Abstract:
Modern HEP experiments require immense amounts of computing power. In the BaBar experiment at SLAC, most of it is provided by Solaris SPARC systems. AutoClient, a product of Sun Microsystems, was designed to make setting up and managing large numbers of Solaris systems more straightforward. AutoClient machines keep all filesystems, except swap, on a server and employ CacheFS to cache them onto a local disk, which makes them Field Replaceable Units with performance of stand-alone systems. We began exploring the technology in Summer 1998, and currently operate online, reconstruction, analysis and console AutoClient farms with the total number of nodes exceeding 400. Although the technology has been available since 1995, it has not been widely used, and the available documentation does not adequately cover many important details of AutoClient installation and management. This paper discusses various aspects of our experience with AutoClient, including tips and tricks, performance and maintainability, scalability and server requirements, existing problems and possible future enhancements.

Abstract:
Universal features in the scalings of Shannon-R\'enyi entropies of many-body groundstates are studied for interacting spin-$\frac{1}{2}$ systems across (2+1) dimensional $O(3)$ critical points, using quantum Monte Carlo simulations on dimerized and plaquettized Heisenberg models on the square lattice. Considering both full systems and line shaped subsystems, $SU(2)$ symmetry breaking on the N\'eel ordered side of the transition is characterized by the presence of a logarithmic term in the scaling of Shannon-R\'enyi entropies, which is absent in the disordered gapped phase. Such a difference in the scalings allows to capture the quantum critical point using Shannon-R\'enyi entropies for line shaped subsystems of length $L$ embedded in $L\times L$ tori, as the smaller subsystem entropies are numerically accessible to much higher precision than for the full system. Most interestingly, at the quantum phase transition an additive subleading constant $b_\infty^{*\rm line}=0.41(1)$ emerges in the critical scaling of the line Shannon-R\'enyi entropy $S_\infty^\text{line}$. This number appears to be universal for 3d $O(3)$ criticality, as confirmed for the finite-temperature transition in the 3d antiferromagnetic spin-$\frac{1}{2}$ Heisenberg model. Additionally, the phases and phase transition can be detected in several features of the participation spectrum, consisting of the diagonal elements of the reduced density matrix of the line subsystem. In particular the N\'eel ordering transition can be simply understood in the $\{S^z\}$ basis by a confinement mechanism of ferromagnetic domain walls.

Abstract:
We apply the unbiased weak-coupling continuous time quantum Monte Carlo (CTQMC) method to review the physics of a single magnetic impurity coupled to s-wave superconducting leads described by the BCS reduced Hamiltonian. As a function of the superconducting gap $\Delta$, we study the signature of the first order transition between the singlet and doublet (local moment) states on various quantities. In particular we concentrate on the Josephson current with 0 to $\pi$ phase shift, the crossing of the Andreev bound states in the single particle spectral function, as well as the local dynamical spin structure factor. Within DMFT, this impurity problem provides a link to the periodic Anderson model with superconducting conduction electrons (BCS-PAM). The first order transition observed in the impurity model is reproduced in the BCS-PAM and is signalized by the crossing of the low energy excitations in the local density of states. The momentum resolved single particle spectral function in the singlet state reveals the coherent, Bloch-like, superposition of Andreev bound states. In the doublet or local moment phase the single particle spectral function is characterized by incoherent quasiparticle excitations.

Abstract:
Using a modified spin-wave theory which artificially restores zero sublattice magnetization on finite lattices, we investigate the entanglement properties of the N\'eel ordered $J_1 - J_2$ Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the square lattice. Different kinds of subsystem geometries are studied, either corner-free (line, strip) or with sharp corners (square). Contributions from the $n_G=2$ Nambu-Goldstone modes give additive logarithmic corrections with a prefactor ${n_G}/{2}$ independent of the R\'enyi index. On the other hand, corners lead to additional (negative) logarithmic corrections with a prefactor $l^{c}_q$ which does depend on both $n_G$ and the R\'enyi index $q$, in good agreement with scalar field theory predictions. By varying the second neighbor coupling $J_2$ we also explore universality across the N\'eel ordered side of the phase diagram of the $J_1 - J_2$ antiferromagnet, from the frustrated side $0

Abstract:
We present a large scale exact diagonalization study of the one dimensional spin $1/2$ Heisenberg model in a random magnetic field. In order to access properties at varying energy densities across the entire spectrum for system sizes up to $L=22$ spins, we use a spectral transformation which can be applied in a massively parallel fashion. Our results allow for an energy-resolved interpretation of the many body localization transition including the existence of an extensive many-body mobility edge. The ergodic phase is well characterized by Gaussian orthogonal ensemble statistics, volume-law entanglement, and a full delocalization in the Hilbert space. Conversely, the localized regime displays Poisson statistics, area-law entanglement and non ergodicity in the Hilbert space where a true localization never occurs. We perform finite size scaling to extract the critical edge and exponent of the localization length divergence.

Abstract:
Many-body localization is characterized by a slow logarithmic growth of the entanglement entropy after a global quantum quench while the local memory of an initial density imbalance remains at infinite time. We investigate how much the proximity of a many-body localized phase can influence the dynamics in the delocalized ergodic regime where thermalization is expected. Using an exact Krylov space technique, the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of the random-field Heisenberg chain is studied up to $L=28$ sites, starting from an initially unentangled high-energy product state. Within most of the delocalized phase, we find a sub-ballistic entanglement growth $S(t)\propto t^{1/z}$ with a disorder-dependent exponent $z\ge1$, in contrast with the pure ballistic growth $z=1$ of clean systems. At the same time, anomalous relaxation is also observed for the spin imbalance ${\cal{I}}(t)\propto t^{-\zeta}$ with a continuously varying disorder-dependent exponent $\zeta$, vanishing at the transition. This provides a clear experimental signature for detecting this non-conventional regime.

Abstract:
How many states of a configuration space contribute to a wave-function? Attempts to answer this ubiquitous question have a long history in physics and chemistry, and are keys to understand e.g. localization phenomena. Quantifying this aspect has often been overlooked for interacting many-body quantum systems, mainly due to the exponential growth of the configuration (Hilbert) space. Here, we introduce two Monte Carlo schemes to calculate Shannon-Renyi entropies for ground-states of large quantum many-body systems that are out of reach for any other exact method. Our simulations reveal that the very nature of quantum phases of matter and associated transitions is captured by universal subleading terms in these entropies, on top of a generic dominant multifractal behavior.

Abstract:
Shannon-R\'enyi entropies and associated participation spectra quantify how much a many-body wave-function is localized in a given configuration basis. Using these tools, we present an analysis of the ground-state wave functions of various quantum spin systems in one and two dimensions. General ideas and a review of the current status of this field are first given, with a particular emphasis on universal subleading terms characterizing different quantum phases of matter, and associated transitions. We highlight the connection with the related entanglement entropies and spectra when this is possible. In a second part, new results are presented for the participation spectra of interacting spin models, mostly based on quantum Monte Carlo simulations, but also using perturbation theory in some cases. For full antiferromagnetic systems, participation spectra are analyzed in terms of ferromagnetic domain walls which experience a repulsive pairwise interaction. This confinement potential is either linear for long-range N\'eel order, or logarithmic for quasi-long-range order. The case of subsystems is also analyzed in great detail for a 2d dimerized Heisenberg model undergoing a quantum phase transition between a gapped paramagnet and a N\'eel phase. Participation spectra of line shaped (1d) sub-systems are quantitatively compared with finite temperature participation spectra of ansatz effective boundary (1d) entanglement Hamiltonians. While short-range models describe almost perfectly the gapped side, the N\'eel regime is best compared using long-range effective Hamiltonians. Spectral comparisons performed using Kullback-Leibler divergences, a tool potentially useful for entanglement spectra, provide a quantitative way to identify both the best boundary entanglement Hamiltonian and temperature.

Abstract:
The ALEPH detector at LEP has been used to measure the momentum spectrum and charge ratio of vertical cosmic ray muons underground. The sea-level cosmic ray muon spectrum for momenta up to 2.5 TeV/c has been obtained by correcting for the overburden of 320 meter water equivalent (mwe). The results are compared with Monte Carlo models for air shower development in the atmosphere. From the analysis of the spectrum the total flux and the spectral index of the cosmic ray primaries is inferred. The charge ratio suggests a dominantly light composition of cosmic ray primaries with energies up to 10^15 eV.

Abstract:
The BaBar experiment is the particle detector at the PEP-II B-factory facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. During the summer shutdown 2002 the BaBar Event Building and Level-3 trigger farm were upgraded from 60 Sun Ultra-5 machines and 100MBit/s Ethernet to 50 Dual-CPU 1.4GHz Pentium-III systems with Gigabit Ethernet. Combined with an upgrade to Gigabit Ethernet on the source side and a major feature extraction software speedup, this pushes the performance of the BaBar event builder and L3 filter to 5.5kHz at current background levels, almost three times the original design rate of 2kHz. For our specific application the new farm provides 8.5 times the CPU power of the old system.