Abstract:
A manifestly N=2 supersymmetric coset formalism is applied to analyse the "fermionic" extensions of N=2 $a=4$ and $a=-2$ KdV hierarchies. Both these hierarchies can be obtained from a manifest N=2 coset construction. This coset is defined as the quotient of some local but non-linear superalgebra by a $\hat{U(1)}$ subalgebra. Three superextensions of N=2 KdV hierarchy are proposed, among which one seems to be entirely new.

Abstract:
We show that there exists an alternative procedure in order to extract differential hierarchies, such as the KdV hierarchy, from one--matrix models, without taking a continuum limit. To prove this we introduce the Toda lattice and reformulate it in operator form. We then consider the reduction to the systems appropriate for one--matrix model.

Abstract:
We discuss a differential integrable hierarchy, which we call the (N, M)$--th KdV hierarchy, whose Lax operator is obtained by properly adding $M$ pseudo--differential terms to the Lax operator of the N--th KdV hierarchy. This new hierarchy contains both the higher KdV hierarchy and multi--field representation of KP hierarchy as sub--systems and naturally appears in multi--matrix models. The N+2M-1 coordinates or fields of this hierarchy satisfy two algebras of compatible Poisson brackets which are {\it local} and {\it polynomial}. Each Poisson structure generate an extended W_{1+\infty} and W_\infty algebra, respectively. We call W(N, M) the generating algebra of the extended W_\infty algebra. This algebra, which corresponds with the second Poisson structure, shares many features of the usual $W_N$ algebra. We show that there exist M distinct reductions of the (N, M)--th KdV hierarchy, which are obtained by imposing suitable second class constraints. The most drastic reduction corresponds to the (N+M)--th KdV hierarchy. Correspondingly the W(N, M) algebra is reduced to the W_{N+M} algebra. We study in detail the dispersionless limit of this hierarchy and the relevant reductions.

Abstract:
We show how to calculate correlation functions of two matrix models. Our method consists in making full use of the integrable hierarchies and their reductions, which were shown in previous papers to naturally appear in multi--matrix models. The second ingredient we use are the $W$--constraints. In fact an explicit solution of the relevant hierarchy, satisfying the $W$--constraints (string equation), underlies the explicit calculation of the correlation functions. In the course of our derivation we do not use any continuum limit tecnique. This allows us to find many solutions which are invisible to the latter technique.

Abstract:
We show that the most general two--matrix model with bilinear coupling underlies $c=1$ string theory. More precisely we prove that $W_{1+\infty}$ constraints, a subset of the correlation functions and the integrable hierarchy characterizing such two--matrix model, correspond exactly to the $W_{1+\infty}$ constraints, to the discrete tachyon correlation functions and to the integrable hierarchy of the $c=1$ string.

Abstract:
We analyze the topological nature of $c=1$ string theory at the self--dual radius. We find that it admits two distinct topological field theory structures characterized by two different puncture operators. We show it first in the unperturbed theory in which the only parameter is the cosmological constant, then in the presence of any infinitesimal tachyonic perturbation. We also discuss in detail a Landau--Ginzburg representation of one of the two topological field theory structures.

Abstract:
We discuss the integrable hierarchies that appear in multi--matrix models. They can be envisaged as multi--field representations of the KP hierarchy. We then study the possible reductions of this systems via the Dirac reduction method by suppressing successively one by one part of the fields. We find in this way new integrable hierarchies, of which we are able to write the Lax pair representations by means of suitable Drinfeld--Sokolov linear systems. At the bottom of each reduction procedure we find an $N$--th KdV hierarchy. We discuss in detail the case which leads to the KdV hierarchy and to the Boussinesque hierarchy, as well as the general case in the dispersionless limit.

Abstract:
In the context of hermitean one--matrix models we show that the emergence of the NLS hierarchy and of its reduction, the KdV hierarchy, is an exact result of the lattice characterizing the matrix model. Said otherwise, we are not obliged to take a continuum limit to find these hierarchies. We interpret this result as an indication of the topological nature of them. We discuss the topological field theories associated with both and discuss the connection with topological field theories coupled to topological gravity already studied in the literature.

Abstract:
We derive the discrete linear systems associated to multi--matrix models, the corresponding discrete hierarchies and the appropriate coupling conditions. We also obtain the $W_{1+\infty}$ constraints on the partition function. We then apply to multi--matrix models the technique, developed in previous papers, of extracting hierarchies of differential equations from lattice ones without passing through a continuum limit. In a q--matrix model we find 2q coupled differential systems. The corresponding differential hierarchies are particular versions of the KP hierarchy. We show that the multi--matrix partition function is a $\tau$--function of these hierarchies. We discuss a few examples in the dispersionless limit.

Abstract:
We show how the two--matrix model and Toda lattice hierarchy presented in a previous paper can be solved exactly: we obtain compact formulas for correlators of pure tachyonic states at every genus. We then extend the model to incorporate a set of discrete states organized in finite dimensional $sl_2$ representations. We solve also this extended model and find the correlators of the discrete states by means of the $W$ constraints and the flow equations. Our results coincide with the ones existing in the literature in those cases in which particular correlators have been explicitly calculated. We conclude that the extented two--matrix model is a realization of the discrete states of $c=1$ string theory.