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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 326004 matches for " S. Fajardo "
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A Criterion for the Fuzzy Set Estimation of the Regression Function
Jesús A. Fajardo
Journal of Probability and Statistics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/593036
Abstract: We propose a criterion to estimate the regression function by means of a nonparametric and fuzzy set estimator of the Nadaraya-Watson type, for independent pairs of data, obtaining a reduction of the integrated mean square error of the fuzzy set estimator regarding the integrated mean square error of the classic kernel estimators. This reduction shows that the fuzzy set estimator has better performance than the kernel estimations. Also, the convergence rate of the optimal scaling factor is computed, which coincides with the convergence rate in classic kernel estimation. Finally, these theoretical findings are illustrated using a numerical example.
A quest o locacional e a Nova Geografia / The locational issue and the New Geography
Sérgio Fajardo
Ambiência , 2010,
Abstract: Esse artigo apresenta a quest o locacional como uma particularidade geográfica. A preocupa o com a localiza o de pontos, pessoas, objetos e processos na superfície terrestre é evidenciada com o advento da Nova Geografia, corrente teórica que fez emergir a prática da organiza o do espa o como uma fun o da ciência geográfica. A rela o entre a vis o pragmática da Geografia e a quest o locacional é aqui enfatizada. AbstractThis article presents the locational issue as a geographical peculiarity. The concern with the location of points, people, objects and processes in land surface is evident with the advent of the New Geography. This theory has emerged from the practice of organization of space as a function of geographical science. The relationship between the pragmatic view of geography and the locational issue is emphasized here.
Multiplicité des cadres de protection des Droits de l'Homme
Fajardo Arturo,Luis Andrés;
Civilizar Ciencias Sociales y Humanas , 2008,
Abstract: this article is a research result of the group of properties, which is part of the work undertaken within the project on the influence of the inter-american system in the colombian constitutional law. the protection of human rights since the second world war has generated a growing and scattered production of these rights' control tools and frameworks, whose effects have been little studied under the light of the systematic nature of law. this article aims to identify the tools that have been developed on the subject, by analyzing each of the aspects of this phenomenon, without losing sight of the ultimate goal of the entire system: the protection of the human person. the article is built as a dissertation according to the french method, and is part of the work that the author sent to the institute of international studies at the university of paris ii.
Desarrollo de nuevos medicamentos: oportunidades y beneficios para el Perú
Bayona,Andrés; Fajardo,Natalia;
Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1726-46342012000400016
Abstract: the development of innovative drugs allows coming up with new medicines to prevent and better treat illnesses. this improves people′s quality of life and makes it more productive. therefore, the mission of pharmaceutical research is to develop safe and effective drugs. clinical trials allow the evaluation of the safety and efficacy profiles of new medicines, medical devices and diagnostic tests. research and development (r&d) of new drugs is a long and costly process, where out of every 5000 to 10000 new components that enter preclinical testing, only one is approved. compared to 2011, drug development has increased by 7.6%. according to clinicaltrials.gov, 5% of the trials take place in latin america, and peru is in the fifth position. on the other hand, according to the global competitiveness report issued by the world economic forum, peru ranks 61st, its biggest challenges being the functioning of its public institutions, investment in r&d and technological capacity. the complexity of drug r&d results in a search for competitive places to develop clinical trials. clinical research is a humanized industry due to its ethical platform, stated in the guidelines of good clinical practices. this industry demands our country to develop a differentiating value that contributes to the development of knowledge and its competitiveness.
Desarrollo de nuevos medicamentos: oportunidades y beneficios para el Perú Development of new drugs: opportunities and benefits for Peru
Andrés Bayona,Natalia Fajardo
Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública , 2012,
Abstract: El desarrollo de drogas innovadoras permite la obtención de nuevos medicamentos para así prevenir y tratar mejor las enfermedades, ello mejora la calidad de vida y la hace más productiva; por tanto, la misión de la investigación farmacéutica es desarrollar drogas seguras y eficaces. Los ensayos clínicos permiten evaluar los perfiles de seguridad y eficacia de nuevos medicamentos, dispositivos médicos y pruebas diagnósticas. La investigación y el desarrollo de nuevas drogas es un proceso largo y costoso en donde por cada 5000 a 10 000 nuevos compuestos que ingresan a las pruebas preclínicas, solo uno es aprobado. En la actualidad, el desarrollo de drogas muestra un crecimiento de 7,6% con respecto al 2011. Según ClinicalTrials.gov, el 5% de los ensayos se implementan en Latinoamérica, en donde, Perú ocupa el quinto lugar, con un descenso de estudios aprobados desde el a o 2009. De otro lado, según el Reporte Global de Competitividad del Foro Económico Mundial, Perú ocupa el puesto 61 con retos principalmente en el funcionamiento de sus instituciones públicas, inversión en I&D y capacidad tecnológica. La complejidad de la I&D de medicamentos explica la búsqueda de locaciones competitivas para el desarrollo de estudios clínicos. La Investigación Clínica es una industria humanizada por su plataforma ética enunciada en las guías de buenas prácticas clínicas, y que exige de nuestro país desarrollar un valor diferenciador que contribuya con el desarrollo de conocimiento y su competitividad. The development of innovative drugs allows coming up with new medicines to prevent and better treat illnesses. This improves people′s quality of life and makes it more productive. Therefore, the mission of pharmaceutical research is to develop safe and effective drugs. Clinical trials allow the evaluation of the safety and efficacy profiles of new medicines, medical devices and diagnostic tests. Research and development (R&D) of new drugs is a long and costly process, where out of every 5000 to 10000 new components that enter preclinical testing, only one is approved. Compared to 2011, drug development has increased by 7.6%. According to ClinicalTrials.gov, 5% of the trials take place in Latin America, and Peru is in the fifth position. On the other hand, according to the Global Competitiveness Report issued by the World Economic Forum, Peru ranks 61st, its biggest challenges being the functioning of its public institutions, investment in R&D and technological capacity. The complexity of drug R&D results in a search for competitive places to develop clinical trials. Clinica
Efectos del Bloque de Constitucionalidad en materia de prescripción de la acción penal en Colombia
Fajardo Arturo,Luís Andrés;
Civilizar Ciencias Sociales y Humanas , 2009,
Abstract: in colombia, the articles 93, 94 and 214 of the constitutional charter create a bridge of implementation through the international law of human rights and international humanitarian law are integrated into the colombian law under the figure of the constitutional bloc . the main effect of this is to adapt the internal law to the international obligations of the state, and consequently, the evolution in the protection and guarantee of human rights domestically. however, the implementation process can generate complex problems that arise, for example, the contradictions between the rules of law which are based on legal principles rooted in the country and the bloc of of constitutionality's rules. the case of prescription of prosecution in colombia is a complex case, but international norms is evident in the existence of a rule on the applicability of prosecution of war crimes and crimes against humanity. this article is the conclusion of a balance of the principles found there.
Elementos estructurales del derecho a la verdad
Fajardo Arturo,Luís Andrés;
Civilizar Ciencias Sociales y Humanas , 2012,
Abstract: this article refers specifically to the current state of the discussion on the basic legal structure of the right to truth, its size and degree of legality and reports initial results on the evaluation of the models adopted for peace in colombia, in light of the international standards and practices.
Validating Governance Performance Indicators for Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management in the Southeast Region of Cuba  [PDF]
Fajardo José Abelardo Planas, Batista Celene Milanés, Lucia M. Fanning, Camilo Mateo Botero
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2016.61006
Abstract: The importance of evaluating the success of policies developed to effectively manage coastal and marine resource use is well documented. However, few frameworks exist that allow for a comparative examination of existing policy instruments, as opposed to specific initiatives, which assess governance performance aimed at addressing issues arising in the coastal zone. This paper describes the process and findings for evaluating the feasibility of a modified Coastal Sustainability Standard (CoSS) framework that seeks to measure the effectiveness of individual planning instruments within overlapping spatial boundaries in the landward and marine areas in the southeast region of Cuba. Through workshops conducted in Santiago de Cuba and Guamá municipalities with key representatives involved in coastal management and planning, the utility of the framework was assessed using the main instruments of territorial planning in Cuba, namely integrated river basin management, territorial planning in coastal municipalities and marine and coastal management. While, the findings suggest that the modified CoSS framework can be used to assess the effectiveness of these planning instruments in the region, and workshop participants also suggested improvements to better match its use to the characteristics of the study region.
Corrosion Behaviour of a New Low-Nickel Stainless Steel Reinforcement: A Study in Simulated Pore Solutions and in Fly Ash Mortars
M. Criado,S. Fajardo,J. M. Bastidas
International Journal of Corrosion , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/847323
Abstract: The present paper studies the corrosion behaviour of a new lower-cost type of austenitic stainless steel (SS) with a low nickel content in alkaline-saturated calcium hydroxide solution (a simulated concrete pore (SCP) solution) with sodium chloride (0.0%, 0.4%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%, and 5.0% NaCl) and embedded in alkali-activated fly ash (AAFA) mortars manufactured using two alkaline solutions, with and without chloride additions (2% and 5%), in an environment of constant 95% relative humidity. Measurements were performed at early age curing up to 180 days of experimentation. The evolution with time of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was studied. values obtained in SCP solution or in fly ash mortars were so high that low-nickel SS preserved its passivity, exhibiting high corrosion resistance 1. Introduction Steel reinforcements embedded in concrete are protected from corrosion by a thin oxide film formed on their surfaces and maintained by the highly alkaline environment of the surrounding concrete, usually with a pH of 12-13 [1]. However, the presence of chlorides can lead to damaging effects on passivity and the appearance of pitting corrosion when chloride ions reach the metal/concrete interface. Chloride ions are commonly found in construction materials and may originate from the external environment, as in the case of marine environments, deicing salts and acid rain [2]. While thermodynamic can predict whether a corrosion reaction will take place, it does not provide an indication of the rate of corrosion reactions. The reaction kinetics depends on the determinant factors such as humidity, oxygen, and alkalinity medium. These factors can speed up the corrosion process [3, 4]. Together with cathodic protection and corrosion inhibitors, stainless steel (SS) reinforcements are a reliable way to guarantee the durability of reinforced concrete structures (RCSs) in extremely aggressive environments [5, 6]. Although SS reinforcements may be the most economical solution on the long term [7, 8], the initial cost involved has so far limited their use. For this reason, new SSs, in which the nickel content (subject to considerable price fluctuations due to stock market factors) is partly replaced by other elements [9, 10], are being evaluated as possible alternatives to traditional carbon steel [11, 12]. This new low-nickel SS could mean a saving of about 15–20% compared to conventional AISI 304 SS. Low-nickel austenitic SSs exhibit attractive properties that are comparable to those of traditional austenitic SSs, such as good corrosion resistance, high
La influencia del Sistema Interamericano de los Derechos Humanos en el derecho constitucional colombiano - Marco teórico*
Fajardo-Arturo,Luis Andrés;
International Law , 2008,
Abstract: the colombian constitutional law has undergone a fundamental turnaround in the past 17 years. the introduction of the neoconstitucionalismo model in latin america, coupled with the militancy of the constitutional court by a change in the legal culture, have made constitutional law exceeds by far the scope of the text of the charter. the new form of constitutional law is structured across concepts that are derived from the judges and constitutional interpretations of human rights carried out by international bodies. the theoretical foundation of this transformation, is the amount of abandoning the ius positivism, the introduction of legal models based on the weighting of principles and no longer in ius imperium of law, but fundamentally, the growing prevalence of human rights, as an overturning of legal positivism towards a latin american legal humanism.
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