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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325277 matches for " S. Kloster "
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The Evolution of $Λ$ Black Holes in the Mini-Superspace Approximation of Loop Quantum Gravity
J. Brannlund,S. Kloster,A. DeBenedictis
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.79.084023
Abstract: Using the improved quantization technique to the mini-superspace approximation of loop quantum gravity, we study the evolution of black holes supported by a cosmological constant. The addition of a cosmological constant allows for classical solutions with planar, cylindrical, toroidal and higher genus black holes. Here we study the quantum analog of these space-times. In all scenarios studied, the singularity present in the classical counter-part is avoided in the quantized version and is replaced by a bounce, and in the late evolution, a series of less severe bounces. Interestingly, although there are differences during the evolution between the various symmetries and topologies, the evolution on the other side of the bounce asymptotes to space-times of Nariai-type, with the exception of the planar black hole analyzed here, whose $T$-$R$=constant subspaces seem to continue expanding in the long term evolution. For the other cases, Nariai-type universes are attractors in the quantum evolution, albeit with different parameters. We study here the quantum evolution of each symmetry in detail.
Phase-space and Black Hole Entropy of Higher Genus Horizons in Loop Quantum Gravity
S. Kloster,J. Brannlund,A. DeBenedictis
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/25/6/065008
Abstract: In the context of loop quantum gravity, we construct the phase-space of isolated horizons with genus greater than 0. Within the loop quantum gravity framework, these horizons are described by genus g surfaces with N punctures and the dimension of the corresponding phase-space is calculated including the genus cycles as degrees of freedom. From this, the black hole entropy can be calculated by counting the microstates which correspond to a black hole of fixed area. We find that the leading term agrees with the A/4 law and that the sub-leading contribution is modified by the genus cycles.
The gravitating perfect fluid-scalar field equations: quintessence and tachyonic
A. DeBenedictis,A. Das,S. Kloster
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1023/B:GERG.0000046834.79815.3f
Abstract: The system consisting of a self gravitating perfect fluid and scalar field is considered in detail. The scalar fields considered are the quintessence and ``tachyonic'' forms which have important application in cosmology. Mathematical properties of the general system of equations are studied including the algebraic and differential identities as well as the eigenvalue structure. The Cauchy problem for both quintessence and the tachyon is presented. We discuss the initial constraint equations which must be satisfied by the initial data. A Cauchy evolution scheme is presented in the form of a Taylor series about the Cauchy surface. Finally, a simple numerical example is provided to illustrate this scheme.
The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM
P. Stier,J. Feichter,S. Kinne,S. Kloster
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2004,
Abstract: The aerosol-climate modelling system ECHAM5-HAM is introduced. It is based on a flexible microphysical approach and, as the number of externally imposed parameters is minimised, allows the application in a wide range of climate regimes. ECHAM5-HAM predicts the evolution of an ensemble of microphysically interacting internally- and externally-mixed aerosol populations as well as their size-distribution and composition. The size-distribution is represented by a superposition of log-normal modes. In the current setup, the major global aerosol compounds sulfate (SU), black carbon (BC), particulate organic matter (POM), sea salt (SS), and mineral dust (DU) are included. The simulated global annual mean aerosol burdens (lifetimes) for the year 2000 are for SO4: 0.80 Tg(S) (3.9 days), for BC: 0.11 Tg (5.4 days), for POM: 0.99 Tg (5.4 days), for SS: 10.5 Tg (0.8 days), and for DU: 8.28 Tg (4.6 days). An extensive evaluation with in-situ and remote sensing measurements underscores that the model results are generally in good agreement with observations of the global aerosol system. The simulated global annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) is with 0.14 in excellent agreement with an estimate derived from AERONET measurements (0.14) and a composite derived from MODIS-MISR satellite retrievals (0.16). Regionally, the deviations are not negligible. However, the main patterns of AOD attributable to anthropogenic activity are reproduced.
The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM
P. Stier,J. Feichter,S. Kinne,S. Kloster
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2005,
Abstract: The aerosol-climate modelling system ECHAM5-HAM is introduced. It is based on a flexible microphysical approach and, as the number of externally imposed parameters is minimised, allows the application in a wide range of climate regimes. ECHAM5-HAM predicts the evolution of an ensemble of microphysically interacting internally- and externally-mixed aerosol populations as well as their size-distribution and composition. The size-distribution is represented by a superposition of log-normal modes. In the current setup, the major global aerosol compounds sulfate (SU), black carbon (BC), particulate organic matter (POM), sea salt (SS), and mineral dust (DU) are included. The simulated global annual mean aerosol burdens (lifetimes) for the year 2000 are for SU: 0.80 Tg(S) (3.9 days), for BC: 0.11 Tg (5.4 days), for POM: 0.99 Tg (5.4 days), for SS: 10.5 Tg (0.8 days), and for DU: 8.28 Tg (4.6 days). An extensive evaluation with in-situ and remote sensing measurements underscores that the model results are generally in good agreement with observations of the global aerosol system. The simulated global annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) is with 0.14 in excellent agreement with an estimate derived from AERONET measurements (0.14) and a composite derived from MODIS-MISR satellite retrievals (0.16). Regionally, the deviations are not negligible. However, the main patterns of AOD attributable to anthropogenic activity are reproduced.
The evolution of the global aerosol system in a transient climate simulation from 1860 to 2100
P. Stier, J. Feichter, E. Roeckner, S. Kloster,M. Esch
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2006,
Abstract: The evolution of the global aerosol system from 1860 to 2100 is investigated through a transient atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Model climate simulation with interactively coupled atmospheric aerosol and oceanic biogeochemistry modules. The microphysical aerosol module HAM incorporates the major global aerosol cycles with prognostic treatment of their composition, size distribution, and mixing state. Based on an SRES A1B emission scenario, the global mean sulfate burden is projected to peak in 2020 while black carbon and particulate organic matter show a lagged peak around 2070. From present day to future conditions the anthropogenic aerosol burden shifts generally from the northern high-latitudes to the developing low-latitude source regions with impacts on regional climate. Atmospheric residence- and aging-times show significant alterations under varying climatic and pollution conditions. Concurrently, the aerosol mixing state changes with an increasing aerosol mass fraction residing in the internally mixed accumulation mode. The associated increase in black carbon causes a more than threefold increase of its co-single scattering albedo from 1860 to 2100. Mid-visible aerosol optical depth increases from pre-industrial times, predominantly from the aerosol fine fraction, peaks at 0.26 around the sulfate peak in 2020 and maintains a high level thereafter, due to the continuing increase in carbonaceous aerosols. The global mean anthropogenic top of the atmosphere clear-sky short-wave direct aerosol radiative perturbation intensifies to 1.1 W m 2 around 2020 and weakens after 2050 to 0.6 W m 2, owing to an increase in atmospheric absorption. The demonstrated modifications in the aerosol residence- and aging-times, the microphysical state, and radiative properties challenge simplistic approaches to estimate the aerosol radiative effects from emission projections.
Influence of future air pollution mitigation strategies on total aerosol radiative forcing
S. Kloster,F. Dentener,J. Feichter,F. Raes
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: We apply different aerosol and aerosol precursor emission scenarios reflecting possible future control strategies for air pollution in the ECHAM5-HAM model, and simulate the resulting effect on the Earth's radiation budget. We use two opposing future mitigation strategies for the year 2030: one in which emission reduction legislation decided in countries throughout the world are effectively implemented (current legislation; CLE 2030) and one in which all technical options for emission reductions are being implemented independent of their cost (maximum feasible reduction; MFR 2030). We consider the direct, semi-direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols. The total anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing defined as the difference in the top-of-the-atmosphere radiation between 2000 and pre-industrial times amounts to 2.05 W/m2. In the future this negative global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing will only slightly change (+0.02 W/m2) under the "current legislation" scenario. Regionally, the effects are much larger: e.g. over Eastern Europe radiative forcing would increase by +1.50 W/m2 because of successful aerosol reduction policies, whereas over South Asia it would decrease by 1.10 W/m2 because of further growth of emissions. A "maximum feasible reduction" of aerosols and their precursors would lead to an increase of the global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing by +1.13 W/m2. Hence, in the latter case, the present day negative anthropogenic aerosol forcing cloud be more than halved by 2030 because of aerosol reduction policies and climate change thereafter will be to a larger extend be controlled by greenhouse gas emissions. We combined these two opposing future mitigation strategies for a number of experiments focusing on different sectors and regions. In addition, we performed sensitivity studies to estimate the importance of future changes in oxidant concentrations and the importance of the aerosol microphysical coupling within the range of expected future changes. For changes in oxidant concentrations in the future within a realistic range, we do not find a significant effect for the global annual mean radiative aerosol forcing. In the extreme case of only abating SO2 or carbonaceous emissions to a maximum feasible extent, we find deviations from additivity for the radiative forcing over anthropogenic source regions up to 10% compared to an experiment abating both at the same time.
The evolution of the global aerosol system in a transient climate simulation from 1860 to 2100
P. Stier,J. Feichter,E. Roeckner,S. Kloster
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2005,
Abstract: The evolution of the global aerosol system from 1860 to 2100 is investigated through a transient atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Model climate simulation with interactively coupled atmospheric aerosol and oceanic biogeochemistry modules. The microphysical aerosol module HAM incorporates the major global aerosol cycles with prognostic treatment of their composition, size-distribution, and mixing state. Based on an SRES A1B emission scenario, the global mean sulfate burden is projected to peak in 2020 while black carbon and particulate organic matter show a lagged peak around 2070. From present day to future conditions the anthropogenic aerosol burden shifts generally from the northern high-latitudes to the developing low-latitude source regions with impacts on regional climate. Atmospheric residence- and aging-times show significant alterations under varying climatic and pollution conditions. Concurrently, the aerosol mixing-state changes with an increasing aerosol mass fraction residing in the internally mixed accumulation mode. The associated increase in black carbon causes a more than threefold increase of its co-single scattering albedo from 1860 to 2100. Mid-visible aerosol optical depth increases from pre-industrial times, predominantly from the aerosol fine fraction, peaks at 0.26 around the sulfate peak in 2020 and maintains a high level thereafter, due to the continuing increase in carbonaceous aerosols. The global mean anthropogenic top of the atmosphere clear-sky short-wave direct aerosol radiative perturbation intensifies to 1.1 W m 2 around 2020 and weakens after 2050 to 0.6 W m 2, owing to an increase in atmospheric absorption. The demonstrated modifications in the aerosol residence- and aging-times, the microphysical state, and radiative properties challenge simplistic approaches to estimate the aerosol radiative effects from emission projections.
Relativistic particle, fluid and plasma mechanics coupled to gravity
A. Das,A. DeBenedictis,S. Kloster,N. Tariq
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: In this introductory review article, we explore the special relativistic equations of particle motions and the consequent derivation of Einstein's famous formula $E=mc^2$. Next, we study the special relativistic electromagnetic field equations and generalizations of Lorentz equations of motion for charged particles. We then introduce the special relativistic gravitational field as a symmetric second order tensor field. Particle motions in the presence of static gravity are explored which could be used to study planetary dynamics, revealing perihelion shifts. Next, we investigate the system of consisting of pressureless plasmas and neutral perfect fluids coupled to the gravitational field. In that arena, we derive the relativistic Euler equation. Finally, we investigate the relativistic dynamics of a perfect fluid plasma and extensions to viscous flow and derive the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation.
Analysis of evolution through competitive selection
Morten Kloster
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.168701
Abstract: Recent studies of in vitro evolution of DNA via protein binding indicate that the evolution behavior is qualitatively different in different parameter regimes. I here present a general theory that is valid for a wide range of parameters, and which reproduces and extends previous results. Specifically, the mean-field theory of a general translation-invariant model can be reduced to the basic diffusion equation with a dynamic boundary condition. The simple analytical form yields both quantitatively accurate predictions and valuable insight into the principles involved. In particular, I introduce a cutoff criterion for finite populations that illustrates both of these qualities.
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