations and experiences associated with their interfacility care transitions as being uninformed about their transfer or that transfer happened too early. In addition, study participants identified the need for having a coordinated approach to care transitions that engages patients and family members. Conclusion: Study findings provide patients’ and family members’ perspectives on key safety threats and how to improve care transitions. Of particular importance is the need for patients and family members to play a more active role in their care transition planning and self-care management.
Safety threats and opportunities to improve interfacility care transitions: insights from patients and family members
Jeffs L,Kitto S,Merkley J,Lyons RF
Patient Preference and Adherence , 2012,
Abstract: Lianne Jeffs,1 Simon Kitto,1 Jane Merkley,2 Renee F Lyons,2 Chaim M Bell11Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 2Bridgepoint Health, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAim: To explore patients’ and family members’ perspectives on how safety threats are detected and managed across care transitions and strategies that improve care transitions from acute care hospitals to complex continuing care and rehabilitation health care organizations.Background: Poorly executed care transitions can result in additional health care spending due to adverse outcomes and delays as patients wait to transfer from acute care to facilities providing different levels of care. Patients and their families play an integral role in ensuring they receive safe care, as they are the one constant in care transitions processes. However, patients’ and family members’ perspectives on how safety threats are detected and managed across care transitions from health care facility to health care facility remain poorly understood.Methods: This qualitative study used semistructured interviews with patients (15) and family members (seven) who were transferred from an acute care hospital to a complex continuing care/rehabilitation care facility. Data were analyzed using a directed content analytical approach.Results: Our results revealed three key overarching themes in the perceptions: lacking information, getting “funneled through” too soon, and difficulty adjusting to the shift from total care to almost self-care. Several patients and families described their expectations and experiences associated with their interfacility care transitions as being uninformed about their transfer or that transfer happened too early. In addition, study participants identified the need for having a coordinated approach to care transitions that engages patients and family members.Conclusion: Study findings provide patients’ and family members’ perspectives on key safety threats and how to improve care transitions. Of particular importance is the need for patients and family members to play a more active role in their care transition planning and self-care management.Keywords: safety threats, patient and family perspectives, care transitions
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