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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 336235 matches for " S. El Kalakhi "
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Production of Corundum-Mullite Mixture with High Added Value from Raw Materials of Morocco  [PDF]
S. El Kalakhi, A. Samdi, R. Moussa, M. Gomina
New Journal of Glass and Ceramics (NJGC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/njgc.2016.63004
Abstract: In search of new mineral raw materials with industrial potential, we identified a deposit located in the southwest of Oujda (in the Northeastern Morocco). The physicochemical analyses indicate that the ore consists mainly of diaspore, topaz and quartz, and also secondary minerals. The presence of topaz in the ore is explained by hydrothermal action on the structure of diaspore. The investigation of structural transformations reveals complex reaction mechanisms that result in a mixture of corundum-mullite at 1200℃, which is of great industrial interest. Thus, the peculiarity of this ore is the presence of fluorine and secondary minerals.
Quantum Entanglement as a Consequence of a Cantorian Micro Spacetime Geometry  [PDF]
Mohamed S. El Naschie
Journal of Quantum Information Science (JQIS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jqis.2011.12007
Abstract: Building upon the pioneering work of J. Bell [1] and an incredible result due to L. Hardy [2] it was shown that the probability of quantum entanglement of two particles is a maximum of 9.0169945 percent [2]. This happens to be exactly the golden mean to the power of five (?5) [3-7]. Although it has gone largely unnoticed for a long time, this result was essentially established independently in a much wider context by the present author almost two decades ago [3-6]. The present work gives two fundamentally different derivations of Hardy’s beautiful result leading to precisely the same general conclusion, namely that by virtue of the zero measure of the underlying Cantorian-fractal spacetime geometry the notion of spatial separability in quantum physics is devoid of any meaning [7]. The first derivation is purely logical and uses a probability theory which combines the discrete with the continuum. The second derivation is purely geometrical and topological using the fundamental equations of a theory developed by the author and his collaborators frequently referred to as E-infinity or Cantorian spacetime theory [3-7].
The Missing Dark Energy of the Cosmos from Light Cone Topological Velocity and Scaling of the Planck Scale  [PDF]
Mohamed S. El Naschie
Open Journal of Microphysics (OJM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojm.2013.33012
Abstract: The paper presents an exact analysis leading to an accurate theoretical prediction of the amount of the mysteriously missing hypothetical dark energy density in the cosmos. The value found, namely 95.4915028% is in full agreement with earlier analysis, the WMAP and the supernova cosmic measurements. The work follows first the strategy of finding a critical point which separates a semi-classical regime from a fully relativistic domain given by topological unit interval velocity parameter then proceeds to wider aspects of a topological quantum field of fractal unit interval. This idea of a critical velocity parameter was first advanced by Sigalotti and Mejias in 2006 who proposed a critical value equal\"\" . A second interesting proposal made in 2012 by Hendi and Sharifzadeh set the critical point at 0.8256645. The present analysis is based upon a light cone velocity quantized coordinate. This leads to the same quantum relativity energy mass relation found in earlier publications by rescaling that of Einstein’s special relativity. Two effective quantum gravity formulae are obtained. The first is for the ordinary measurable energy of the quantum particle\"\" while the second is for dark energy density of the quantum wave which we cannot measure directly and we can only infer its existence from the measured accelerated expansion of the universe E(D) = \"\"where\"\" . The critical velocity parameter in this case arises naturally to be \"\". The results so obtained are validated using a heuristic Lorentzian transformation. Finally the entire methodology is put into the wider perspective of a fundamental scaling theory for the Planck scale proposed by G. Gross.
What Is the Missing Dark Energy in a Nutshell and the Hawking-Hartle Quantum Wave Collapse  [PDF]
Mohamed S. El Naschie
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.33024

We reason that in quantum cosmology there are two kinds of energy. The first is the ordinary energy of the quantum particle which we can measure. The second is the dark energy of the quantum wave by quantum duality. Because measurement collapses the Hawking-Hartle quantum wave of the cosmos, dark energy cannot be detected or measured in any conventional manner. The quantitative results are confirmed using some exact solutions for the hydrogen atom. In particular the ordinary energy of the quantum particle is given by E(0) = (\"\"/2)(mc2) where \"\" is Hardy’s probability of quantum entanglement, \"\" =(\"\" - 1)/2 is the Hausdorff dimension of the zero measure thin Cantor set modeling the quantum particle, while the dark energy of the quantum wave is given by E(D) = (5\"\"/2)(mc2) where \"\" is the Hausdorff dimension of the positive measure thick empty Cantor set modeling the quantum wave and the factor five (5) is the Kaluza-Klein spacetime dimension to which the measure zero thin Cantor set D(0) = (0,\"\") and the thick empty set D(-1) = (1,\"\") must be lifted to give the five dimensional analogue sets namely \"\"

Topological-Geometrical and Physical Interpretation of the Dark Energy of the Cosmos as a “Halo” Energy of the Schrödinger Quantum Wave  [PDF]
Mohamed S. El Naschie
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.45084

The paper concludes that the energy given by Einstein’s famous formula E = mc2 consists of two parts. The first part is the positive energy of the quantum particle modeled by the topology of the zero set. The second part is the absolute value of the negative energy of the quantum Schr?dinger wave modeled by the topology of the empty set. We reason that the latter is nothing else but the so called missing dark energy of the universe which accounts for 94.45% of the total energy, in full agreement with the WMAP and Supernova cosmic measurement which was awarded the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics. The dark energy of the quantum wave cannot be detected in the normal way because measurement collapses the quantum wave.

Quantum Entanglement: Where Dark Energy and Negative Gravity plus Accelerated Expansion of the Universe Comes from  [PDF]
Mohamed S. El Naschie
Journal of Quantum Information Science (JQIS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jqis.2013.32011

Dark energy is shown to be the absolute value of the negative kinetic energy of the halo-like quantum wave modeled mathematically by the empty set in a five dimensional Kaluza-Klein (K-K) spacetime. Ordinary or position energy of the particle on the other hand is the dual of dark energy and is contained in the dynamic of the quantum particle modeled by the zero set in the same five dimensional K-K spacetime. The sum of both dark energy of the wave and the ordinary energy of the particle is exactly equal to the energy given by the well known formula of Einstein E=mc2 which is set in a four dimensional spacetime. Various interpretations of the results are presented and discussed based on the three fundamental energy density equations developed. In particular \"\" where E is the energy, m is the mass and c is the speed of light, \"\" is Hardy’s quantum entanglement and \"\" gives results in complete agreement with the cosmological measurements of WMAP and Supernova. On the other hand \"\" gives an intuitive explanation of negative gravity and the observed increased rate of cosmic expansion. Adding E (ordinary) to E (dark

Dark Energy from Kaluza-Klein Spacetime and Noether’s Theorem via Lagrangian Multiplier Method  [PDF]
Mohamed S. El Naschie
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.46103

The supposedly missing dark energy of the cosmos is found quantitatively in a direct analysis without involving ordinary energy. The analysis relies on five dimensional Kaluza-Klein spacetime and a Lagrangian constrained by an auxiliary condition. Employing the Lagrangian multiplier method, it is found that this multiplier is equal to the dark energy of the cosmos and is given by \"\" where E is energy, m is mass, c is the speed of light, \"\" and λ is the Lagrangian multiplier. The result is in full agreement with cosmic measurements which were awarded the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics as well as with the interpretation that dark energy is the energy of the quantum wave while ordinary energy is the energy of the quantum particle. Consequently dark energy could not be found directly using our current measurement methods because measurement leads to wave collapse leaving only the quantum particle and its ordinary energy intact.

The hyperbolic Extension of Sigalotti-Hendi-Sharifzadeh’s Golden Triangle of Special Theory of Relativity and the Nature of Dark Energy  [PDF]
M. S. El Naschie
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.43049

Previous work by Sigalotti in 2006 and recently by Hendi and Sharifzadeh in 2012 showed that all the fundamental equations of special relativity may be derived from a golden mean proportioned classical-Euclidean triangle and confirmed Einstein’s famous equation E=mc2. In the present work it is shown that exchanging the Euclidean triangle with a hyperbolic one an extended quantum relativity energy equation, namely \"\" , is obtained. The relevance of this result in understanding the true nature of the “missing” so-called dark energy of the cosmos is discussed in the light of the fact that the ratio of \"\" to E=mc2 is \"\" which agrees almost completely with the latest supernova and WMAP cosmological measurements.

A Unified Newtonian-Relativistic Quantum Resolution of the Supposedly Missing Dark Energy of the Cosmos and the Constancy of the Speed of Light  [PDF]
M. S. El Naschie
International Journal of Modern Nonlinear Theory and Application (IJMNTA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijmnta.2013.21005

Time dilation, space contraction and relativistic mass are combined in a novel fashion using Newtonian dynamics. In this way we can surprisingly retrieve an effective quantum gravity energy-mass equation which gives the accurate experimental value of vacuum density. Furthermore Einstein’s equation of special relativity E = mc2, where m is the mass and c is the velocity of light developed assuming smooth 4D space time is transferred to a rugged Calabi-Yau and K3 fuzzy Kahler manifolds and revised to become E=(mc2)/(22), where the division factor 22 maybe interpreted as the compactified bosonic dimensions of Veneziano-Nambu strings. The result is again an accurate effective quantum gravity energy-mass relation akin to the one found using Newtonian dynamics which correctly predicts that 95.4915028% of the energy in the cosmos is the hypothetical missing dark energy. The agreement with WMAP and supernova measurements is in that respect astounding. In addition different theories are used to check the calculations and all lead to the same quantitative result. Thus the theories of varying speed of light, scale relativity, E-infinity theory, M-theory, Heterotic super strings, quantum field in curved space time, Veneziano’s dual resonance model, Nash Euclidean embedding and super gravity all reinforce, without any reservation, the above mentioned theoretical result which in turn is in total agreement with the most sophisticated cosmological measurements which was deservingly awarded the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics. Finally and more importantly from certain viewpoints, we reason that the speed of light is constant because it is a definite probabilistic expectation value of a variable velocity in a hierarchical fractal clopen, i.e. closed and open micro space time.

A Fractal Menger Sponge Space-Time Proposal to Reconcile Measurements and Theoretical Predictions of Cosmic Dark Energy  [PDF]
Mohamed S. El Naschie
International Journal of Modern Nonlinear Theory and Application (IJMNTA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijmnta.2013.22014
Abstract: The 95.5 percent of discrepancy between theoretical prediction based on Einstein’s theory of relativity and the accurate cosmological measurement of WMAP and various supernova analyses is resolved classically using Newtonian mechanics in conjunction with a fractal Menger sponge space proposal. The new energy equation is thus based on the familiar kinetic energy of Newtonian mechanics scaled classically by a ratio relating our familiar three dimensional space homology to that of a Menger sponge. The remarkable final result is an energy equation identical to that of Einstein’s E=mc2 but divided by 22 so that our new equation reads as \"\". Consequently the energy Lorentz-like reduction factor of \"\" percent is in astonishing agreement with cosmological measurements which put the hypothetical dark energy including dark matter at \"\" percent of the total theoretical value. In other words our analysis confirms the cosmological data putting the total value of measured ordinary matter and ordinary energy of the entire universe at 4.5 percent. Thus ordinary positive energy which can be measured using conventional methods is the energy of the quantum particle modeled by the Zero set in five dimensions. Dark energy on the other hand is the absolute value of the negative energy of the quantum Schrodinger wave modeled by the empty set also in five dimensions.
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