Abstract:
A phenomenological model for the nucleon structure functions is presented. Visualising the nucleon as a cavity filled with parton gas in thermal equilibrium and parametrizing the effects due to the finiteness of the nucleon volume, we obtain a good fit to the data on the unpolarized nucleon structure functions.

Abstract:
A phenomenological model for the nucleon structure functions is presented. Visualising the nucleon as a cavity filled with parton gas in equilibrium and parametrizing the effects due to the finiteness of the nucleon volume, we obtain a good fit to the data on the structure function $F_2^p$. The model then successfully predicts other unpolarized structure function data.

Abstract:
It is by now well known that the relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC, BNL have produced a strongly interacting fluid with remarkable properties, among them the lowest ever observed ratio of the coefficient of shear viscosity to entropy density. Arguments based on ideas from the String Theory, in particular the AdS/CFT correspondence, led to the conjecture --- now known to be violated --- that there is an absolute lower limit $1/4 \pi$ on the value of this ratio. Causal viscous hydrodynamics calculations together with the RHIC data have put an upper limit on this ratio, a small multiple of $1/4 \pi$, in the relevant temperature regime. Less well-determined is the ratio of the coefficient of bulk viscosity to entropy density. These transport coefficients have also been studied nonperturbatively in the lattice QCD framework, and perturbatively in the limit of high-temperature QCD. Another interesting transport coefficient is the coefficient of diffusion which is also being studied in this context. I review some of these recent developments and then discuss the opportunities presented by the anticipated LHC data, for the general nuclear physics audience.

Abstract:
We show that the model which naturally explains the $\bar u \ne \bar d$ asymmetry in the nucleon and is in quantitative agreement with the Gottfried sum rule data, also predicts that in the proton $\Delta \bar u > 0 > \Delta \bar s > \Delta \bar d$ and $\Delta \bar u - \Delta \bar d > \bar d - \bar u > 0$. At the input scale, these results can be derived even analytically. Thus the violation of the flavor symmetry is more serious in the polarized case than in the unpolarized case. In contrast, many recent analyses of the polarized data have made a simplifying assumption that all the three $\Delta \bar q$'s have the same sign and magnitude. We point out the need to redo these analyses, allowing for the alternate scenario as described above. We present predictions of the model for the $W^-$ asymmetry in polarized $pp$ scattering, which can be tested at RHIC; these are quite different from those available in the literature.

Abstract:
The field of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is introduced to the high-energy physics students with no prior knowledge in this area. The emphasis is on the two most important observables, namely the azimuthal collective flow and jet quenching, and on the role fluid dynamics plays in the interpretation of the data. Other important observables described briefly are constituent quark number scaling, ratios of particle abundances, strangeness enhancement, and sequential melting of heavy quarkonia. Comparison is made of some of the basic heavy-ion results obtained at LHC with those obtained at RHIC. Initial findings at LHC which seem to be in apparent conflict with the accumulated RHIC data are highlighted.

Abstract:
We investigate the phenomenology of freely expanding fluids, with different material properties, evolving through the Israel-Stewart (IS) causal viscous hydrodynamics, and compare our results with those obtained in the relativistic Eckart-Landau-Navier-Stokes (ELNS) acausal viscous hydrodynamics. Through the analysis of scaling invariants we give a definition of thermalization time which can be self-consistently determined in viscous hydrodynamics. Next we construct the solutions for one-dimensional boost-invariant flows. Expansion of viscous fluids is slower than that of one-dimensional ideal fluids, resulting in entropy production. At late times, these flows are reasonably well approximated by solutions obtained in ELNS hydrodynamics. Estimates of initial energy densities from observed final values are strongly dependent on the dynamics one chooses. For the same material, and the same final state, IS hydrodynamics gives the smallest initial energy density. We also study fluctuations about these one-dimensional boost-invariant backgrounds; they are damped in ELNS hydrodynamics but can become sound waves in IS hydrodynamics. The difference is obvious in power spectra due to clear signals of wave-interference in IS hydrodynamics, which is completely absent in ELNS dynamics.

Abstract:
The systematics of the size dependence of the resonant response of small metal particles and nuclei to incident electromagnetic radiation is studied. The known radius$^{-1}$ variation of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) in matrix-embedded metal particles is qualitatively accounted for by a quantum calculation of the response within a simple model. In free clusters, the behaviour is more complicated, possibly because of thermal excitation of surface modes. For nuclei, the FWHM shows strong shell-structure-linked oscillations across the periodic table. Focussing on the lower envelope of the oscillations (magic nuclei), the downward trend of the FWHM is consistent with the radius$^{-1}$ variation. A schematic theoretical description of the systematics in nuclei is presented. If the FWHMs are scaled by the respective Fermi energies and the inverse radii by the Fermi wave vectors, the data sets for matrix-embedded metal particles and nuclei become comparable in magnitude.