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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325182 matches for " S. Eustace "
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Imaging Modalities for Cervical Spondylotic Stenosis and Myelopathy
C. Green,J. Butler,S. Eustace,A. Poynton,J. M. O'Byrne
Advances in Orthopedics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/908324
Abstract: Cervical spondylosis is a spectrum of pathology presenting as neck pain, radiculopathy, and myelopathy or all in combination. Diagnostic imaging is essential to diagnosis and preoperative planning. We discuss the modalities of imaging in common practice. We examine the use of imaging to differentiate among central, subarticular, and lateral stenosis and in the assessment of myelopathy.
Imaging Modalities for Cervical Spondylotic Stenosis and Myelopathy
C. Green,J. Butler,S. Eustace,A. Poynton,J. M. O'Byrne
Advances in Orthopedics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/908324
Abstract: Cervical spondylosis is a spectrum of pathology presenting as neck pain, radiculopathy, and myelopathy or all in combination. Diagnostic imaging is essential to diagnosis and preoperative planning. We discuss the modalities of imaging in common practice. We examine the use of imaging to differentiate among central, subarticular, and lateral stenosis and in the assessment of myelopathy. 1. Introduction Imaging modalities for cervical spondylosis aim to assist the clinician in differentiating discogenic neck pain, radiculopathy, and myelopathy. Radiological assessment helps to localise the site and level of the disease for preoperative planning when surgical intervention is required. The current modalities in common use are pain film roentgenology, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography. Despite advances in diagnostic imaging plain film remains an inexpensive initial radiological evaluation of the spine in cervical spondylosis. Anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique radiographs can be acquired easily at the time of consultation. These images can show changes in the facet and uncovertebral, osteophytes, and disc space [1]. This is an indication of the underlying pathology but not diagnostic as these findings are common in the adult population [1]. Weight-bearing plain films can also assess alignment and sagittal canal diameter. Measurement of the anteroposterior diameter is typically determined on a lateral plain film as the distance from the posterior surface of the vertebral body to the closest point on the spinolaminar line at the pedicle level. However, this is a two-dimensional assessment of a three-dimensional structure and such measurements have shown to be inaccurate. Three-dimensional imaging modalities are now used for more accurate assessment. Lateral flexion-extention views are also useful initial investigations [2]. These will help to assess cervical range of motion and identify fused segments and instability. Instability is suggested where translation of >3.5?mm and sagittal plane angulation of >11?degrees are present [3]. Compared with other radiological studies available to evaluate the spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides the greatest range of information [4]. It provides an accurate morphological assessment of both osseous and soft tissue structures including intervertebral discs, spinal ligaments, and the neural elements. Dynamic weight bearing MRI has recently been championed as the preferred technique for pathology-specific diagnosis [5, 6]. Computed tomography in isolation lacks the soft tissue detail achieved
Response of some metabolic and biochemical indices in rabbits fed varying levels of dietary cyanide
AA Eustace, MO Oluwakemi
African Journal of Biomedical Research , 2003,
Abstract: Twenty four growing rabbits were used to assess the response of serum metabolites, performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics of rabbits to varying dietary cyanide levels. The animals were randomly allocated to four experimental, isocaloric and isoproteinous diets containing 0mg, 250mg, 500mg and 750mg dietary cyanide levels corresponding to diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Animals on diets 2, 3, and 4 had significantly (P<0.05) reduced digestibility of dry matter and nutrients. Daily body weight gain, daily water intake and feed efficiency significantly (P<0.05) reduced as the cyanide level increased. The serum metabolites, glucose, cholesterol, serum glutamate oxalotransaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and urinary cyanide were not significantly affected (P>0.05). The slaughter weight, and weights of the head and lungs of the rabbits on the cyanide diets were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those on the control diet. The results showed that dietary cyanide had negative impact on nutrient digestibility, growth performance and some carcass characteristics.
Changes in the cellulose, sugar and crude protein contents of agro-industrial by-products fermented with Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium sp.
Eustace A Iyayi
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2004,
Abstract: Changes in the protein, sugar and cellulose of three agro-industrial by-products after fermentation with Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium sp. in solid state were determined. Cellulose was significantly reduced (P<0.05) in all the agro wastes by all the fungi after 14 days. Highest percentage reduction was achieved by A. niger in all the agro wastes; 36.51% for wheat offal (WO), 35.87% for brewers dried grain (BDG) and 35.80% for maize offal (MO). There was a corresponding build up of all the soluble sugars in the substrate up to 14 days. Beyond day 14, the sugar level began to fall and there was no more significant degradation of the cellulose. The crude protein of the BDG, MO and WO increased significantly (P<.0.05). After 14 days, the highest percentage increase in protein (41%) was obtained in WO inoculated with A. niger. Results of the study indicate the possibility of enhancing the feeding value of these by-products by a simple, inexpensive and easily adaptable technique. Key Words: Cellulose, sugar, protein, changes, fermentation, fungi. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(3) 2004: 186-188
The Historical Context of Sierra Leonean Literature
Eustace James Palmer
Research in Sierra Leone Studies : Weave , 2013,
Abstract: This essay gives a survey of the history of Sierra Leone from the settlement of Freetown to more contemporary times and then proceeds to an accouont of the development of Sierra Leonean literature against this historical background.
Multiple Myeloma: A Review of Imaging Features and Radiological Techniques
C. F. Healy,J. G. Murray,S. J. Eustace,J. Madewell,P. J. O'Gorman,P. O'Sullivan
Bone Marrow Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/583439
Abstract: The recently updated Durie/Salmon PLUS staging system published in 2006 highlights the many advances that have been made in the imaging of multiple myeloma, a common malignancy of plasma cells. In this article, we shall focus primarily on the more sensitive and specific whole-body imaging techniques, including whole-body computed tomography, whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission computed tomography. We shall also discuss new and emerging imaging techniques and future developments in the radiological assessment of multiple myeloma. 1. Introduction Multiple myeloma is a neoplastic disorder of plasma B cells characterised by bone marrow infiltration and overproduction of monoclonal immunoglobulins. It accounts for approximately 10% of all haematological malignancies and 1% of all cancers with an increasing incidence, affecting four in every 100,000 per year [1]. It predominantly affects patients in the seventh decade and has high morbidity and mortality. Patient survival has improved over the past decade with the introduction of novel chemotherapeutic agents [2, 3]. Standard investigations for multiple myeloma includes a complete blood count, serum biochemistry, serum and urine electrophoresis, and the gold standard for diagnosis: bone marrow aspirate and biopsy. The Durie/Salmon staging system introduced in 1975 used skeletal survey as its only radiological criterion [4]. In an effort to standardize treatment approaches and stage the disease as accurately as possible at the time of diagnosis, the Durie/Salmon PLUS staging system has been introduced, integrating the more sensitive imaging techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and PET/CT information into its classification system [5]. The role of radiological imaging in multiple myeloma is essentially three fold: in the initial staging of the disease, in the detection and characterisation of complications, and in the evaluation of patient’s response to treatment. 2. The Biology of Myeloma Bone Disease In the past decade, the role of the bone marrow microenvironment has been at the forefront of multiple myeloma research. The “seed and soil” hypothesis was first introduced in the late 1800s by an English surgeon, Dr. Stephen Paget, who proposed a neoplastic growth (the seed, e.g., the myeloma cell) will proliferate in an environment (the soil, e.g., bone marrow environment) that supports its’ replication [6]. Since then, in particular in the early 21st century, a multitude of evidence has emerged demonstrating the role of the myeloma cells local
Enhancement of the feeding value of some agro-industrial by-products for laying hens after their solid state fermentation with Trichoderma viride
Eustace A Iyayi, Zaid A Aderolu
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2004,
Abstract: This study with some agro-byproducts was carried out to provide information on the use of fermentation by-products; brewer's dried grains (BDG), rice bran (RB), palm kernel meal (PKM) and corn bran (CB). Changes in the nutrient compositions of some selected agro industrial by-products on biodegradation with Trichoderma viride and their feeding value as an energy source for layers were investigated. The protein in BDG, RB, PKM and CB increased by 87, 68, 32 and 61%, respectively, when they were fermented with the fungi for 14 days. At the same time, the fiber in the by-products decreased by 35.00, 40.00, 36.50 and 37.50%, respectively with a corresponding increase of 49.00, 37.00, 9.00 and 5.50% in the level of soluble sugars. The energy in the biodegraded by-products increased by 6.30, 5.00, 9.00 and 18.50%, respectively. In a feeding trial with layers, 50% of the maize in a standard commercial diet was replaced with biodegraded BDG, RB and PKM. Birds on the BDG and RB diets had significantly (P<0.05) higher hen day production than those on the other diets. Diets in which the biodegraded by-products replaced maize produced lower cost of egg production than the standard commercial diet. Of the test diets, BDG gave the lowest cost of US$0.38 per tray of eggs (30 eggs) compared with US$0.53 for the commercial diet. Results of the study showed that fungal biodegradation of the agro industrial by-products can enhance their nutritional status. Using such by-products to feed layers spared half of the maize in the diet and produced better laying performance. Key Words: Agro by-products, fungal fermentation, nutrient improvement, poultry feeding. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(3) 2004: 182-185
Cyanide Detoxifition in Cassava by-products by Fungal Solid State Fermentation.
Eustace A. Iyayi, Dorothy M. Losel
Journal of Food Technology in Africa , 2000,
Abstract: This study investigated microbial detoxification of cyanide in cassava peels and leaves in solid state fermentation. Three microorganisms, Mucor Strictus, Rhizomucor miehei and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used to inoculate the cassava by-products. The levels of cyanide in the substrates after 4, 8 and 12 days on inoculation with R. miehei were estimated. Cyanide levels in the substrates 7, 14, and 21 days after inoculation with M. strictus and S. cerevisiae were also estimated. The three microorganisms caused a significant (P>0.05) reduction in the cyanide of the leaves and peels. M. strictus and R. miehei caused a 66.67% and 77.13% reduction in cyanide level in leaves respectively. Cyanide in the peels was reduced by 49.52%, 80.68% and 76.69% on inoculation with M. strictus, R. miehei and S. cerevisiae respectively. These changes indicated that R. miehei had the best potential in reducing cyanide of cassava by-products among the three microorganisms used for the study. Factors such as changes in texture in the plant tissue, increase _-glucosidase activity and utilization of the cyanogenic glucosides and their products of fermentation breakdown by the microorganisms possibly explain the observed reduction in cyanide levels by the microorganisms. Three microorganisms used for the study. Factors such as changes in texture in the plant tissue, increase _-glucosidase activity and utilization of the cyanogenic glucosides and their products of fetrmentation breakdown by the microorganisms possibly explain the observed reduction in cyanide levels by the microorganisms. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa Volume 5 Number 2 (April - June 2000), pp. 48-51
Effect of Enzyme Supplementation of Palm Kernel Meal and Brewer`s Dried Grain on the Performance of Broilers
Eustace A. Iyayi,Bina I. Davies
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2005,
Abstract: Seventy-two male broiler chickens were randomly distributed into groups of 6 totaling 12 groups. Three diets (Diet 1-Basal, maize-based with no enzyme; Diet 2-BDG + Enzyme-based and Diet 3-PKM + Enzyme-based) were formulated and randomly offered to any 4 of the groups. The aim was to compare the performance of the birds on the enzyme supplemented high fibre diets with those on the maize-based diet with no enzyme supplementation. Weight gain and feed intake were significantly (p<0.05) higher on the enzyme supplemented BDG and PKM diets at the starter phase. At the finisher phase, while feed intake was significantly (p<0.05) increased with enzyme supplementation, the weight gain was not significantly affected. The FCR also did not significantly change with enzyme supplementation at the starter phase, but at the finisher phase, feed conversion was significantly (p<0.05) poorer. Carcass measures did not significantly change with enzyme supplementation. Weight of the pancreas was significantly (p<0.05) increased and that of the kidney significantly (p<0.05) reduced in birds on the enzyme supplemented BDG and PKM diets. Apparent digestibility of crude protein, crude fat and crude fibre was significantly (p<0.05) higher with enzyme supplementation. The cost of feed per kg weight gain was lower in the enzyme supplemented diets only at the starter phase. But at the finisher phase, enzyme supplementation did not have any benefit in terms of feed cost. Enzyme supplementation resulted in the reduction of the amount of maize needed in the diets of the birds by 31% and 52% at the starter and finisher phases, respectively.
Horticultural Production of Ultra High Resveratrol Peanut  [PDF]
Godson O. Osuji, Paul Johnson, Eustace Duffus, Sela Woldesenbet, Jeneanne M. Kirven
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/as.2017.810086
Abstract:
Background: Resveratrol naturally occurring antioxidant in peanut (Legume: Arachis hypogaea) has phytochemical human health dietary effects associated with reduced inflammatory cancer risks. Its levels in peanut are ultra-low and variable (0 to 26 μg·g-1), which has made it difficult to market as a consistent high resveratrol produce. Objective: Understanding the regulation of resveratrol accumulation in peanut might lead to development of new techniques for optimizing and stabilizing its yield. Method: Peanuts were cultivated in horticultural field plots and treated with solutions of mineral salts (sulfate, potassium, phosphate, ammonium ion) that were optimized in stoichiometric (reactive) ratios. Peanut seed’s RNAs were subjected to Northern blot analysis for profiling the RNAs synthesized by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and mRNAs encoding resveratrol synthase. The seed’s extracts were analyzed by GC-MS for determination of the resveratrol and fatty acid compositions. Result: Stoichiometric mixes of mineral ions induced the peanut GDH to synthesize some RNA that silenced the mRNAs encoding resveratrol synthase, phosphoglucomutase, isocitrate lyase, malate synthase, enolase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, malate dehydrogenase, and phosphoglycerate mutase in the control, KN-, and NPKS-treated but not in the NPPK-treated peanut. These resulted to decreased resveratrol content (6.0 μg·g-1) in the control peanut but maximized it (1.15 mg·g-1) in the NPPK-treated peanut. Therefore, resveratrol accumulation was optimized by coupling of glycolysis and citric-glyoxylic acid cycles to resveratrol biosynthesis. Fatty acid content of control (55.6 g·kg-1) was higher than the NPKS-treated (48.5 g·kg-1) and NPPK-treated peanut (44.9 g·kg-1) meaning that malonyl-CoA intermediate in both fatty acid and stilbenoid pathways was diverted to support maximum resveratrol biosynthesis in the NPPK-treated peanut. Conclusion: The functional coupling of citric-glyoxylic acid cycles and glycolysis to optimize resveratrol biosynthesis may encourage development of horticultural technology specific for production of ultra-high resveratrol peanuts.
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