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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325403 matches for " S. Courty "
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Transverse effects on squeezing with atoms
A. Lambrecht,J. M. Courty,S. Reynaud
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: We evaluate the squeezing of a probe beam with a transverse Gaussian profile interacting with an ensemble of two-level atoms in a cavity. We use the linear input-output formalism where the effect of atoms is described by susceptibility and noise functions. The transverse structure is accounted for by averaging atomic functions over the intensity profile. The results of the plane-wave and Gaussian-wave theories are compared. When large squeezing is predicted we find the prediction of the plane-wave model not to be reliable outside the Kerr domain. We give an estimate of the squeezing degradation due to the Gaussian transverse structure.
Gas and Metal Distributions within Simulated Disk Galaxies
B. K. Gibson,S. Courty,D. Cunnama,M. Molla
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: We highlight two research strands related to our ongoing chemodynamical Galactic Archaeology efforts: (i) the spatio-temporal infall rate of gas onto the disk, drawing analogies with the infall behaviour imposed by classical galactic chemical evolution models of inside-out disk growth; (ii) the radial age gradient predicted by spectrophometric models of disk galaxies. In relation to (i), at low-redshift, we find that half of the infall onto the disk is gas associated with the corona, while half can be associated with cooler gas streams; we also find that gas enters the disk preferentially orthogonal to the system, rather than in-plane. In relation to (ii), we recover age gradient troughs/inflections consistent with those observed in nature, without recourse to radial migrations.
Stereo-selective swelling of imprinted cholesteric networks
S. Courty,A. R. Tajbakhsh,E. M. Terentjev
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.085503
Abstract: Molecular chirality, and the chiral symmetry breaking of resulting macroscopic phases, can be topologically imprinted and manipulated by crosslinking and swelling of polymer networks. We present a new experimental approach to stereo-specific separation of chiral isomers by using a cholesteric elastomer in which a helical director distribution has been topological imprinted by crosslinking. This makes the material unusual in that is has a strong phase chirality, but no molecular chirality at all; we study the nature and parameters controlling the twist-untwist transition. Adding a racemic mixture to the imprinted network results in selective swelling by only the component of ``correct'' handedness. We investigate the capacity of demixing in a racemic environment, which depends on network parameters and the underlying nematic order.
Phase chirality and stereo-selective swelling of cholesteric elastomers
S. Courty,A. R. Tajbakhsh,E. M. Terentjev
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1140/epje/e2004-00034-3
Abstract: Cholesteric elastomers possess a macroscopic ``phase chirality'' as the director n rotates in a helical fashion along an optical axis $z$ and can be described by a chiral order parameter. This parameter can be tuned by changing the helix pitch p and/or the elastic properties of the network. The cholesterics also possess a local nematic order, changing with temperature or during solvent swelling. In this paper, by measuring the power of optical rotation, we discover how these two parameters vary as functions of temperature or solvent adsorbed by the network. The main result is a finding of pronounced stereo-selectivity of cholesteric elastomers, demonstrating itself in the retention of the ``correct'' chirality component of a racemic solvent. It has been possible to quantify the amount of such stereo-separation, as the basic dynamics of the effect.
Nematic elastomers with aligned carbon nanotubes: new electromechanical actuators
S. Courty,J. Mine,A. R. Tajbakhsh,E. M. Terentjev
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1209/epl/i2003-00277-9
Abstract: We demonstrate, for the first time, the large electromechanical response in nematic liquid crystalline elastomers filled with a very low (~0.01%) concentration of carbon nanotubes, aligned along the nematic director at preparation. The nanotubes create a very large effective dielectric anisotropy of the composite. Their local field-induced torque is transmitted to the rubber-elastic network and is registered as the exerted uniaxial stress of order ~1kPa in response to a constant field of order ~1MV/m. We investigate the dependence of the effect on field strength, nanotube concentration and reproducibility under multiple field-on and -off cycles. The results indicate the potential of the nanotube-nematic elastomer composites as electrically driven actuators.
Mechanically induced helix-coil transition in biopolymer networks
S. Courty,J. L. Gornall,E. M. Terentjev
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1529/biophysj.105.067090
Abstract: The quasi-equilibrium evolution of the helical fraction occurring in a biopolymer network (gelatin gel) under an applied stress has been investigated by observing modulation in its optical activity. Its variation with the imposed chain extension is distinctly non-monotonic and corresponds to the transition of initially coiled strands to induced left-handed helices. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions of helices induced on chain extension. This new effect of mechanically stimulated helix-coil transition has been studied further as a function of the elastic properties of the polymer network: crosslink density and network aging.
Two-dimensional shear modulus of a Langmuir foam
S. Courty,B. Dollet,F. Elias,P. Heinig,F. Graner
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1209/epl/i2003-00283-5
Abstract: We deform a two-dimensional (2D) foam, created in a Langmuir monolayer, by applying a mechanical perturbation, and simultaneously image it by Brewster angle microscopy. We determine the foam stress tensor (through a determination of the 2D gas-liquid line tension, 2.35 $\pm$ 0.4 pJ$\cdot$m$^{-1}$) and the statistical strain tensor, by analyzing the images of the deformed structure. We deduce the 2D shear modulus of the foam, $\mu= 38 \pm 3 \mathrm{nN}\cdot \mathrm{m}^{-1}$. The foam effective rigidity is predicted to be $ 35 \pm 3 \mathrm {nN}\cdot \mathrm {m}^{- 1}$, which agrees with the value $37.5 \pm 0.8 \mathrm {nN}\cdot \mathrm {m}^{-1}$ obtained in an independent mechanical measurement.
Testing gravity law in the solar system
B. Lamine,J. -M. Courty,S. Reynaud,M. -T. Jaekel
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: The predictions of General relativity (GR) are in good agreement with observations in the solar system. Nevertheless, unexpected anomalies appeared during the last decades, along with the increasing precision of measurements. Those anomalies are present in spacecraft tracking data (Pioneer and flyby anomalies) as well as ephemerides. In addition, the whole theory is challenged at galactic and cosmic scales with the dark matter and dark energy issues. Finally, the unification in the framework of quantum field theories remains an open question, whose solution will certainly lead to modifications of the theory, even at large distances. As long as those "dark sides" of the universe have no universally accepted interpretation nor are they observed through other means than the gravitational anomalies they have been designed to cure, these anomalies may as well be interpreted as deviations from GR. In this context, there is a strong motivation for improved and more systematic tests of GR inside the solar system, with the aim to bridge the gap between gravity experiments in the solar system and observations at much larger scales. We review a family of metric extensions of GR which preserve the equivalence principle but modify the coupling between energy and curvature and provide a phenomenological framework which generalizes the PPN framework and "fifth force" extensions of GR. We briefly discuss some possible observational consequences in connection with highly accurate ephemerides.
Cold atoms: A new medium for quantum optics
A. Lambrecht,J. M. Courty,S. Reynaud,E. Giacobino
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1007/BF01135854
Abstract: Laser-cooled and trapped cesium atoms have been used as a nonlinear medium in a nearly resonant cavity. A study of the semiclassical dynamics of the system was performed, showing bistability and instabilities. In the quantum domain, squeezing in a probe beam having interacted with this system was demonstrated.
Chirality transfer and stereo-selectivity of imprinted cholesteric networks
S. Courty,A. R. Tajbakhsh,E. M. Terentjev
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.73.011803
Abstract: Imprinting of cholesteric textures in a polymer network is a method of preserving a macroscopically chiral phase in a system with no molecular chirality. By modifying the elastics properties of the network, the resulting stored helical twist can be manipulated within a wide range since the imprinting efficiency depends on the balance between the elastics constants and twisting power at network formation. One spectacular property of phase chirality imprinting is the created ability of the network to adsorb preferentially one stereo-component from a racemic mixture. In this paper we explore this property of chirality transfer from a macroscopic to the molecular scale. In particular, we focus on the competition between the phase chirality and the local nematic order. We demonstrate that it is possible to control the subsequent release of chiral solvent component from the imprinting network and the reversibility of the stereo-selective swelling by racemic solvents.
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