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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325545 matches for " Sánchez "
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Calculation of the Gravitational Constant G Using Electromagnetic Parameters  [PDF]
Jesús Sánchez
Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology (JHEPGC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jhepgc.2017.31012
Abstract: In this paper, we will derive the following formula for the value of the gravitational constant G: \"\" (1). This equation has only 0.81% error compared to the common accepted value \"\" [1]. The parameters in the equation are the following: \"\" the fine structure constant, q the elementary charge, \"\" the mass of the electron, \"\" the permittivity of the free space, e the exponential function and \"\" the relation between a circumference and its diameter. Values attached: \"\" [2], \"\"</span
Calculation of the Fine-Structure Constant  [PDF]
Jesús Sánchez
Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology (JHEPGC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jhepgc.2018.43029
Abstract: The fine-structure constant α [1] is a constant in physics that plays a fundamental role in the electromagnetic interaction. It is a dimensionless constant, defined as: \"\" (1) being q the elementary charge, ε0 the vacuum permittivity, h the Planck constant and c the speed of light in vacuum. The value shown in (1) is according CODATA 2014 [2]. In this paper, it will be explained that the fine-structure constant is one of the roots of the following equation: \"\" (2) being e the mathematical constant e (the base of the natural logarithm). One of the solutions of this equation is: \"\" (3) This means that it is equal to the CODATA value in nine decimal digits (or the seven most significant ones if you prefer). And therefore, the difference between both values is: \"\" (4) This coincidence is higher in orders of magnitude than the commonly accepted necessary to validate a theory towards experimentation. As the cosine function is periodical, the Equation (2) has infinite roots and could seem the coincidence is just by chance. But as it will be shown in the paper, the separation among the different solutions is sufficiently high to disregard this possibility. It will also be shown that another elegant way to show Equation (2) is the following (being i the imaginary unit): \"\" (5) having of course the same root (3). The possible meaning of this other representation (5) will be explained.
How to Check If a Number Is Prime Using a Finite Definite Integral  [PDF]
Jesús Sánchez
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2019.72028
Abstract: In the history of mathematics different methods have been used to detect if a number is prime or not. In this paper a new one will be shown. It will be demonstrated that if the following equation is zero for a certain number p, this number p would be prime. And being m an integer number higher than (the lowest, the most efficient the operation). \"\" . If the result is an integer, this result will tell us how many permutations of two divisors, the input number has. As you can check, no recurrent division by odd or prime numbers is done, to check if the number is prime or has divisors. To get to this point, we will do the following. First, we will create a domain with all the composite numbers. This is easy, as you can just multiply one by one all the integers (greater or equal than 2) in that domain. So, you will get all the composite numbers (not getting any prime) in that domain. Then, we will use the Fourier transform to change from this original domain (called discrete time domain in this regards) to the frequency domain. There, we can check, using Parseval’s theorem, if a certain number is there or not. The use of Parseval’s theorem leads to the above integral. If the number p that we want to check is not in the domain, the result of the integral is zero and the number is a prime. If instead, the result is an integer, this integer will tell us how many permutations of two divisors the number p has. And, in consequence information how many factors, the number p has. So, for any number p lower than 2m?- 1, you can check if it is prime or not, just making the numerical definite integration. We will apply this integral in a computer program to check the efficiency of the operation. We will check, if no further developments are done, the numerical integration is inefficient computing-wise compared with brute-force checking. To be added, is the question regarding the level of accuracy needed (number of decimals and number of steps in the numerical integration) to have a reliable result for large numbers. This will be commented on the paper, but a separate study will be needed to have detailed conclusions. Of course,
Income Distribution and Growth in Leontief’s Closed Model  [PDF]
Alberto Benítez Sánchez
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.61002
Abstract: While the routine use of Leontief’s closed model is limited to the case in which the whole income of an economy goes to wages, this paper shows that the model also permits the representation of production programs corresponding to every level of income distribution between wages and profits. In addition, for each of these programs, the model allows calculating the price system and the profit rate when this rate is the same in all industries. Thus, the results obtained in Sraffa’s surplus economy are established following an alternative way, this makes it possible to build a particular standard system for each level of income distribution between wages and profits. Besides, the fact that the model includes the set of households as a particular industrial branch permits to build a balanced-growth path of the economy in which the quantities of work used in each industry as well as the goods consumed by the workers are studied explicitly, unlike what happens in von Neumann’s model. The paper also shows that, under a weak assumption, the balanced-growth rate is independent of the worker’s choice.
Piketty’s Inequality between the Profit and Growth Rates and Its Implications for the Reproduction of Economic Elites  [PDF]
Alberto Benítez Sánchez
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.66125
This paper studies, within a growth model, some effects of the inequality between the profit and growth rates on the reproduction of economic elites. To this end, it considers as functions of the capital/income ratio the relations between, on the one hand, the economic growth rate and, on the other hand, the growth rates of capital and of national income. Based on this, it shows that when the income of a particular socio-economic stratum increases with respect to the national income, the lower limit for the growth rate of the first income depends almost exclusively on the variations of the capital/income ratio and of the average productivity of labor, while the employment growth rate plays a secondary role. Moreover, the paper distinguishes between three categories of renter and establishes sufficient conditions for the reproduction of each one of them. It points out that the third category, which comprises those renter dynasties whose share in the national capital stock increases with each generation, constitutes a quasi-feudal development within capitalist societies.
Piketty’s r > g Explained by Changes in the Average Productivity of Capital  [PDF]
Alberto Benítez Sánchez
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.65102
Abstract: This article studies the ratio of the rates of profit and growth, in a growing economy, as a function of the average productivity of capital. It is shown that, if the savings rate and also the distribution of income between wage and profit are constant, the ratio mentioned remains constant or increases if the average productivity of capital respectively does not change or changes at a steady rate, whether it increases or decreases. If the change is repeated throughout a sufficiently large number of production cycles, the first rate grows above the second, even if in the initial situation the second rate is higher than the first. The result is the same if the savings rate and the rate of change of the average productivity of capital fluctuate within certain limits over a sufficiently large number of production cycles. In each case, the number of cycles required depends on the initial situation and the magnitude of the changes in both variables. These conclusions are compatible with the relevant historical data for economic variables involved. For this reason, they help to explain why, as a general rule, in a modern economy the rate of profit is higher than the growth rate.
Erratum to “Piketty’s Inequality between the Profit and Growth Rates and Its Implications for the Reproduction of Economic Elites” [Theoretical Economic Letters, 6, (2016) 1363-1392]  [PDF]
Alberto Benítez Sánchez
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.76121
Abstract: In Benítez Sánchez, A., Piketty’s Inequality between the Profit and Growth Rates and Its Implications for the Reproduction of Economic Elites. Theoretical Economic Letters 6, 1363-1392. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/tel.2016.66125 each one of Examples 1, 2 and 7 contains a different error. This addendum points out the errors and presents the corrected versions of the examples.
The Origin of Piketty’s Inequality r > g Considered in a General Framework  [PDF]
Alberto Benítez Sánchez
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.810115
Abstract: This paper studies the origin of Piketty’s inequality between the profit rate (r) and the growth rate of the national income (g) by focusing on the growth rate (γ) of the r / g ratio in an economy that grows gradually along a succession of production cycles. It is shown that, given a succession of three production cycles, the value of γ in the last cycle is determined by the equation 1+γ=(1+v)(1+k) where v is the growth rate of the profit share (α) in the last cycle while κ is a function of three variables: the income/capital ratio of the last cycle, the values of the savings rate in the first two cycles and those of the growth rate of the income/capital ratio in the last two. The equation just presented is also relevant for a succession of more than three production cycles for which the yearly values of r, g and α are known. Indeed, in this case it is possible to calculate the average values of γ and v from the empirical data, which then can be used in the equation to determine the average value of κ. Once the three variables are known,
La vacuna contra la hepatitis B, un reto al cáncer hepático
Sánchez Sánchez,Mercedes;
Vaccimonitor , 2000,
Abstract: in geographical regions where the hepatitis b virus (hbv) has high prevalence, liver cancer is the most common neoplasm. infection control is becoming more complex because of the considerable amount of asymptomatic carriers that exist in the world now. nevertheless, with the discovery and production of a vaccine against hepatitis b virus and its subsequent inclusion in the expanded program for immunization, this situation could change, by reducing the number of new cases and carriers in the future. this should in consequence reduce the mortality by virus-caused liver carcinoma.
La demografía de Albacete en los a os noventa. Persistencia de los procesos de despoblamiento en las áreas rurales
José Sánchez Sánchez
Papeles de Geografía , 2003,
Abstract: El freno a la gran emigración desde principios de los a os ochenta, la política comunitaria de apoyo al medio rural y el aumento de la inmigración en Espa a han sido factores que, en principio, parecían poder influir en la recuperación económica y demográfica de las áreas rurales en crisis. Aunque así ocurrió en algunas de ellas, no ha sucedido lo mismo en las extensas áreas rurales de la Espa a interior que han continuado el proceso de regresión demográfica iniciado en los a os cincuenta. Este trabajo analiza la evolución de la población en los municipios de la provincia de Albacete en los a os noventa. El estudio concluye poniendo de manifiesto la persistencia de los procesos de despoblamiento en la mayor parte del espacio rural albacete o, en fuerte contraste con la polarización del crecimiento en unos pocos núcleos urbanos.
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