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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325303 matches for " S. Dazeley "
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An Update on Progress at KamLAND
S. A. Dazeley
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: The first generation of solar neutrino experiments narrowed the allowed flavor mixing and mass parameter solutions (for nu_e <-> nu_x) to a few isolated regions of sin^2*2*theta - delta M^2 parameter space. Recently, the Small Mixing Angle (SMA) solution, and the ``just so'' solutions have been disfavored by results from Super-Kamiokande and SNO. The Kamioka Liquid scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) recently became operational, and is particularly sensitive to the Large Mixing Angle (LMA) region. We believe the background impurity levels in the detector are low enough to conduct a successful experiment. The stability of the central balloon and PMTs has also been confirmed.
A Note on Neutron Capture Correlation Signals, Backgrounds, and Efficiencies
N. S. Bowden,M. Sweany,S. Dazeley
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2012.07.005
Abstract: A wide variety of detection applications exploit the timing correlations that result from the slowing and eventual capture of neutrons. These include capture-gated neutron spectrometry, multiple neutron counting for fissile material detection and identification, and antineutrino detection. There are several distinct processes that result in correlated signals in these applications. Depending on the application, one class of correlated events can be a background that is difficult to distinguish from the class that is of interest. Furthermore, the correlation timing distribution depends on the neutron capture agent and detector geometry. Here, we explain the important characteristics of the neutron capture timing distribution, making reference to simulations and data from a number of detectors currently in use or under development. We point out several features that may assist in background discrimination, and that must be carefully accounted for if accurate detection efficiencies are to be quoted.
Double Chooz: Optimizing CHOOZ for a possible theta 13 measurement
S. A. Dazeley,for the Double Chooz Collaboration
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: The proposed Double Chooz theta 13 experiment is described. Double Chooz will be an optimized reactor disappearance experiment similar to the original CHOOZ. The optimization includes an increase in the signal to noise by increasing the target volume to twice the original CHOOZ, reducing singles background with a non-scintillating oil buffer region around the target and carefully controlling systematic uncertainties by measuring the electron antineutrino flux of the source with a near detector. The Double Chooz far detector will be situated in the same cavern as CHOOZ but will detect ~50000 electron antineutrinos in three years of operation. We estimate a systematic uncertainty of 0.6%, and a reduction of the upper limit on theta 13 to 5 degrees.
Observation of Neutrons with a Gadolinium Doped Water Cerenkov Detector
S. Dazeley,A. Bernstein,N. S. Bowden,R. Svoboda
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2009.03.256
Abstract: Spontaneous and induced fission in Special Nuclear Material (SNM) such as 235U and 239Pu results in the emission of neutrons and high energy gamma-rays. The multiplicities of and time correlations between these particles are both powerful indicators of the presence of fissile material. Detectors sensitive to these signatures are consequently useful for nuclear material monitoring, search, and characterization. In this article, we demonstrate sensitivity to both high energy gamma-rays and neutrons with a water Cerenkov based detector. Electrons in the detector medium, scattered by gamma-ray interactions, are detected by their Cerenkov light emission. Sensitivity to neutrons is enhanced by the addition of a gadolinium compound to the water in low concentrations. Cerenkov light is similarly produced by an 8 MeV gamma-ray cascade following neutron capture on the gadolinium. The large solid angle coverage and high intrinsic efficiency of this detection approach can provide robust and low cost neutron and gamma-ray detection with a single device.
Transparency of 0.2% GdCl3 Doped Water in a Stainless Steel Test Environment
W. Coleman,A. Bernstein,S. Dazeley,R. Svoboda
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2008.06.049
Abstract: The possibility of neutron and neutrino detection using water Cerenkov detectors doped with gadolinium holds the promise of constructing very large high-efficiency detectors with wide-ranging application in basic science and national security. This study addressed a major concern regarding the feasibility of such detectors: the transparency of the doped water to the ultraviolet Cerenkov light. We report on experiments conducted using a 19-meter water transparency measuring instrument and associated materials test tank. Sensitive measurements of the transparency of water doped with 0.2% GdCl3 at 337nm, 400nm and 420nm were made using this instrument. These measurements indicate that GdCl3 is not an appropriate dopant in stainless steel constructed water Cerenkov detectors.
Reconstructing the direction of reactor antineutrinos via electron scattering in Gd-doped water Cherenkov detectors
D. Hellfeld,S. Dazeley,A. Bernstein,C. Marianno
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The potential of elastic antineutrino-electron scattering ($\bar{\nu_e} + e^-$$\rightarrow \bar{\nu_e} + e^-$) in a Gd-doped water Cherenkov detector to determine the direction of a nuclear reactor antineutrino flux was investigated using the recently proposed WATCHMAN antineutrino experiment as a baseline model. The expected scattering rate was determined assuming a 13 km standoff from a 3.758 GWt light water nuclear reactor. Background was estimated via independent simulations and by appropriately scaling published measurements from similar detectors. Many potential backgrounds were considered, including solar neutrinos, misidentified reactor-based inverse beta decay interactions, cosmogenic radionuclide and water-borne radon decays, and gamma rays from the photomultiplier tubes, detector walls, and surrounding rock. The detector response was modeled using a GEANT4-based simulation package. The results indicate that with the use of low radioactivity PMTs and sufficient fiducialization, water-borne radon and cosmogenic radionuclides pose the largest threats to sensitivity. The directional sensitivity was then analyzed as a function of radon contamination, detector depth, and detector size. The results provide a list of theoretical conditions that, if satisfied in practice, would enable nuclear reactor antineutrino directionality in a Gd-doped water Cherenkov detector approximately 10 km from a large power reactor.
Observation of the Isotopic Evolution of Pressurized Water Reactor Fuel Using an Antineutrino Detector
N. S. Bowden,A. Bernstein,S. Dazeley,R. Svoboda,A. Misner,T. Palmer
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1063/1.3080251
Abstract: By operating an antineutrino detector of simple design during several fuel cycles, we have observed long term changes in antineutrino flux that result from the isotopic evolution of a commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Measurements made with simple antineutrino detectors of this kind offer an alternative means for verifying fissile inventories at reactors, as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other reactor safeguards regimes.
Large-scale Gadolinium-doped Water Cerenkov Detector for Non-Proliferation
M. Sweany,A. Bernstein,N. S. Bowden,S. Dazeley,G. Keefer,R. Svoboda,M. Tripathi
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: Fission events from Special Nuclear Material (SNM), such as highly enriched uranium or plutonium, can produce simultaneous emission of multiple neutrons and high energy gamma-rays. The observation of time correlations between any of these particles is a significant indicator of the presence of fissionable material. Cosmogenic processes can also mimic these types of correlated signals. However, if the background is sufficiently low and fully characterized, significant changes in the correlated event rate in the presence of a target of interest constitutes a robust signature of the presence of SNM. Since fission emissions are isotropic, adequate sensitivity to these multiplicities requires a high efficiency detector with a large solid angle with respect to the target. Water Cerenkov detectors are a cost-effective choice when large solid angle coverage is required. In order to characterize the neutron detection performance of large-scale water Cerenkov detectors, we have designed and built a 3.5 kL water Cerenkov-based gamma-ray and neutron detector, and modeled the detector response in Geant4 [1]. We report the position-dependent neutron detection efficiency and energy response of the detector, as well as the basic characteristics of the simulation.
Study of wavelength-shifting chemicals for use in large-scale water Cherenkov detectors
M. Sweany,A. Bernstein,S. Dazeley,J. Dunmore,J. Felde,R. Svoboda,M. Tripathi
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2011.10.064
Abstract: Cherenkov detectors employ various methods to maximize light collection at the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). These generally involve the use of highly reflective materials lining the interior of the detector, reflective materials around the PMTs, or wavelength-shifting sheets around the PMTs. Recently, the use of water-soluble wavelength-shifters has been explored to increase the measurable light yield of Cherenkov radiation in water. These wave-shifting chemicals are capable of absorbing light in the ultravoilet and re-emitting the light in a range detectable by PMTs. Using a 250 L water Cherenkov detector, we have characterized the increase in light yield from three compounds in water: 4-Methylumbelliferone, Carbostyril-124, and Amino-G Salt. We report the gain in PMT response at a concentration of 1 ppm as: 1.88 $\pm$ 0.02 for 4-Methylumbelliferone, stable to within 0.5% over 50 days, 1.37 $\pm$ 0.03 for Carbostyril-124, and 1.20 $\pm$ 0.02 for Amino-G Salt. The response of 4-Methylumbelliferone was modeled, resulting in a simulated gain within 9% of the experimental gain at 1 ppm concentration. Finally, we report an increase in neutron detection performance of a large-scale (3.5 kL) gadolinium-doped water Cherenkov detector at a 4-Methylumbelliferone concentration of 1 ppm.
A search for cosmogenic production of $β$-neutron emitting radionuclides in water
S. Dazeley,M. Askins,M. Bergevin,A. Bernstein,N. S. Bowden,P. Jaffke,S. D. Rountree,T. M. Shokair,M. Sweany
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Here we present the first results of WATCHBOY, a water Cherenkov detector designed to measure the yield of $\beta$-neutron emitting radionuclides produced by cosmic ray muons in water. In addition to the $\beta$-neutron measurement, we also provide a first look at isolating single-$\beta$ producing radionuclides following showering muons as a check of the detection capabilities of WATCHBOY. The data taken over $207$ live days indicates a $^{9}$Li production yield upper limit of $1.9\times10^{-7}\mu^{-1}g^{-1}\mathrm{cm}^2$ at $\sim400$ meters water equivalent (m.w.e.) overburden at the $90\%$ confidence level. In this work the $^{9}$Li signal in WATCHBOY was used as a proxy for the combined search for $^{9}$Li and $^{8}$He production. This result will provide a constraint on estimates of antineutrino-like backgrounds in future water-based antineutrino detectors.
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