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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325328 matches for " S. Hatam "
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Compare Rules and Provisions of Copy Right in World Intellectual Property Organization and World Trade Organization
Hatam S. Ziazi, Firouzeh Gholampour
International Journal of Nations Research , 2018, DOI: -
Abstract: Copyright is a new issue in law which has changed a lot along with economic, industrial and cultural developments of human community. The term “copyright” is generally mentioned about the most important actions done related to literary and artistic works. A great deal of international cooperation has been done about copyright among the countries. One of the organizations active in this field is the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). On the other hand some issues emerge in the field of world trade which are connected to intellectual property and involve the organizations related to this category such as World Trade Organization (WTO). In this paper the concept and history of intellectual property law and especially copyright has been explained. Rules and regulations being developed among the countries to support copyright in WIPO and WTO and the relationship between these two organizations have been reviewed. WIPO and WTO are two originations that have a great role to support copyright in international arena. WTO due to the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) which is the most important agreement of this organization and also WIPO due to management and implementation of several treaties such as Bern Convention, have done a great deal to support copyright. In this paper, rules and regulations of copyright in these two international organizations have been reviewed through descriptive-analytical methods. The purpose of present thesis is to know more about the rules and regulations to support copyright in WIPO and WTO and also the effects and results of this support.
Semi-Active Pulse-Switching Vibration Suppression Using Sliding Time Window
S. Mohammadi,S. Hatam,A. Khodayari
Smart Materials Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/865981
Abstract: The performance of pulse-switching vibration control technique is investigated using a new method for switching sequence, in order to enhance the vibration damping. The control law in this method which was developed in the field of piezoelectric damping is based on triggering the inverting switch on each extremum of the produced voltage (or displacement); however, its efficiency in the case of random excitation is arguable because of the local extremum detection process. The new proposed method for switching sequence is only based on the fact that the triggering voltage level was determined using windowed statistical examination of the deflection signal. Results for a cantilever beam excited by different excitation forces, such as stationary and nonstationary random samples, and pulse forces are presented. A significant decrease in vibration energy and also the robustness of this method are demonstrated. 1. Introduction The ability to reduce the vibration amplitude over a wide frequency band is essential in the vibration control. The dependency of dynamic stiffness and damping properties of special materials such as viscoelastic materials on the excitation frequency or temperature variations cause other methods or materials to be considered [1, 2]. Several methods have been investigated for semi-active vibration control, using piezoelectric elements [3–10]. These methods are interesting because they do not rely on any operating energy as in active control. They consist of driving by a few solid-state switches requiring very little power. The common strategy of these methods is the electric boundary conditions modification of the piezoelectric elements. Synchronized Switch Damping (SSD) or pulse-switching technique which is implemented in this study consists of leaving the piezoelectric elements in open circuit, except during a very brief period of time, where the electric charge is either suppressed in a short circuit (SSDS) or inverted with a resonant network (SSDI). Corr and Clark experimented with SSDI method in the case of multimodal vibrations [5]. Also, they showed that the original SSD control law is not optimal in the case of wide band excitations. In the case of wide band excitations, the optimization of the piezoelectric elements (size and location) as well as the switching network is not sufficient. It is therefore necessary to establish methods to define the accurate switch triggering time that operates exclusively on certain selected extrema, which would maximize the electric power produced by the piezoelectric elements [3]. In a similar
Prevention of sternal dehiscence with the Sternum External Fixation (Stern-E-Fix) corset – a randomized trial in 750 patients
Tewarie Lachmandath S,Menon Ares K,Hatam Nima,Amerini Andrea
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1749-8090-7-85
Abstract: Background The main objective of this study will be to determine the effects of a new advanced sternum external fixation (Stern-E-Fix) corset on prevention of sternal instability and mediastinitis in high-risk patients. Methods This prospective, randomized study (January 2009 – June 2011) comprised 750 male patients undergoing standard median sternotomy for cardiac procedures (78% CABG). Patients were divided in two randomized groups (A, n = 380: received a Stern-E-Fix corset postoperatively for 6 weeks and B, n = 370: control group received a standard elastic thorax bandage). In both groups, risk factors for sternal dehiscence and preoperative preparations were similar. Results Wound infections occurred in n = 13 (3.42%) pts. in group A vs. n = 35 (9.46%) in group B. In group A, only 1 patient presented with sternal dehiscence vs. 22 pts. in group B. In all 22 patients, sternal rewiring followed by antibiotic therapy was needed. Mediastinitis related mortality was none in A versus two in B. Treatment failure in group B was more than five times higher than in A (p = 0.01); the mean length of stay in hospital was 12.5 ± 7.4 days (A) versus 18 ± 15.1 days (B) (p=0.002). Re-operation for sternal infection was 4 times higher in group B. Mean ventilation time was relatively longer in B (2.5 vs. 1.28 days) (p = 0.01). The mean follow-up period was 8 weeks (range 6 – 12 weeks). Conclusions We demonstrated that using an external supportive sternal corset (Stern-E-Fix) yields a significantly better and effective prevention against development of sternal dehiscence and secondary sternal infection in high-risk poststernotomy patients.
Emergence of Healthy Seedlings of Soyabean as Influenced by Seed Storage Containers Pakistan
S.K. Agha,Z.H. Malik,M. Hatam,G.H. Jamro
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Experiment was conducted at Agriculture University Peshawar, Pakistan to study the effect of seed storage containers on the emergence and healthy seedling of soybean (cv. Lee) under field conditions. The treatments were cloth bags, plastic bags, gunny bags, pitchers, tin cans, pods and refrigerator. Each treatment was replicated three times in randomized complete block design. Data revealed that field emergence was significantly different for sampling dates as well as storage containers. Seed emergence was greater in early sowing crop and seed stored in pods and refrigerator respectively. Further data demonstrated that storage containers were significantly affected the percentage of healthy seedlings. The seed stored in pods and refrigerators had 51.6 and 52.8% healthy seedlings respectively.
Effects of gibberellic acid and calcium on reducing growth period of iris (Iris holandica var. Blue Magic) in greenhouse and extension of its cut flower life
M. Hassanpur Asil,S.H. Mortazavi,A. Hatam Zadeh,M. Ghasem Nezhad
Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture , 2012,
Abstract: In order to reduce the growth period of Iris hollandica cv. ‘Blue Magic’ in greenhouse and to extend the vase life of its cut flowers, a factorial experiment, based on completely randomized design with three replications, was performed in the Research Glasshouse of College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran. The treatments consisted of three levels of gibberellic acid (0, 300 and 600 mg/L) and three levels of calcium nitrate (0, 5 and 10 mM). The measured parameters included sprouting time, flowering time, calcium content of shoot, anthocyanin content of petals and vase life of iris cut-flowers. The results revealed that gibberellic acid (GA3) treatments had significant effects on reduction of sprouting time, enhancing flowering time, and increasing calcium content of shoot. The anthocyanin content of petals and chlorophyll content of leaves were increased too in GA3 treatments. Calcium treatments had significant effects on calcium content of shoot and anthocyanin content of petals. In general, the interaction of GA3 and calcium had significant effects on vase life of Iris cut-flowers.
Effect of GABAA Receptors in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla on Cardiovascular Response to the Activation of the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in Female Ovariectomized Rats
Masoumeh Hatam,Mahin Ganjkhani
Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Background: The areas of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) with a high density of estrogen receptors are involved in cardiovascular regulation and send axonal projections to the rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM). We aimed to find the contribution of the RVLM to cardiovascular responses elicited by glutamate microinjection into the BST.Methods: Experiments were done in α-chloralose anesthetized ovariectomized (OVX) or OVX estrogen treated (OVX+E) female Wistar rats. Drugs were microinjected into the BST and RVLM. The average changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were compared between the case and control groups using t test and with the pre-injection values using paired t test.Results: Unilateral microinjection of glutamate (0.25 M/50 nl) into the BST decreased MAP and HR, in the OVX+E and OVX rats. These cardiovascular responses were reversibly attenuated 10 minutes after microinjection of synaptic blocker cobalt chloride (CoCl2, 5 mM/50 nl) into the ipsilateral RVLM. Re-stimulation of the BST 60 min after CoCl2 injection elicited cardiovascular responses that were not different from the control values. Ipsilateral microinjection of GABAA antagonist bicuculline (1.0 mM/50 nl) into the RVLM caused a 50% attenuation of glutamate induced depressor and bradycardic responses in both groups. Ipsilateral microinjection of GABAB antagonist, phaclophen (5.0 mM/50 nl), into the RVLM did not affect the depressor and bradycardic responses due to re-stimulation of the BST by glutamate.Conclusion: The RVLM sympathetic premotor neurons contain GABAA receptors that mediate in part the sympathoinhibitory responses to stimulation of the BST in the OVX animals.
Yield Potential of Blackbean (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) Germplasm
Amanullah,Mir Hatam
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: An experiment consisting of 11 blackbean (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) germplasm was carried at the Research Farm of NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar on June 9, 1999, to know the yield potential of these germplasm in relation to other important agronomic characters. Germplasm BB14 ranked first by producing maximum grain yield of 844 kg ha -1, followed by germplasm BB7 (755 kg ha-1). Average values of grain yield decreased in descending order from 799 kg ha -1 in group I to 375 kg ha -1 in group II and then further decreased to 243 kg ha -1 in group III. Similarly, the average values of days to maturity, plant height, branches and pods per plant, 100 seeds weight, dry matter yield and harvest index decreased in descending order, and showed positive association with grain yield.
Correlation Between Grain Yield and Agronomic Parameters in Mungbean Vigna radiata (L.) Wilcizk
Amanullah,Mir Hatam
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: In order to test the correlation between grain yield and yield components five promising mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) germplasm i.e. two each from Swat, Dir and one from Chitral were planted at the Research Farm of NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar on May 22, 1997. Grain yield varied significantly from 719 (CH.MB.1) to 1121 kg/ha (D.MB.7). Grain yield showed positive correlation with pod length, pods per plant, 100-seed weight and harvest index, and negative correlation with days to maturity, plant height, branches per plant, seeds per pod and dry matter yield. Dry matter yield showed positive correlation with days to maturity, plant height and branches per plant, and negative correlation with pods per plant. Pods per plant showed negative correlation with days to maturity, plant height and branches per plant. Days to maturity showed positive correlation with plant height and branches per plant. The correlation between plant height and branches per plant was also positive.
Yield Potential of Cowpea Germplasm
Amanullah,Mir Hatam
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: Grain yield potential of 20 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) germplasm collected from FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas) and neglected pockets of NWFP was tested at the Research Farm of NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar during summer 1997. Based on the grain yield potential, the germplasm were divided into three groups in descending order. Germplasm SW.C.31 ranked first by producing maximum yield of 2028 kg/ha, while germplasm SW.C.8 with 1724 kg/ha ranked second. Minimum yield of 22.7 kg/ha was obtained by CH.C.302, followed by SW.C.15 with 26.7 kg/ha. The germplasm in group I viz. SW.C.31, SW.C.8 and MN.C.1 gave 95 and 98% higher yield than group II and group III, respectively. The higher yield in the germplasm of group I, was mainly due to more branches and pods per plant, pod-length and seeds per pod, heavier seeds and maximum dry matter than the germplasm of group II and III and vice versa.
Performance and Nodulation Efficiency of Soybean Cultivars
Amanullah,Mir Hatam
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: Not Available
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