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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 388082 matches for " S. I. Yakubu "
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Assessment of Genetic Relationship and Application of Computational Algorithm to Assess Functionality of Non-Synonymous Substitutions in DQA2 Gene of Cattle, Sheep and Goats  [PDF]
Steven B. Ugbo, Abdulmojeed Yakubu, Jude N. Omeje, Bwaseh S. Bibinu, Ibrahim S. Musa, Joseph O. Egahi, N. I. Dim
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2015.54011
Abstract: The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a fundamental part of the immune system in nearly all vertebrates. DQA2 is a member of the MHC complex and an important candidate gene involved in susceptibility/resistance to various diseases. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating computationally molecular genetic variation of DQA2 gene of cattle, sheep and goats especially on its evolution and differentiation within and among species as well as the attendant effects of the polymorphism on the function of DQA2 gene. A total of thirty three DQA2 nucleotide sequences comprising cattle (10), sheep (12) and goats (11) were retrieved from the GenBank. Forty seven amino acid substitutions of the wild type alleles located in the putative peptide coding region of caprine DQA2 alleles were obtained from the alignment of deduced amino acid sequences of goats. Out of these, eleven amino acid substitutions (H14L, H14R, L34M, E35L, G56S, G56R, 161V, A62E, D69Q, T72N and T72G) were returned neutral; an indication that they did not impair protein function. The Expected Accuracy (EA) ranged from 53% - 87%. For sheep, sixteen amino acid substitutions (A11P, A11T, A11G, A11M, L14S, L14T, V27L, V27S, G35S, S46T, D55E, L57T, L57A, L57G, K65Q and V68I) appeared beneficial while the rest forty seven appeared harmful (EA ranged from 53% - 93%). Twenty four amino acid substitutions did not impair the function of protein while seventy seven substitutions appeared to have a negative effect on the function of protein of cattle (EA ranged from 53% - 94%). The phylogeny based on nucleotide and amino acid sequences of DQA2 gene revealed the close relatedness of the caprine, ovine and bovine species. The present knowledge would be relevant for performing further genotype-phenotype research as well as pharmacogenetics studies in order to show association between caprine, ovine and bovine DQA2 allelic variation and the clinical progression of infectious diseases especially in a developing country such as Nigeria.
Spectrofl uorimetric assay method for glutathione and glutathione transferase using monobromobimane
S. I. Yakubu,I. A. Yakasai2,A. Musa
Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: The primary role of glutathione transferase is to defend an organism from toxicities through catalyzing the reaction of glutathione (GSH) with potentially toxic compounds or metabolites to their chemically and biologically inert conjugates.The objective of the study was to develop a simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric assay method for glutathione transferase using monobromobimane (MBB), a non fluorescent compound with electrophilic site. MBB slowly reactedwith glutathione to form fluorescent glutathione conjugate and that the reaction was catalysed by glutathione transferase.Both non-enzymatic and enzymatic reaction products of MBB, in presence of GSH in phosphate buffer (pH 6.5),were measured by following increase of fluorescence at wavelength of 475nm. For validation of the assay method, the kinetic parameters such as the apparent Michaelis-Mente constants and maximum rates of conjugate formation as wellas the specific activity of rat hepatic glutathione transferase were determined. The method was found to be sensitive,thus, applied to measure glutathione contents of crude preparation of rat hepatic cytosol fraction.
Spatio-Temporal Variability of Rainfall Distribution in the Western Region of Ghana
C.B. Boye,I. Yakubu,D.S. Pokperlaar
Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The Western region of Ghana experiences the highest rainfall. The predominant activity in this region includes agriculture and mining. Due to the good climatic conditions coupled with the concentration of mining companies in the area, people from the various parts of the country migrate to this region. The study was carried out to determine the rainfall distribution pattern over a thirty year period from 1975 to 2005 in the western region of Ghana. Ilwis, ArcGIS and Microsoft excel software were used for the data interpolation and trend of the rainfall pattern. The data used for this included monthly and annual rainfall data for selected districts within the region and topographic map. The results revealed that there is a general rise in recorded rainfall quantities from 1975 through 1985, 1995 to 2005 in all the selected meteorological stations within the study area, except Tarkwa which showed an erratic trend. There are other isolated reductions in rainfall pattern over the period. The rated environmental degradation should to check to improve on the situation within the region.
An Evaluation of the 11th September, 2009 Earthquake and Its Implication for Understanding the Seismotectonics of South Western Nigeria  [PDF]
Ofonime U. Akpan, Monday A. Isogun, Tahir A. Yakubu, Abraham A. Adepelumi, Chiedu S. Okereke, Adetola S. Oniku, Michael I. Oden
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2014.410040
Abstract: The evaluation of an intra-plate earthquake that occurred on Friday, 11th September, 2009 and felt in parts of Abeokuta, Ago-Iwoye, Ajambata, Ajegunle, Imeko, Ijebu-Ode, Ilaro and Ibadan, all in south western Nigeria is presented. This event has been the largest inland earthquake recorded since the inception of digital seismological recording in Nigeria in 2008 was incepted. The event was recorded by three seismological stations operated by Centre for Geodesy and Geodynamics (CGG), Toro. Data obtained from the CGG stations and others distributed around the world were analysed to determine precise earthquake locations and focal mechanism and to assess the regional tectonic stress. The data recorded in MiniSEED format at a sampling rate of 40 samples per second (sps) were analyzed using the SEISAN earthquake analysis software. The resultshowed an epicentral location situated about 108 km west of Lagos, a focal depth of 10.0 km and an origin time of 03:10:21.60 GMT. The local and moment magnitudes were 4.5 and 4.2 respectively. The P-wave to S-wave velocity ratio was 1.72. The fault plane solutions obtained for the rupture process indicated that a normal dip-slip fault with median solution of strike 325°, dip 40°
A family of uniformly accurate order Lobatto-Runge-Kutta collocation methods
Yakubu, D. G.;Manjak, N. H.;Buba, S. S.;Maksha, A. I.;
Computational & Applied Mathematics , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1807-03022011000200004
Abstract: we consider the construction of an interpolant for use with lobatto-runge-kutta collocation methods. the main aim is to derive single symmetric continuous solution(interpolant) for uniform accuracy at the step points as well as at the off-step points whose uniform order six everywhere in the interval of consideration. we evaluate the continuous scheme at different off-step points to obtain multi-hybrid schemes which if desired can be solved simultaneously for dense approximations. the multi-hybrid schemes obtained were converted to lobatto-runge-kutta collocation methods for accurate solution of initial value problems. the unique feature of the paper is the idea of using all the set of off-step collocation points as additional interpolation points while symmetry is retained naturally by integration identities as equal areas under the various segments of the solution graph over the interval of consideration. we show two possible ways of implementing the interpolant to achieve the aim and compare them on some numerical examples.
Antibacterial activity of some powdered herbal preparations marketed in Kaduna metropolis
D Abba, H.I Inabo, S.E Yakubu, OS Olonitola
Science World Journal , 2009,
Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the phytochemical components and the antibacterial activities of some powdered herbal medicinal preparations sourced from identified herbal shops and retail outlets in different parts of Kaduna metropolis. Extracts obtained from the herbal preparations were screened for the presence of secondary metabolites using established procedures. Also, antibacterial activities of the extracts were evaluated. Carbohydrates and tannins were identified in 105 (70%) and 101 (67.3%) of the samples respectively. Alkaloids were found in 97 (64.7%); saponins were detected in 91 (60.7%), while anthraquinones, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides were identified in 82 (54.7%), 80 (53.3%) and 60 (40%) of the herbal preparations respectively. All the methanolic extracts had inhibitory activities on the test bacterial isolates at various minimum inhibitory concentrations: 81 (54%) had inhibitory effects on Staphylococcus aureus, 74 (49.3%) on Escherichia coli, 74 (49.3%) on Salmonella typhi and 63 (42%) on Shigella spp. The uses of these products in herbal medicine are justified. However, further works are needed to identify the chemical nature of the active substances as well as their modes of actions on the bacterial cells and their roles in disease curing.
Computational Molecular Analysis of the Sequences of BMP15 Gene of Ruminants and Non-Ruminants  [PDF]
Bwaseh S. Bibinu, Abdulmojeed Yakubu, Steven B. Ugbo, Ndu I. Dim
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2016.62005
Abstract: Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) is a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) super family that is expressed by oocytes and plays key roles in granulosa cell development and fertility in animal. This study investigated the molecular genetic variation of BMP15 gene of some selected mammalian species with a view to providing relevant genetic information for breeding and selection programmes in the studied species using computational methods. A total of thirty seven (37) BMP15 nucleotide sequences comprising goats (18), sheep (6), cattle (6), swine (4) and chicken (3) were retrieved from the GenBank. Sequence alignment, translation and comparison of the BMP15 gene of the various species were done with ClustalW. High degree of polymorphism of BMP15 gene was observed among the studied species. The significant value (P < 0.01) for relative proportions of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site (dN) and the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (dS) symbolized that non-synonymous sites evolved faster than the synonymous sites and positive selection effect over shadowed purifying selection. Functional analysis of missense mutations using PROVEAN showed that twelve amino acid substitutions (L10S, W13A, E20L, V28S, P31R, P31G, P40Q, L42W, Q46N, A52V, R58C and G64T) in goats, nine in sheep (H21R, S32R, I33A, A39W, Q46W, E51A, G54S, R61D and E72A), six in cattle (Q30M, T41W, E50R, I62R, H65E, and E72S), seven in swine (I7L, T9I, V33I, L35H, C40P, R46P and Q61R) and five in chickens (A20H, L27H, W43L, A47P and G50Y) appeared beneficial. The phylogenetic trees from nucleotide and amino acid sequences revealed the close relatedness of members of the bovidae family (goat, sheep and cattle). The present information could guide future efforts involving selection of markers of fecundity to improve genetically livestock species in Nigeria.
Enterovesical Fistula Complicating Myomectomy: A Case Report  [PDF]
K. C. Ekwedigwe, I. Sunday-Adeoye, S. Lengman, M. E. Isikhuemen, A. B. C. Daniyan, E. N. Yakubu, M. O. Eliboh, I. E. A. Uguru
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2017.74010
Abstract: Background: Enterovesical fistula is an abnormal communication between the bladder and the gastrointestinal tract. It is an uncommon type of genital fistula, occasionally complicating pelvic surgeries. However, it is the most common type of fistula associated with diverticular disease of the colon. Other causes include cancer, trauma and iatrogenic injuries. Pneumaturia and fecaluria usually implies enterovesical fistula. Enterovesical fistula complicating myomectomy is an uncommon finding. Our aim is to report a case of enterovesical fistula following myomectomy. Case presentation: She is a 33-year-old nullipara who presented at the National Obstetric Fistula Centre, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, South-Eastern Nigeria with a history of fecaluria, pneumaturia and haematochezia which started after myomectomy. Feculent fluid was obtained on urethral catheterization. Cystography was suggestive of enterovesical fistula. Conclusion: Enterovesical fistula is a possible complication of myomectomy. A high index of suspicion for this rare but potentially devastating condition is important for early diagnosis and appropriate management.
Morphometric Differentiation of Two Nigerian Fish Species (Oreochromis niloticus and Lates niloticus) Using Principal Components and Discriminant Analysis
Yakubu,A; Okunsebor,S. A;
International Journal of Morphology , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022011000400060
Abstract: morphological differences between two close fish populations were investigated in doma dam, north central nigeria using principal component and discriminant analyses. the purpose was to identify the two species correctly and assign them into distinct genetic groups. to achieve this, seven morphometric measurements (body weight, standard length, total length, head length, body depth, dorsal fin length and caudal fin length) were made on each of the studied 252 fish specimens (153 oreochromis niloticus and 99 lates niloticus). the analysis of variance showed that significantly (p<0.05) higher values were recorded for lates niloticus in all the body traits examined, except dorsal fin length. from the principal component analysis, the differences between the species resulted mainly from dorsal fin length, body weight, caudal fin length and head length. the stepwise discriminant analysis revealed that standard length, dorsal fin length and caudal fin length were the three most discriminating variables useful to distinguish clearly the two species at mature age. these three variables with strong discriminating power correctly classified 98.0% of individuals from the sample of known-fish populations. the classification accuracy was cross-validated using split-sample method, and indicated a 97.6% success rate (98.0% of oreochromis niloticus and 97.0% of lates niloticus were correctly assigned). the results can provide a sound scientific basis for the effective management and sustainable exploitation of the genetic resources of the two species under subtropical conditions.
Morphometric Differentiation of Two Nigerian Fish Species (Oreochromis niloticus and Lates niloticus) Using Principal Components and Discriminant Analysis Diferenciación Morfométrica de Dos Especies de Peces Nigerianos (Oreochromis niloticus y Lates niloticus) Utilizando Análisis de Componentes Principales y Análsis Discriminante
A Yakubu,S. A Okunsebor
International Journal of Morphology , 2011,
Abstract: Morphological differences between two close fish populations were investigated in Doma Dam, north central Nigeria using principal component and discriminant analyses. The purpose was to identify the two species correctly and assign them into distinct genetic groups. To achieve this, seven morphometric measurements (body weight, standard length, total length, head length, body depth, dorsal fin length and caudal fin length) were made on each of the studied 252 fish specimens (153 Oreochromis niloticus and 99 Lates niloticus). The analysis of variance showed that significantly (P<0.05) higher values were recorded for Lates niloticus in all the body traits examined, except dorsal fin length. From the principal component analysis, the differences between the species resulted mainly from dorsal fin length, body weight, caudal fin length and head length. The stepwise discriminant analysis revealed that standard length, dorsal fin length and caudal fin length were the three most discriminating variables useful to distinguish clearly the two species at mature age. These three variables with strong discriminating power correctly classified 98.0% of individuals from the sample of known-fish populations. The classification accuracy was cross-validated using split-sample method, and indicated a 97.6% success rate (98.0% of Oreochromis niloticus and 97.0% of Lates niloticus were correctly assigned). The results can provide a sound scientific basis for the effective management and sustainable exploitation of the genetic resources of the two species under subtropical conditions. Las diferencias morfológicas entre dos poblaciones de peces similares se han investigado en Doma Dam, centro-norte de Nigeria utilizando análisis de componentes principales y análisis discriminante. El propósito fue identificar correctamente las dos especies y asignarlas a los distintos grupos genéticos. Para lograr esto, siete medidas morfométricas (peso corporal, longitud estándar, longitud total, longitud de la cabeza, profundidad del cuerpo, longitud de la aleta dorsal y la longitud de la aleta caudal) se realizaron en cada una de las muestras de los 252 peces estudiados (153 Oreochromis niloticus y 99 Lates niloticus) . El análisis de varianza mostró que de forma significativa (p<0,05) los valores más altos se registraron en Lates niloticus, en todos los rasgos del cuerpo examinado con excepción de la longitud de la aleta dorsal. A partir del análisis de componentes principales, las diferencias entre las especies se observó principalmente en la longitud de la aleta dorsal, el peso corpora
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