Abstract:
A review of the low temperature properties of Kondo lattice systems is presented within the mean-field approximation, focusing on the different characteristic energy scales. The Kondo temperature, T_K, and the Fermi liquid coherence energy, T_0, are analyzed as functions of the electronic filling, the shape of the non-interacting density of states, and the concentration of magnetic moments. These two scales can vanish, corresponding to a breakdown of the Kondo effect when an external magnetic field is applied. The Kondo breakdown can also be reached by adding a superexchange term to the Kondo lattice model, which mimics the intersite magnetic correlations neglected at the mean-field level.

Abstract:
We study the low energy states of Kondo alloys as function of the magnetic impurity concentration per site, x, and the conduction electron average site occupation, nc. Using two complementary approaches, the mean-field coherent potential approximation and the strong coupling limit, we identify and characterize two different Fermi liquid regimes. We propose that both regimes are separated by a Lifshitz transition at x = nc. Indeed, we predict a discontinuity of the number of quasiparticles which are enclosed in the Fermi surface. This feature could provide a scenario for the non-Fermi liquid properties that were recently observed in Kondo alloy systems around x = nc.

Abstract:
We consider a magnetic impurity deposited on the surface of a strong topological insulator and interacting with the surface modes by a Kondo exchange interaction. Taking into account the warping of the Fermi line of the surface modes, we derive a mapping to an effective one dimensional model and show that the impurity is fully screened by the surface electrons except when the Fermi level lies exactly at the Dirac point. Using an Abrikosov fermion mean-field theory, we calculate the shape of the electronic density Friedel oscillation resulting from the presence of the Kondo screening cloud. We analyze quantitatively the observability of a six-fold symmetry in the Friedel oscillations for two prototype compounds: Bi$_2$Se$_3$ and Bi$_2$Te$_3$.

Abstract:
We study the mesoscopic Kondo box, consisting of a quantum spin 1/2 interacting with a chaotic electronic bath as can be realized by a magnetic impurity coupled to electrons on a quantum dot, using a mean-field approach for the Kondo interaction. Its umerical efficiency allows us to analyze the Kondo temperature, the local magnetic susceptibility, and the conductance statistics for a large number of samples with energy levels obtained by random matrix theory. We see pronounced parity effects in the average values and in the probability distributions, depending on an even and odd electronic occupation of the quantum dot, respectively. These parity effects are directly accessible in experiments.

Abstract:
We have developed a 3D version for the Modulated Spin Liquid in a body-centered tetragonal lattice structure to describe the hidden order observed in URu$_2$Si$_2$ at $T_0\approx17.5$ K. This second order transition is well described by our model confirming our earlier hypothesis. The symmetry of the modulation is minimized for ${\bf Q}\equiv(1,1,1)$. We assume a linear variation of the interaction parameters with the lattice spacing and our results show good agreement with uniaxial and pressure experiments.

Abstract:
We study mesoscopic fluctuations in a system in which there is a continuous connection between two distinct Fermi liquids, asking whether the mesoscopic variation in the two limits is correlated. The particular system studied is an Anderson impurity coupled to a finite mesoscopic reservoir described by random matrix theory, a structure which can be realized using quantum dots. We use the slave boson mean field approach to connect the levels of the uncoupled system to those of the strong coupling Nozi\`eres Fermi liquid. We find strong but not complete correlation between the mesoscopic properties in the two limits and several universal features.

Abstract:
Both the weakly coupled and strong coupling Anderson impurity problems are characterized by a Fermi-liquid theory with weakly interacting quasiparticles. In an Anderson box, mesoscopic fluctuations of the effective single particle properties will be large. We study how the statistical fluctuations at low temperature in these two problems are connected, using random matrix theory and the slave boson mean field approximation (SBMFA). First, for a resonant level model such as results from the SBMFA, we find the joint distribution of energy levels with and without the resonant level present. Second, if only energy levels within the Kondo resonance are considered, the distributions of perturbed levels collapse to universal forms for both orthogonal and unitary ensembles for all values of the coupling. These universal curves are described well by a simple Wigner-surmise type toy model. Third, we study the fluctuations of the mean field parameters in the SBMFA, finding that they are small. Finally, the change in the intensity of an eigenfunction at an arbitrary point is studied, such as is relevant in conductance measurements: we find that the introduction of the strongly-coupled impurity considerably changes the wave function but that a substantial correlation remains.

Abstract:
The quantum Heisenberg model is studied in the geometrically frustrated body-centered tetragonal lattice(BCT lattice) with antiferromagnetic interlayer coupling J1 and intralayer first and second neighbor coupling J2 and J3. We introduce a variational method: each interaction term can be decoupled partially in the purely magnetic Weiss and in the spin-liquid (SL) mean-field channels. We find that the most stable variational solutions correspond to the three different possible long range magnetic orders that are respectively governed by J1, J2, and J3. We characterize three different purely SL non-magnetic solutions that are variationally the second most stable states after the purely magnetic ones. This suggests that quantum fluctuations induced by the frustration between J1-J2-J3 coupling should destroy magnetic orders and stabilize the formation of SL in large areas of parameters. The SL solution governed by J1 breaks the lattice translation symmetry. This Modulated SL is associated to a commensurate ordering wave vector (1,1,1). We discuss the relevance of our results for heavy fermion Uru2Si2 and cuprate superconductors that have a BCT lattice structure. Also, the general variational method introduced here can be applied to any other system where interaction terms can be decoupled in two different mean-field channels.

Abstract:
We consider the low temperature regime of the mesoscopic Kondo problem, and in particular the relevance of a Fermi-liquid description of this regime. Using two complementary approaches -- a mean field slave fermion approximation on the one hand and a Fermi-liquid description "\`a la Nozi\`eres" supplemented by an argument of separation of scale on the other hand -- we show that they both lead to (essentially) the same quasi-particle spectra, providing in this way a strong indication that they both give the correct physics of this regime.

Abstract:
The interplay between the Kondo effect and disorder is studied. This is done by applying a matrix coherent potential approximation (CPA) and treating the Kondo interaction on a mean-field level. The resulting equations are shown to agree with those derived by the dynamical mean-field method (DMFT). By applying the formalism to a Bethe tree structure with infinite coordination the effect of diagonal and off-diagonal disorder are studied. Special attention is paid to the behavior of the Kondo- and the Fermi liquid temperature as function of disorder and concentration of the Kondo ions. The non monotonous dependence of these quantities is discussed.