Abstract:
A microscopic theory of nuclei based on a 'free' scattering NN-potential is meaningful only if this potential fits on-shell scattering data.This is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the theory to be successful.It has been demonstrated repeatedly in the past that 2-body off-shell adjustments or many-body forces are necessary.It has been shown however, using Eff. Field Theory and formal scattering theory, that off-shell and many-body effects can not be separated.This 'equivalence theorem' allows us to concentrate on the off-shell effects.Examples of on-shell equivalent potentials Paris, Bonn etc but here separable potentials are calculated by inverse scattering from NN-scattering and Deuteron data, Earlier calculations showed these S-state potentials to agree with Bonn-B results in Brueckner nuclear matter calculations. They are here also used to compute the Triton binding energy and the n-D scattering length.The results are found to lie on the Phillips line defined in early calculations but like these miss the experimental point on this line and overbind the Triton but is reached by modifying the off-shell properties adding a short-range repulsion without affecting fits to the experimental low-energy phase-shifts.The off-shell induced correlations result in a repulsive component in the Triton effective interactions.In nuclear matter the same effect is referred to as the dispersion correction, which is a main contributor to nuclear saturation.In finite nucleus Brueckner-HF calculations these same correlations give an important contribution to the selfconsistent (reaarangement term), without which the finite nucleus would collapse.The main purpose of the present work is to illustrate that NN-correlations are as important in the Triton as they are in nuclear matter or other finite nuclei.

Abstract:
The energy shift due to the interaction of two particles in a large box is proportional to the free particle scattering phase-shift. This provides an approximation to the effective interaction referred to as the phase-shift approximation. For a many-body fermion system this effective interaction has to be corrected for the Pauli-blocking. It is used to calculate the energy of a spin 1/2 fermion system as a function of the two-body scattering length and effective range. In the unitary limit with scattering length going to infinity and effective range going to zero the energy is 0.540 (in the units of the non-interactiong fermi gas energy) with a pp-ladder summation. Including hh-ladders the energy is 0.570. A smooth crossover from the BCS to the BEC region is observed. Pairing is not included.

Abstract:
This report concerns the energy of a zero-temperature many-body system of spin 1/2 fermions interacting via a two-body potential with a free space infinite scattering length and zero effective range; the Unitary limit. Given the corresponding phase-shift $\delta(k)=\pi/2$ a one-term separable potential is obtained by inverse scattering assuming a momentum cut-off $\Lambda$ such that $\delta(k)=0$ for $k>\Lambda$. The \it effective \rm interaction in the many-body system is calculated in a pp-ladder approximation with Pauli-blocking but neglecting mean-field (dispersion) corrections; effective mass $m^{*}=1$. Using only the zero relative momentum component of this interaction the total energy is $\xi=4/9$ (in units of the fermigas), a result reported by several previous authors. Integrating the momentum dependent interaction over the Fermi sea this energy is revised to $\xi=0.24.$ This result is independent of density and of the cut-off $\Lambda$ if $\Lambda > \sim 3k_{f}$. With $m^{*}\neq 1$ there is however a strong dependence on this cut-off. Including hh-ladders estimates give $\xi=0.4\leftrightarrow 0.6$, but a reliable result would in this case require a Green's function calculation.

Abstract:
This report concerns the energy of a zero-temperature many-body system of spin 1/2 fermions in the unitary limit. In a previous report (arXiv:0705.0944) this energy was determined to be xi~0.24 in units of the free gas kinetic energy, appreciably lower than most reports giving ~0.45$. In our calculation the 2-body interaction satisfied exactly the unitary limit i.e. infinite scattering length and effective range r_0=0. In the present report results with r_0>0are shown. A strong dependence on the effective range is found. It is for example found that an increase to r_0=1 fm increases xi to ~ 0.4 close to other reports of xi in the unitary limit. It is concluded that because of the singular character of the unitary limit it is necessary to verify that the interaction actually satisfies unitarity. The calculations done here in a pp-ladder approximation show a resonance in the in-medium interaction close to (and in) the unitary limit. This was already found in the previous work.

Abstract:
In scattering theory, the unitary limit is defined by an infinite scattering-length and a zero effective range, corresponding to a phase-shift \pi/2, independent of energy. This condition is satisfied by a rank-1 separable potential V(k,k')=-v(k)v(k') with v^{2}(k)=(4\pi)^{2}(\Lambda^{2}-k^{2})^{-1/2}, \Lambda being the cut-off in momentum space.Previous calculations using a Pauli-corrected ladder summation to calculate the energy of a zero temperature many body system of spin 1/2 fermions with this interaction gave \xi=0.24 (in units of kinetic energy) independent of density and with \Lambda---->infinity. This value of \xi is appreciably smaller than the experimental and that obtained from other calculations, most notably from Monte Carlo, which in principle would be the most reliable. Our previous work did however also show a strong dependence on effective range r_0 (with r_0=0 at unitarity). With an increase to r_0=1.0 the energy varied from \xi~0.38 at k_f=0.6 1/fm to ~0.45 at k_f=1.8 1/fm which is somewhat closer to the Monte-Carlo results. These previous calculations are here extended by including the effect of the previously neglected mean-field propagation, the dispersion correction. This is repulsive and found to increase drastically with decreasing effective range. It is large enough to suggest a revised value of \xi~0.4 <--> ~0.5 independent of r_0. Off-shell effects are also investigated by introducing a rank-2 (phase-shift equivalent) separable potential. Effects of 10% or more in energy could be demonstrated for r_0>0. It is pointed out that a computational cut-off in momentum-space brings in another scale in the in otherwise scale-less unitary problem.

Abstract:
The Busch-formula relates the energy-spectrum of two point-like particles interacting in a 3-D isotropic Harmonic Oscillator trap to the free scattering phase-shifts of the particles. This formula is used to find an expression for the \it shift \rm in the spectrum from the unperturbed (non-interacting) spectrum rather than the spectrum itself. This shift is shown to be approximately $\Delta=-\delta(k)/\pi\times dE$, where $dE$ is the spacing between unperturbed energy levels. The resulting difference from the Busch-formula is typically 1/2% except for the lowest energy-state and small scattering length when it is 3%. It goes to zero when the scattering length $\rightarrow \pm \infty$. The energy shift $\Delta$ is familiar from a relatedproblem, that of two particles in a spherical infinite square-well trap of radius $R$ in the limit $R\rightarrow \infty$. The approximation ishowever as large as 30% for finite values of $R$, a situation quite different from the Harmonic Oscillator case. The square-well results for $R\rightarrow \infty$ led to the use ofin-medium (effective) interactions in nuclear matter calculations that were $\propto \Delta$ and known as the \it phase shift approximation \rm.Our results indicate that the validity of this approximation depends on the trapitself, a problem already discussed by DeWitt more than 50 years ago for acubical vs spherical trap.

Abstract:
Separable nucleon-nucleon potentials are calculated using inverse scattering techniques as presented in previously published work. The dependence of the potentials on the momentum cut-off of the scattering phase-shifts is studied. Some comparison is made with the V-low-k potential. The effect of the cut-off on nuclear matter binding energy calculated by standard Brueckner theory is also presented. It is foumd that a cut-off larger than about 4 fm-1 will keep the error to within one Mev around saturation density. While the potentials are cut-off dependent the effective interaction represented by the Brueckner K-matrix is less sensitive to this cut-off. This is in particular found to be the case for the 1S0 state.

Abstract:
Widths of low-lying states in nuclei are of the order of 30 MeV. These large widths are a consequence of the strong interactions leading to a strongly correlated many body system at the typical densities of nuclear matter. Nevertheless "traditional" Brueckner calculations treat these states as quasiparticles i.e. with spectral functions of zero widths. The width is related to the imaginary part of the selfenergy and is included selfconsistently in an extension of the Brueckner theory using T-matrix and Green's function techniques. A more general formulation applicable also to non-equilibrium systems is contained in the Kadanoff-Baym (KB) equations while still maintaining the basic many-body techniques of Bruecknet theory. In the present work the two-time KB-equations are time-stepped along the imaginary time-axis to calculate the binding energy of nuclear matter as a function of density, including the spectral widths self-consistently. These zero temperature calculations are compared with quasi-particle calculations. The inclusion of the self-consistent widths are found to add several MeV to the binding. The spectral widths are due to the long-ranged correlations. Short-ranged correlations decrease rather than increase the binding. The metod is easily extended to non-zero temperatures where the importance of the widths are expected to increase.

Abstract:
We investigate the quantum ratchet effect under the influence of weak dissipation which we treat within a Floquet-Markov master equation approach. A ratchet current emerges when all relevant symmetries are violated. Using time-reversal symmetric driving we predict a purely dissipation-induced quantum ratchet current. This directed quantum transport results from bath-induced superpositions of non-transporting Floquet states.

Abstract:
Abstract—The sea cucumber fishery is important in several countries of the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) but is generally not adequately managed. A regional MASMA programme (Marine Science for Management) granted by WIOMSA (Western Indian Ocean Marine Sciences Association) is providing data on the reproduction of some commercial species. In La Réunion, the two target species are Actinopyga echinites and Holothuria leucospilota. These sea cucumbers are very abundant on the fringing reefs and were sampled monthly during 2005-2006. Data on the population structure and on the reproductive cycle of A. echinites are presented here. The main results are: 1) eviscerated weight (EW) distribution of individuals within the population of Planch’Alizés site is plurimodal with a main mode at 85-95g, 2) sex-ratio is skewed toward females, 3) anatomy of gonads is described in five maturity stages, 4) a seasonal reproductive cycle with a major spawning event in December-January and a minor spawning event in April, 5) size at first sexual maturity EW50 equal to 45g is determined from another site (a sea grass bed with juveniles). These results are integrated with data from other holothurian species such as H. leucospilota, H. atra and Stichopus chloronotus previously studied in La Réunion and will be useful for research on the reproductive biology of sea cucumbers conducted in the other countries of WIO. ‘Seasonal closure’ using results on the spawning season during the warm waters period and ‘minimum size’ using size at first sexual maturity are tools for enhancing sustainable management of the fisheries.