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Selaginella miniatospora (Dalz.) Bak. (Selaginellaceae) - a new record for Northeast India
H. Roy,S. K. Borthakur
Asian Journal of Conservation Biology , 2013,
Abstract: Selaginella miniatospora (Dalz.) Bak. (Selaginellaceae) a little known taxon among the allied ferns, has been record for the first time from Assam as well as from northeast India.
Aristolochia platanifolia (Klotz.) Duch. (Aristolochiaceae): A new record for Assam, India
S. Baruah,J. Sarma,S.K. Borthakur
Asian Journal of Conservation Biology , 2012,
Abstract:
Pharmacology and clinical potential of oblimersen sodium in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Borthakur G, O'Brien S
Blood and Lymphatic Cancer: Targets and Therapy , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/BLCTT.S23260
Abstract: rmacology and clinical potential of oblimersen sodium in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia Review (1442) Total Article Views Authors: Borthakur G, O'Brien S Published Date August 2012 Volume 2012:2 Pages 137 - 143 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/BLCTT.S23260 Received: 27 March 2012 Accepted: 25 May 2012 Published: 20 August 2012 Gautam Borthakur, Susan O'Brien Department of Leukemia, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Targeted inhibition of the Bcl-2 family of antiapoptotic proteins is expected to improve outcomes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Antisense oligonucleotides and small molecule inhibitors (BH3 mimetics) are two approaches that have been used to target Bcl-2 proteins. In this review, we summarize the experience with oblimersen sodium, an 18-base oligonucleotide targeting the first six codons of Bcl-2 mRNA, with particular focus on chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Despite evidence of improved outcomes in randomized trials of combination with chemoimmunotherapy, further development of this antisense approach has been slow, likely because of the clinical development of small molecule inhibitors.
Galaxy Interactions in Compact Groups II: abundance and kinematic anomalies in HCG 91c
F. P. A. Vogt,M. A. Dopita,S. Borthakur,L. Verdes-Montenegro,T. M. Heckman,M. S. Yun,K. C. Chambers
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv749
Abstract: Galaxies in Hickson Compact Group 91 (HCG 91) were observed with the WiFeS integral field spectrograph as part of our ongoing campaign targeting the ionized gas physics and kinematics inside star forming members of compact groups. Here, we report the discovery of HII regions with abundance and kinematic offsets in the otherwise unremarkable star forming spiral HCG 91c. The optical emission line analysis of this galaxy reveals that at least three HII regions harbor an oxygen abundance ~0.15 dex lower than expected from their immediate surroundings and from the abundance gradient present in the inner regions of HCG 91c. The same star forming regions are also associated with a small kinematic offset in the form of a lag of 5-10 km/s with respect to the local circular rotation of the gas. HI observations of HCG 91 from the Very Large Array and broadband optical images from Pan-STARRS suggest that HCG 91c is caught early in its interaction with the other members of HCG 91. We discuss different scenarios to explain the origin of the peculiar star forming regions detected with WiFeS, and show that evidence point towards infalling and collapsing extra-planar gas clouds at the disk-halo interface, possibly as a consequence of long-range gravitational perturbations of HCG 91c from the other group members. As such, HCG 91c provides evidence that some of the perturbations possibly associated with the early phase of galaxy evolution in compact groups impact the star forming disk locally, and on sub-kpc scales.
Pharmacology and clinical potential of oblimersen sodium in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Borthakur G,O'Brien S
Blood and Lymphatic Cancer: Targets and Therapy , 2012,
Abstract: Gautam Borthakur, Susan O'BrienDepartment of Leukemia, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Targeted inhibition of the Bcl-2 family of antiapoptotic proteins is expected to improve outcomes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Antisense oligonucleotides and small molecule inhibitors (BH3 mimetics) are two approaches that have been used to target Bcl-2 proteins. In this review, we summarize the experience with oblimersen sodium, an 18-base oligonucleotide targeting the first six codons of Bcl-2 mRNA, with particular focus on chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Despite evidence of improved outcomes in randomized trials of combination with chemoimmunotherapy, further development of this antisense approach has been slow, likely because of the clinical development of small molecule inhibitors.Keywords: oblimersen, Bcl-2, antisense, chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Lactobacillus acidophilus Alleviates Platelet-Activating Factor-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells
Alip Borthakur, Sumit Bhattacharyya, Anoop Kumar, Arivarasu Natarajan Anbazhagan, Joanne K. Tobacman, Pradeep K. Dudeja
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075664
Abstract: Probiotics have been used as alternative prevention and therapy modalities in intestinal inflammatory disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Pathophysiology of IBD and NEC includes the production of diverse lipid mediators, including platelet-activating factor (PAF) that mediate inflammatory responses in the disease. PAF is known to activate NF-κB, however, the mechanisms of PAF-induced inflammation are not fully defined. We have recently described a novel PAF-triggered pathway of NF-κB activation and IL-8 production in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), requiring the pivotal role of the adaptor protein Bcl10 and its interactions with CARMA3 and MALT1. The current studies examined the potential role of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus in reversing the PAF-induced, Bcl10-dependent NF-κB activation and IL-8 production in IECs. PAF treatment (5 μM×24 h) of NCM460 and Caco-2 cells significantly increased nuclear p65 NF-κB levels and IL-8 secretion (2-3-fold, P<0.05), compared to control, which were blocked by pretreatment of the cells for 6 h with L. acidophilus (LA) or its culture supernatant (CS), followed by continued treatments with PAF for 24 h. LA-CS also attenuated PAF-induced increase in Bcl10 mRNA and protein levels and Bcl10 promoter activity. LA-CS did not alter PAF-induced interaction of Bcl10 with CARMA3, but attenuated Bcl10 interaction with MALT1 and also PAF-induced ubiquitination of IKKγ. Efficacy of bacteria-free CS of LA in counteracting PAF-induced inflammatory cascade suggests that soluble factor(s) in the CS of LA mediate these effects. These results define a novel mechanism by which probiotics counteract PAF-induced inflammation in IECs.
A Solution to the Network Challenges of Data Recovery in Erasure-coded Distributed Storage Systems: A Study on the Facebook Warehouse Cluster
K. V. Rashmi,Nihar B. Shah,Dikang Gu,Hairong Kuang,Dhruba Borthakur,Kannan Ramchandran
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Erasure codes, such as Reed-Solomon (RS) codes, are being increasingly employed in data centers to combat the cost of reliably storing large amounts of data. Although these codes provide optimal storage efficiency, they require significantly high network and disk usage during recovery of missing data. In this paper, we first present a study on the impact of recovery operations of erasure-coded data on the data-center network, based on measurements from Facebook's warehouse cluster in production. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind available in the literature. Our study reveals that recovery of RS-coded data results in a significant increase in network traffic, more than a hundred terabytes per day, in a cluster storing multiple petabytes of RS-coded data. To address this issue, we present a new storage code using our recently proposed "Piggybacking" framework, that reduces the network and disk usage during recovery by 30% in theory, while also being storage optimal and supporting arbitrary design parameters. The implementation of the proposed code in the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) is underway. We use the measurements from the warehouse cluster to show that the proposed code would lead to a reduction of close to fifty terabytes of cross-rack traffic per day.
Advanced Data Visualization in Astrophysics: the X3D Pathway
F. P. A. Vogt,C. I. Owen,L. Verdes-Montenegro,S. Borthakur
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Most modern astrophysical datasets are multi-dimensional; a characteristic that can nowadays generally be conserved and exploited scientifically during the data reduction/simulation and analysis cascades. Yet, the same multi-dimensional datasets are systematically cropped, sliced and/or projected to printable two-dimensional (2-D) diagrams at the publication stage. In this article, we introduce the concept of the "X3D pathway" as a mean of simplifying and easing the access to data visualization and publication via three-dimensional (3-D) diagrams. The X3D pathway exploits the facts that 1) the X3D 3-D file format lies at the center of a product tree that includes interactive HTML documents, 3-D printing, and high-end animations, and 2) all high-impact-factor & peer-reviewed journals in Astrophysics are now published (some exclusively) online. We argue that the X3D standard is an ideal vector for sharing multi-dimensional datasets, as it provides direct access to a range of different data visualization techniques, is fully-open source, and is a well defined ISO standard. Unlike other earlier propositions to publish multi-dimensional datasets via 3-D diagrams, the X3D pathway is not tied to specific software (prone to rapid and unexpected evolution), but instead compatible with a range of open-source software already in use by our community. The interactive HTML branch of the X3D pathway is also actively supported by leading peer-reviewed journals in the field of Astrophysics. Finally, this article provides interested readers with a detailed set of practical astrophysical examples designed to act as a stepping stone towards the implementation of the X3D pathway for any other dataset.
Expression of bacterial genes in transgenic tobacco: methods, applications and future prospects
Jube,Sandro; Borthakur,Dulal;
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: tobacco is the most commonly used plant for expression of transgenes from a variety of organisms, because it is easily grown and transformed, it provides abundant amounts of fresh tissue and has a well-established cell culture system. many bacterial proteins involved in the synthesis of commercial products are currently engineered for production in tobacco. bacterial enzymes synthesized in tobacco can enhance protection against abiotic stresses and diseases, and provide a system to test applied strategies such as phytoremediation. examples of bacterial gene expression in tobacco include production of antigen proteins from several human bacterial pathogens as vaccines, bacterial proteins for enhancing resistance against insects, pathogens and herbicides, and bacterial enzymes for the production of polymers, sugars, and bioethanol. further improvements in the expression of recombinant proteins and their recovery from tobacco will enhance production and commercial use of these proteins. this review highlights the dynamic use of tobacco in bacterial protein production by examining the most relevant research in this field.
Role of rituximab in first-line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Jeffrey Bryan, Gautam Borthakur
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S5855
Abstract: le of rituximab in first-line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia Review (5614) Total Article Views Authors: Jeffrey Bryan, Gautam Borthakur Published Date December 2010 Volume 2011:7 Pages 1 - 11 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S5855 Jeffrey Bryan, Gautam Borthakur Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a biologically heterogeneous illness that primarily afflicts the elderly. For many decades, the initial therapy for most patients requiring treatment was limited to single-agent alkylator therapy. Within the last two decades, we have seen remarkable progress in understanding the biology of CLL and the development of more effective treatment strategies that have employed monoclonal antibodies, such as rituximab (anti-CD20). Furthermore, recognition of the synergy between fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) prompted investigators to explore the clinical activity of FCR in Phase II and III trials in patients with relapsed/refractory or previously untreated CLL. On the basis of these findings, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved rituximab in combination with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide for the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory or previously untreated CD20-postive CLL. Recent data from a randomized Phase III trial has confirmed improved overall survival with FCR in patients with previously untreated CLL. However, FCR is not for everyone. More tolerable regimens using rituximab for the elderly and less fit patients are being pursued in clinical trials. Recent Phase II trials have explored potentially less myelosuppressive approaches by using lower doses of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide, replacing fludarabine with pentostatin, and combining rituximab with chlorambucil. Furthermore new biomarkers predictive of early disease progression have prompted investigators to explore the benefits of early treatment with rituximab combined with other agents. In addition to the proven utility of rituximab as a frontline agent for CLL, rituximab has a favorable toxicity profile both as a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy. The majority of adverse events are Grade 1 and 2 infusion-related reactions (fevers, chills, and rigors) and occur with the first dose of rituximab. The improved tolerability observed with second and subsequent infusions allows for shorter infusion times. Rituximab’s proven activity and favorable toxicity profile has made it an ideal agent for expanding treatment options for patients with CLL, the majority of whom are elderly.
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