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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325444 matches for " S. Kinne "
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Introduction to the Special Issue "The 2009 WE-Heraeus-Seminar on satellite remote sensing of aerosols: techniques, limitations, and validation"
A. Kokhanovsky,S. Kinne
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT) & Discussions (AMTD) , 2011,
Abstract: No abstract available.
An Overview of the AAVSO's Information Technology Infrastructure From 1967 to 1997
Richard C. S. Kinne
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Computer technology and data processing swept both society and the sciences like a wave in the latter half of the 20th century. We trace the AAVSO's usage of computational and data processing technology from its beginnings in 1967, through 1997. We focus on equipment, people, and the purpose such computational power was put to, and compare and contrast the organization's use of hardware and software with that of the wider industry.
The effect of harmonized emissions on aerosol properties in global models – an AeroCom experiment
C. Textor,M. Schulz,S. Guibert,S. Kinne
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: The effects of unified aerosol sources on global aerosol fields simulated by different models are examined in this paper. We compare results from two AeroCom experiments, one with different (ExpA) and one with unified emissions, injection heights, and particle sizes at the source (ExpB). Surprisingly, harmonization of aerosol sources has only a small impact on the simulated diversity for aerosol burden, and consequently optical properties, as the results are largely controlled by model-specific transport, removal, chemistry (leading to the formation of secondary aerosols) and parameterizations of aerosol microphysics (e.g. the split between deposition pathways) and to a lesser extent on the spatial and temporal distributions of the (precursor) emissions. The burdens of black carbon and especially sea salt become more coherent in ExpB only, because the large ExpA diversity for these two species was caused by few outliers. The experiment also indicated that despite prescribing emission fluxes and size distributions, ambiguities in the implementation in individual models can lead to substantial differences. These results indicate the need for a better understanding of aerosol life cycles at process level (including spatial dispersal and interaction with meteorological parameters) in order to obtain more reliable results from global aerosol simulations. This is particularly important as such model results are used to assess the consequences of specific air pollution abatement strategies.
The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM
P. Stier,J. Feichter,S. Kinne,S. Kloster
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2004,
Abstract: The aerosol-climate modelling system ECHAM5-HAM is introduced. It is based on a flexible microphysical approach and, as the number of externally imposed parameters is minimised, allows the application in a wide range of climate regimes. ECHAM5-HAM predicts the evolution of an ensemble of microphysically interacting internally- and externally-mixed aerosol populations as well as their size-distribution and composition. The size-distribution is represented by a superposition of log-normal modes. In the current setup, the major global aerosol compounds sulfate (SU), black carbon (BC), particulate organic matter (POM), sea salt (SS), and mineral dust (DU) are included. The simulated global annual mean aerosol burdens (lifetimes) for the year 2000 are for SO4: 0.80 Tg(S) (3.9 days), for BC: 0.11 Tg (5.4 days), for POM: 0.99 Tg (5.4 days), for SS: 10.5 Tg (0.8 days), and for DU: 8.28 Tg (4.6 days). An extensive evaluation with in-situ and remote sensing measurements underscores that the model results are generally in good agreement with observations of the global aerosol system. The simulated global annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) is with 0.14 in excellent agreement with an estimate derived from AERONET measurements (0.14) and a composite derived from MODIS-MISR satellite retrievals (0.16). Regionally, the deviations are not negligible. However, the main patterns of AOD attributable to anthropogenic activity are reproduced.
The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM
P. Stier,J. Feichter,S. Kinne,S. Kloster
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2005,
Abstract: The aerosol-climate modelling system ECHAM5-HAM is introduced. It is based on a flexible microphysical approach and, as the number of externally imposed parameters is minimised, allows the application in a wide range of climate regimes. ECHAM5-HAM predicts the evolution of an ensemble of microphysically interacting internally- and externally-mixed aerosol populations as well as their size-distribution and composition. The size-distribution is represented by a superposition of log-normal modes. In the current setup, the major global aerosol compounds sulfate (SU), black carbon (BC), particulate organic matter (POM), sea salt (SS), and mineral dust (DU) are included. The simulated global annual mean aerosol burdens (lifetimes) for the year 2000 are for SU: 0.80 Tg(S) (3.9 days), for BC: 0.11 Tg (5.4 days), for POM: 0.99 Tg (5.4 days), for SS: 10.5 Tg (0.8 days), and for DU: 8.28 Tg (4.6 days). An extensive evaluation with in-situ and remote sensing measurements underscores that the model results are generally in good agreement with observations of the global aerosol system. The simulated global annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) is with 0.14 in excellent agreement with an estimate derived from AERONET measurements (0.14) and a composite derived from MODIS-MISR satellite retrievals (0.16). Regionally, the deviations are not negligible. However, the main patterns of AOD attributable to anthropogenic activity are reproduced.
Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis presenting as emphysematous pyelonephritis: a rare association.
Punekar S,Kinne J,Rao S,Madiwale C
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 1999,
Abstract: Xanthogranulomatous and emphysematous pyelonephritis are two rare variants of pyelonephritis. Their combined occurrence is a very rare condition, which has been documented in our case.
In vitro model for the analysis of synovial fibroblast-mediated degradation of intact cartilage
David Pretzel, Dirk Pohlers, S?nke Weinert, Raimund W Kinne
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/ar2618
Abstract: A standardised model was established by co-culturing bovine cartilage discs with early-passage human synovial fibroblasts for 14 days under continuous stimulation with TNF-α, IL-1β or a combination of TNF-α/IL-1β. To assess cartilage destruction, the co-cultures were analysed by histology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and laser scanning microscopy. In addition, content and/or neosynthesis of the matrix molecules cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and collagen II was quantified. Finally, gene and protein expression of matrix-degrading enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines were profiled in both synovial fibroblasts and cartilage.Histological and immunohistological analyses revealed that non-stimulated synovial fibroblasts are capable of demasking/degrading cartilage matrix components (proteoglycans, COMP, collagen) and stimulated synovial fibroblasts clearly augment chondrocyte-mediated, cytokine-induced cartilage destruction. Cytokine stimulation led to an upregulation of tissue-degrading enzymes (aggrecanases I/II, matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) 1, MMP-3) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8) in both cartilage and synovial fibroblasts. In general, the activity of tissue-degrading enzymes was consistently higher in co-cultures with synovial fibroblasts than in cartilage monocultures. In addition, stimulated synovial fibroblasts suppressed the synthesis of collagen type II mRNA in cartilage.The results demonstrate for the first time the capacity of synovial fibroblasts to degrade intact cartilage matrix by disturbing the homeostasis of cartilage via the production of catabolic enzymes/pro-inflammatory cytokines and suppression of anabolic matrix synthesis (i.e., collagen type II). This new in vitro model may closely reflect the complex process of early stage in vivo destruction in RA and help to elucidate the role of synovial fibroblasts and other synovial cells in this process, and the molecular mechanisms involved in cartilage degradat
Initial fate of fine ash and sulfur from large volcanic eruptions
U. Niemeier,C. Timmreck,H.-F. Graf,S. Kinne
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: Large volcanic eruptions emit huge amounts of sulfur and fine ash into the stratosphere. These products cause an impact on radiative processes, temperature and wind patterns. In simulations with a General Circulation Model including detailed aerosol microphysics, the relation between the impact of sulfur and fine ash is determined for different eruption strengths and locations, one in the tropics and one in high Northern latitudes. Fine ash with effective radii between 1 μm and 15 μm has a lifetime of several days only. Nevertheless, the strong absorption of shortwave and longwave radiation causes additional heating and cooling of ±20 K/day and impacts the evolution of the volcanic cloud. Depending on the location of the volcanic eruption, transport direction changes due to the presence of fine ash, vortices develop and temperature anomalies at ground increase. The results show substantial impact on the local scale but only minor impact on the evolution of sulfate in the stratosphere in the month after the simulated eruptions.
Monthly-averaged anthropogenic aerosol direct radiative forcing over the Mediterranean from AERONET derived aerosol properties
A. Bergamo,A. M. Tafuro,S. Kinne,F. De Tomasi
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: The all-sky direct radiative effect by anthropogenic aerosol (DREa) is calculated in the solar (0.3–4 μm) and infrared (4–200 μm) spectral ranges for six Mediterranean sites. The sites are differently affected by pollution and together reflect typical aerosol impacts that are expected over land sites of the central Mediterranean basin. Central to the simulations are aerosol optical properties from AERONET sun-/sky-photometer statistics for the year 2003. A discussion on the variability of the overall (natural+anthropogenic) aerosol properties with site location is provided. Supplementary data include MODIS satellite sensor based solar surface albedos, ISCCP products for high- mid- and low cloud cover and estimates for the anthropogenic aerosol fraction from global modelling. Since anthropogenic aerosol particles are considered to be smaller than 1 μm in size, mainly the solar radiation transfer is affected with impacts only during sun-light hours. At all sites the (daily average) solar DREa is negative all year round at the top of the atmosphere (ToA). Hence, anthropogenic particles produce over land sites of the central Mediterranean a significant cooling effect. Monthly DREa values vary from site to site and are seasonal dependent as a consequence of the seasonal dependence of available sun-light and microphysical aerosol properties. At the ToA the monthly average DREa is (4±1) W m 2 during spring-summer (SS, April–September) and (2±1) W m 2 during autumn-winter (AW, October–March) at the polluted sites. In contrast, it varies between (3±1) W m 2 and (1±1) W m 2 on SS and AW, respectively at the less polluted site. Due to atmospheric absorption the DREa at the surface is larger than at the ToA. At the surface the monthly average DREa varies between the most and the least polluted site between (7±1) W m 2 and (4±1) W m 2 during SS, and between (4±3) W m 2 and (1±1) W m 2 during AW. The DREa at infrared wavelengths is positive but negligible, especially at the ToA (<0.3 W m 2. DREa monthly-means referring to all sites have been averaged to evaluate the yearly-mean value of the DREa. The ToA- and sfc-DREa yearly-mean value is (3±2) and (5±3) W m 2, respectively at solar wavelengths. Last data further more reveal that the radiative energy-balance of the Central Mediterranean land sites is quite affected by anthropogenic particles.
Radiative forcing by aerosols as derived from the AeroCom present-day and pre-industrial simulations
M. Schulz,C. Textor,S. Kinne,Y. Balkanski
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2006,
Abstract: Nine different global models with detailed aerosol modules have independently produced instantaneous direct radiative forcing due to anthropogenic aerosols. The anthropogenic impact is derived from the difference of two model simulations with identically prescribed aerosol emissions, one for present-day and one for pre-industrial conditions. The difference in the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere (ToA) yields a new harmonized estimate for the aerosol direct radiative forcing (RF) under all-sky conditions. On a global annual basis RF is –0.2 Wm-2, with a standard deviation of ±0.2 Wm-2. Anthropogenic nitrate and dust are not included in this estimate. No model shows a significant positive all-sky RF. The corresponding clear-sky RF is –0.6 Wm-2. The cloud-sky RF was derived based on all-sky and clear-sky RF and modelled cloud cover. It was significantly different from zero and ranged between –0.16 and +0.34 Wm-2. A sensitivity analysis shows that the total aerosol RF is influenced by considerable diversity in simulated residence times, mass extinction coefficients and most importantly forcing efficiencies (forcing per unit optical depth). Forcing efficiency differences among models explain most of the variability, mainly because all-sky forcing estimates require proper representation of cloud fields and the correct relative altitude placement between absorbing aerosol and clouds. The analysis of the sulphate RF shows that differences in sulphate residence times are compensated by opposite mass extinction coefficients. This is explained by more sulphate particle humidity growth and thus higher extinction in models with short-lived sulphate present at lower altitude and vice versa. Solar absorption within the atmospheric column is estimated at +0.85 Wm-2. The local annual average maxima of atmospheric forcing exceed +5 Wm-2 confirming the regional character of aerosol impacts on climate. The annual average surface forcing is –1.03 Wm-2.
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