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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325259 matches for " S. Cassisi "
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A critical investigation on the discrepancy between the observational and theoretical Red Giant luminosity function "Bump"
S. Cassisi,M. Salaris
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/285.3.593
Abstract: New theoretical evaluations of the RGB luminosity function 'bump' and the ZAHB luminosity covering the range of metallicities typical of galactic globular cluster are presented. The variation of the theoretical RGB bump and ZAHB levels due to the metallicity, original helium content, mixing length value, age, mass loss, bolometric corrections, opacities and equation of state adopted in the evolutionary models is also discussed. These new prescriptions have been taken into account for casting light on a longstanding astrophysical problem connected with the Red Giant Branch evolutionary phase, namely the discrepancy between the observational and the theoretical luminosity of RGB bump. A sample of globular clusters with accurate evaluations of the bump luminosity and spectroscopical metallicity determinations has been selected. The Zero Age Horizontal Branch luminosity at the RR-Lyrae instability strip has been evaluated as accurately as possible, and the observational luminosity difference between the RGB bump and the ZAHB has been compared with the theoretical values. It is shown that there is no significant disagreement between observations and canonical stellar models. The possible applications of this result are also briefly discussed.
The "Tip" of the Red Giant Branch as a distance indicator: results from evolutionary models
M. Salaris,S. Cassisi
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/289.2.406
Abstract: New theoretical evaluations of the Red Giant Branch Tip (TRGB) luminosity, by adopting the most updated physical inputs in computing canonical stellar models, are presented. Theoretical relations for the run of the TRGB bolometric and I magnitude with the metallicity are provided together with a comparison of the distance scale based on these relations and the RR Lyrae distance scale presented in Cassisi & Salaris (1996) and the Cepheid distance scale adopted by Lee, Freedman & Madore (1993). The result of this comparison - performed by adopting a sample of galactic globular clusters and a sample of resolved galaxies - discloses a satisfactory agreement between theory and observations at the level of 0.1 mag. This occurrence can be regarded as an evidence for the consistency between theoretical Red Giant, Horizontal Branch stellar models and independent Cepheid observations, and allows to safely use the provided TRGB luminosity relations as an alternative primary distance indicator for galaxies in which the stellar component has been resolved.
The "Tip" of the Red Giant Branch as a distance indicator: theoretical calibration and the value of H_0
S. Cassisi,M. Salaris
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: Updated theoretical relations for the run of the bolometric and I magnitude of the Tip of the Red Giant Branch (TRGB) with respect to the metallicity are provided. An analogous relation for the V magnitude of the Zero Age Horizontal Branch at the RR Lyrae instability strip is also provided. A comparison has been performed among our ZAHB and TRGB distances, the Cepheid distance scale by Madore & Freedman (1991) and the HIPPARCOS distances set by local subdwarfs with accurate parallax determinations. The application of our TRGB distance scale to NGC3379 provides a distance to the Leo I group that is about 8% higher than the one obtained by Sakai et al. (1997) adopting the TRGB brightness calibration by Da Costa & Armandroff (1990). Our distance to the Leo I group, coupled with the relative distance Coma cluster-Leo I, provides a determination of H_0 at the Coma cluster: H_0=64_{-9}^{+10} Km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}.
A new analysis of the Red Giant Branch "Tip" distance scale and the value of the Hubble constant
M. Salaris,S. Cassisi
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.1998.01598.x
Abstract: The theoretical evaluations of the Red Giant Branch Tip (TRGB) luminosity presented in Salaris & Cassisi (1997) are extended to higher metallicities, and compared with analogous independent results recently published. The comparison between our ZAHB and TRGB distance scales for galactic globular clusters presented in Salaris & Cassisi (1997) is now supplemented with a comparison with the HIPPARCOS distance scale set by local subdwarfs with accurate parallax determinations. The overall agreement between ZAHB and HIPPARCOS distances is quite good. The ZAHB and TRGB distances to resolved galaxies are in good agreement, whereas the comparison between TRGB and Cepheid distances, computed by using the calibration suggested by Madore & Freedman (1991), reveals a systematic discrepancy of the order of 0.12 mag. The TRGB distances are systematically longer in comparison with the Cepheid ones. This result supports the case for a revision of the zero point of the Cepheid distance scale, as already suggested by other authors on the basis of HIPPARCOS parallaxes. The application of our TRGB distance scale to NGC3379, provides a new distance to the Leo I group, which coupled with recent independent determinations of the distance Coma cluster-Leo I, provides a determination of H_0 at the Coma cluster in the range: H_0= 60+-11 Km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}.
On the Blue Tail of Horizontal Branch Stars
G. Bono,S. Cassisi
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: We discuss theoretical predictions for ZAHB models constructed either by including or neglecting the He extra-mixing effect recently suggested by Sweigart (1997). The comparison in the $log T_e -log g$ plane suggests that within current observational uncertainties canonical hot HB models based on new input physics agree with empirical data in Galactic globular clusters and in the field. We also briefly discuss the impact of the new class of variable stars EC14026 on constraining the parameters of blue HB stars and their distribution along the tail.
Lithium and oxygen in globular cluster dwarfs and the early disc accretion scenario
M. Salaris,S. Cassisi
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201423722
Abstract: A new scenario --early disc accretion-- has been recently proposed to explain the discovery of multiple stellar populations in Galactic globular clusters. According to this model, the existence of well defined (anti)-correlations amongst light element abundances (i.e. C, N, O, Na) in the photospheres of stars belonging to the same cluster (and the associated helium enrichment), is caused by accretion of the ejecta of short lived interacting massive binary systems (and single fast rotating massive stars) on fully convective pre-main sequence low- and very low-mass stars, during the early stages of the cluster evolution. We investigated the constraints provided by considering simultaneously the observed spread of lithium and oxygen (and when possible also sodium) abundances for samples of turn-off stars in NGC6752, NGC6121 (M4), and NGC104 (47Tuc), and the helium abundance of their multiple main sequences. These observations provide a very powerful test for the accretion scenario, because the observed O, Li and He abundance distributions at the turn off can be used to constrain the composition (and mass) of the accreted matter, and the timescales of the polluting stars. In case of NGC6752 we could not find a physically consistent solution. In case of M4, spectroscopic errors are too large compared to the intrinsic spread, to constrain the properties of the accreted matter. As for 47Tuc, we could find a physically consistent solution for the abundances of He and O (and Na) in the accreted gas, and predict the abundances of these elements in the accreted matter only if pollution happens with timescales of ~1 Myr, hence polluters are objects with masses of the order of several tens of solar masses (abridged).
Global metallicity of globular cluster stars from colour-magnitude diagrams
F. Caputo,S. Cassisi
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05458.x
Abstract: We have developed an homogeneous evolutionary scenario for H- and He-burning low-mass stars by computing updated stellar models for a wide metallicity and age range (0.0002$\le Z \le$0.004 and 9$\le t(Gyr) \le$15, respectively) suitable to study globular clusters. This theoretical scenario allows us to provide self-consistent predictions about the dependence of selected observational features of the colour-magnitude diagram, such as the brightness of the Turn Off (TO), Zero Age Horizontal Branch (ZAHB) and Red Giant Branch bump (BUMP), on the cluster metallicity and age. Taking into account these predictions, we introduce a new observable based on the visual magnitude difference between the TO and the ZAHB, and the TO and the RGB-bump, given by $A=\Delta M_V$(TO-BUMP)$-0.566\Delta M_V$(TO-ZAHB). We show that the parameter $A$ does not depend at all on the cluster age, whereas it does strongly depend on the cluster global metallicity. The calibration of the parameter $A$ as a function of $Z$ is then provided, as based on our evolutionary models. We tested the reliability of this result by also considering stellar models computed by other authors,employing different input physics. Eventually, we present clear evidence that the variation of $\Delta M_V$(TO-BUMP) with $\Delta M_V$(TO-ZAHB) does supply a powerful probe of the global metal abundance, at least when homogeneous theoretical frameworks are adopted. We provide an estimate of the global metallicity of 36 globular clusters in the Milky Way, based on our {\it A-Z} calibration, and a large observational database of Galactic GCs. By considering the empirical [Fe/H] scales by both Zinn & West (1984) and Carretta & Gratton (1997), we are also able to provide an estimate of the GC $\alpha-$element enhancement.
On the reliability of the semiempirical RR Lyrae Period - Blue Amplitude - V-band Luminosity relation
R. De Santis,S. Cassisi
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05747.x
Abstract: We investigate the accuracy and reliability of the semiempirical period - blue amplitude - V-band luminosity relationship for ab-type RR Lyrae stars originally obtained by Castellani & De Santis (1994) and De Santis (1996). We infer that the zero point of this relationship does depend on the metallicity, by studying a sample of both field and cluster variables. We also show that the use of this relationship can still be useful for those stellar systems showing an intrinsic metallicity spread, since in this case the metallicity effect has a negligible effect on the final distance modulus estimate. We compare the adopted semiempirical relationship with the fully empirical one recently provided by Kovacs & Walker (2001). When the zero point of the latter relation is fixed consistently with the former one, the two equations are equivalent. By appling the semiempirical period - blue amplitude - V-band luminosity relation, as well as the technique proposed by Cassisi, De Santis & Piersimoni (2001), to the globular cluster $\omega$ Cen, we show that the empirical slope of the relationship between the mass of the fundamental RR Lyrae pulsators and their metallicity, is in fair agreement with the one predicted by updated evolutionary models for Horizontal-Branch stars.
Hot Horizontal Branch Stars: Predictions for Mass Loss
Jorick S. Vink,Santi Cassisi
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20020917
Abstract: We predict mass-loss rates for the late evolutionary phases of low-mass stars, with special emphasis on the consequences for the morphology of the Horizontal Branch (HB). We show that the computed rates, as predicted by the most plausible mechanism of radiation pressure on spectral lines, are too low to produce EHB/sdB stars. This invalidates the scenario recently outlined by Yong et al. (2000) to create these objects by mass loss on the HB. We argue, however, that mass loss plays a role in the distribution of rotational velocities of hot HB stars, and may -- together with the enhancement of heavy element abundances due to radiative levitation -- provide an explanation for the so-called ``low gravivity problem. The mass loss recipe derived for hot HB (and extreme HB, sdB, sdOB) stars may also be applied to post-HB (AGB-manque, UV-bright) stars over a range in effective temperatures between 12500 -- 40000 K.
A pulsational approach to the luminosity of Horizontal Branch stellar structures
R. De Santis,S. Cassisi
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.1999.02705.x
Abstract: We discuss an alternative approach to constrain the absolute bolometric luminosity of Zero Age Horizontal Branch structures by using the observational pulsational properties of ab type RR Lyrae stars and theoretical expectations concerning both the relation connecting the pulsational properties of these variables to their evolutionary ones, as luminosity, mass and effective temperature and, also the location in the H-R diagram for the fundamental pulsators instability strip boundaries. Since the main goal of this work is to obtain an evaluation of the ZAHB bolometric luminosity as much as possible independent on stellar evolution theory, we have minimized the use of evolutionary prescriptions, being the only adopted evolutionary input the allowed mass range for fundamental pulsators. Nevertheless, the effects on our final results related to the use of these evolutionary prescriptions have been carefully checked. The reliability of the suggested method to obtain the ZAHB luminosity is shown by applying it to a selected sample of globular clusters (GCs), whose heavy elements abundance covers almost all the complete GCs metallicity range. The results obtained for the ZAHB bolometric luminosities have been compared with evolutionary prescriptions on such quite important quantity as given by recent evolutionary computations has been also performed. The existence of evident mismatches between current results and some evolutionary models has been verified and discussed.
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