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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 423135 matches for " S. K. Solanki "
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Assessment of Available Transfer Capability for Congestion Management in Restructured Electrical Power Network for Competent Operation  [PDF]
U. L. Makwana, S. K. Joshi, Mehul D. Solanki
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2014.24053
Abstract: Congestion is the prime cause of problems, due to open access of power system. The AC Power Transmission Congestion Distribution factor (PTCDF) is suitable for computing change in any line quantity for a change in MW bilateral transaction. The proposed PTCDF method is more accurate as compared to the DC power distribution factor. With PTCDF ATC can be calculated. After calculating ATC it is possible to know the valid multiple transaction on power system. With the help of ATC calculations congestion problem can be solved in restructured electrical power network. The paper presents the method for calculating ATC using PTCDF.
Three-dimensional non-LTE radiative transfer effects in Fe I lines I. Flux sheet and flux tube geometries
R. Holzreuter,S. K. Solanki
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219477
Abstract: In network and active region plages, the magnetic field is concentrated into structures often described as flux tubes (FTs) and sheets (FSs). 3-D radiative transfer (RT) is important for energy transport in these concentrations. It is also expected to be important for diagnostic purposes but has rarely been applied for that purpose. Using true 3-D, non-LTE (NLTE) RT in FT/FS models, we compute Fe line profiles commonly used to diagnose the Sun's magnetic field by comparing the results with those obtained from LTE/1-D (1.5-D) NLTE calculations. Employing a multilevel iron atom, we study the influence of basic parameters such as Wilson depression, wall thickness, radius/width, thermal stratification or magnetic field strength on all Stokes $I$ parameters in the thin-tube approximation. The use of different levels of approximations of RT may lead to considerable differences in profile shapes, intensity contrasts, equivalent widths, and the determination of magnetic field strengths. In particular, LTE, which often provides a good approach in planar 1-D atmospheres, is a poor approximation in our flux sheet model for some of the most important diagnostic Fe I lines (524.7nm, 525.0nm, 630.1nm, and 630.2nm). The observed effects depend on parameters such as the height of line formation, field strength, and internal temperature stratification. Differences between the profile shapes may lead to errors in the determination of magnetic fields on the order of 10 to 20%, while errors in the determined temperature can reach 300-400K. The empirical FT models NET and PLA turn out to minimize the effects of 3D RT, so that results obtained with these models by applying LTE may also remain valid for 3-D NLTE calculations. Finally, horizontal RT is found to only insignificantly smear out structures such as the optically thick walls of FTs and FSs, allowing features as narrow as 10km to remain visible.
3-D non-LTE radiative transfer effects in Fe I lines: II. Line formation in 3-D radiation hydrodynamic simulations
R. Holzreuter,S. K. Solanki
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201322135
Abstract: We investigate the effects of horizontal radiative transfer (RT) a NLTE on important diagnostic iron lines in a realistic 3-D HD simulation. Using a multi-level atom we compute and compare widely used Fe I line profiles at 3 different levels of approximation (3-D NLTE, 1-D NLTE, LTE). We find that the influence of horizontal RT is of the same order of magnitude as that of NLTE, although spatially more localized. Also, depending on the temperature of the surroundings, horizontal RT is found to weaken or strengthen spectral lines. Line depths and equivalent width may differ by up to 20% against the corresponding LTE value if 3-D RT is applied. Residual intensity contrasts in LTE are found to be larger than those in 3-D NLTE by up to a factor of two. When compared to 1-D NLTE, we find that horizontal RT weakens the contrast by up to 30% almost independently of the angle of line of sight. While the CLV of the 1-D and 3-D NLTE contrasts are of similar form, the LTE contrast CLV shows a different run. The determination of temperatures by 1-D NLTE inversions of spatially resolved observations may produce errors of up to 200 K if one neglects 3-D RT. We find a linear correlation between the intensity difference of 1-D and 3-D NLTE and a simple estimate of the temperature in the horizontal environment of the line formation region. This correlation could be used to coarsely correct for the effects of horizontal RT in inversions done in 1-D NLTE. Horizontal RT is less important if one considers spatially averaged line profiles because local line strengthening and weakening occur with similar frequency in our HD atmosphere. Thus, the iron abundance is underestimated by 0.012 dex if calculated using 1-D NLTE RT. Since effects of horizontal RT are largest for spatially resolved quantities, the use of 3-D RT is particularly important for the interpretation of high spatial resolution observations.
Probing quiet Sun magnetism using MURaM simulations and Hinode/SP results: support for a local dynamo
S. Danilovic,M. Schuessler,S. K. Solanki
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200913379
Abstract: We obtain information about the magnetic flux present in the quiet Sun by comparing radiative MHD simulations with Hinode/SP observations, with particular emphasis on the role of surface dynamo action. Simulation runs with different magnetic Reynolds numbers (Rm) are used together with observations at different heliocentric angles with different levels of noise. The results show that simulations with an imposed mixed-polarity field and Rm below the threshold for dynamo action reproduce the observed vertical flux density, but do not display a sufficiently high horizontal flux density. Surface dynamo simulations at the highest Rm feasible at the moment yield a ratio of the horizontal and vertical flux density consistent with observational results, but the overall amplitudes are too low. Based on the properties of the local dynamo simulations, a tentative scaling of the magnetic field strength by a factor 2 - 3 reproduces the signal observed in the internetwork regions. We find an agreement with observations at different heliocentric angles. The mean field strength in internetwork, implied by our analysis, is roughly 170 G at the optical depth unity. Our study shows that surface dynamo could be responsible for most of the magnetic flux in the quiet Sun outside the network given that the extrapolation to higher Rm is valid.
Effect of early mobilisation on grip strength, pinch strength and work of hand muscles in cases of closed diaphyseal fracture radius-ulna treated with dynamic compression plating.
Solanki P,Mulgaonkar K,Rao S
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2000,
Abstract: AIMS: The purpose of the study was to objectively determine the effects of early mobilisation in terms of grip strength and work of hand muscles in cases of closed diaphyseal fracture radius - ulna treated with dynamic compression plating. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifty normal subjects and Twenty-one patients, (Eleven patients treated with early active and resistive goal directed mobilisation and Ten control group) were assessed for pinch strength and grip strength on Pinch Dynamometer and Jamar Dynamometer and work of hand muscles on Ergograph. Standardised positions of the equipments and patients were maintained throughout the study. RESULTS: Results showed highly significant reduction in performance in patients treated with early mobilisation as compared to normal subjects in their first assessment (Fourth week post operatively). These patients showed significant improvement in successive assessments (sixth & eighth post operative week) on exercising in between these assessments. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant effects on grip strength and work of hand muscles in patients treated with that early active and resistive goal directed mobilisation.
Convective motions and net circular polarization in sunspot penumbrae
J. M. Borrero,S. K. Solanki
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/709/1/349
Abstract: We have employed a penumbral model, that includes the Evershed flow and convective motions inside penumbral filaments, to reproduce the azimuthal variation of the net circular polarization (NCP) in sunspot penumbrae at different heliocentric angles for two different spectral lines. The theoretical net circular polarization fits the observations as satisfactorily as penumbral models based on flux-tubes. The reason for this is that the effect of convective motions on the NCP is very small compared to the effect of the Evershed flow. In addition, the NCP generated by convective upflows cancels out the NCP generated by the downflows. We have also found that, in order to fit the observed NCP, the strength of the magnetic field inside penumbral filaments must be very close to 1000 G. In particular, field-free or weak-field filaments fail to reproduce both the correct sign of the net circular polarization, as well as its dependence on the azimuthal and heliocentric angles.
Expansion of magnetic flux concentrations: a comparison of Hinode SOT d ata and models
A. Pietarila,R. Cameron,S. K. Solanki
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200913887
Abstract: Context: The expansion of network magnetic fields with height is a fundamental property of flux tube models. A rapid expansion is required to form a magnetic canopy. Aims: We characterize the observed expansion properties of magnetic network elements and compare them with the thin flux tube and sheet approximations, as well as with magnetoconvection simulations. Methods: We used data from the Hinode SOT NFI NaD1 channel and spectropolarimeter to study the appearance of magnetic flux concentrations seen in circular polarization as a function of position on the solar disk. We compared the observations with synthetic observables from models based on the thin flux tube approximation and magnetoconvection simulations with two different upper boundary conditions for the magnetic field (potential and vertical). Results: The observed circular polarization signal of magnetic flux concentrations changes from unipolar at disk center to bipolar near the limb, which implies an expanding magnetic field. The observed expansion agrees with expansion properties derived from the thin flux sheet and tube approximations. Magnetoconvection simulations with a potential field as the upper boundary condition for the magnetic field also produce bipolar features near the limb while a simulation with a vertical field boundary condition does not. Conclusions: The near-limb apparent bipolar magnetic features seen in high-resolution Hinode observations can be interpreted using a simple flux sheet or tube model. This lends further support to the idea that magnetic features with vastly varying sizes have similar relative expansion rates. The numerical simulations presented here are less useful in interpreting the expansion since the diagnostics we are interested in are strongly influenced by the choice of the upper boundary condition for the magnetic field in the purely photospheric simulations.
SUMER observations of the inverse Evershed effect in the transition region above a sunspot
L. Teriaca,W. Curdt,S. K. Solanki
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:200810209
Abstract: Aims. We analyse SUMER spectral scans of a large sunspot within active region NOAA 10923, obtained on 14-15 November 2006, to determine the morphology and dynamics of the sunspot atmosphere at different heights/temperatures. Methods: The data analysed here consist of spectroheliograms in the continuum around 142.0 nm and in the Si iv 140.2 nm, O iii 70.3 nm, N iv 76.5 nm, and O iv 79.0 nm spectral lines. Gaussian-fitting of the observed profiles provides line-of-sight velocity and Doppler-width maps. Results: The data show an asymmetric downflow pattern compatible with the presence of the inverse Evershed flow in a region within roughly twice the penumbral radius at transition-region temperatures up to 0.18 MK. The motions, highly inhomogeneous on small scales, seem to occur in a collar of radially directed filamentary structures, with an average width less than the 1 Mm spatial resolution of SUMER and characterised by different plasma speeds. Assuming that the flows are directed along the field lines, we deduce that such field lines are inclined by 10 deg to 25 deg with respect to the solar surface.
Milne-Eddington inversions of the He I 10830 ? Stokes profiles: Influence of the Paschen-Back effect
C. Sasso,A. Lagg,S. K. Solanki
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20065257
Abstract: The Paschen-Back effect influences the Zeeman sublevels of the He I multiplet at 10830 {\AA}, leading to changes in strength and in position of the Zeeman components of these lines. We illustrate the relevance of this effect using synthetic Stokes profiles of the He I 10830 {\AA} multiplet lines and investigate its influence on the inversion of polarimetric data. We invert data obtained with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP) at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT). We compare the results of inversions based on synthetic profiles calculated with and without the Paschen-Back effect being included. We find that when taking into account the incomplete Paschen-Back effect, on average 16% higher field strength values are obtained. We also show that this effect is not the main cause for the area asymmetry exhibited by many He I 10830 Stokes V-profiles. This points to the importance of velocity and magnetic field gradients over the formation height range of these lines.
Fine structures in the atmosphere above a sunspot umbra
L. Bharti,J. Hirzberger,S. K. Solanki
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201220777
Abstract: We present simultaneous photospheric and chromospheric observations of the trailing sunspot in NOAA 10904, obtained with the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST) La Palma, Canary Islands. Time series of high resolution \ion{Ca}{ii}\,$H$ images show transient jet-like structures in sunspot umbrae are elongated, which we call umbral microjets. These jets are directed roughly parallel to nearby penumbral microjets, suggesting that they are aligned with the background magnetic field. In general, first a bright dot-like structure appears, from which a jet later emerges, although some jets appear without an associated chromospheric dot. Bright photospheric umbral dots are associated with umbral microjets arising in the outer umbra. Nevertheless, a one-to-one correspondence between jet-like events and underlying umbral dots is not seen. They are typically less than 1\arcsec ~long and less than 0\farcs3 wide. The typical lifetime of umbral microjets is around one minute. The brightness of these structures increases from the center of the umbra towards the umbra-penumbra boundary along with the brightness of the local background.
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