Abstract:
In this paper, we will derive the following formula for the value of the gravitational constant G: (1). This equation has only 0.81% error compared to the common accepted value [1]. The parameters in the equation are the following: the fine structure constant, qthe elementary charge, the mass of the electron, the permittivity of the free space, ethe exponential function and the relation between a circumference and its diameter. Values attached:[2],

Abstract:
The fine-structure constant α [1] is a constant in physics that plays a fundamental role in the electromagnetic interaction. It is a dimensionless constant, defined as: (1)
being q the elementary charge, ε0 the vacuum permittivity, h the Planck constant and c the speed of light in vacuum. The value shown in (1) is according CODATA 2014 [2].
In this paper, it will be explained that the fine-structure constant is one of the roots of the following equation: (2)
being e the mathematical constant e (the base of the natural logarithm). One of the solutions of this equation is: (3)
This means that it is equal to the CODATA value in nine decimal digits (or the seven most significant ones if you prefer). And therefore, the difference between both values is: (4)
This coincidence is higher in orders of magnitude than the commonly accepted necessary to validate a theory towards experimentation.
As the cosine function is periodical, the Equation (2) has infinite roots and could seem the coincidence is just by chance. But as it will be shown in the paper, the separation among the different solutions is sufficiently high to disregard this possibility.
It will also be shown that another elegant way to show Equation (2) is the following (being i the imaginary unit): (5)
having of course the same root (3). The possible meaning of this other representation (5) will be explained.

Abstract:
In the history of mathematics
different methods have been used to detect if a number is prime or not. In this
paper a new one will be shown. It will be demonstrated that if the following
equation is zero for a certain number p,
this number p would be prime. And
being m an integer number higher than (the lowest, the most efficient the operation). . If the result is an integer, this result will tell
us how many permutations of two divisors, the input number has. As you can
check, no recurrent division by odd or prime numbers is done, to check if the
number is prime or has divisors. To get to this point, we will do the
following. First, we will create a domain with all the composite numbers. This
is easy, as you can just multiply one by one all the integers (greater or equal
than 2) in that domain. So, you will get all the composite numbers (not getting
any prime) in that domain. Then, we will use the Fourier transform to change
from this original domain (called discrete time domain in this regards) to the
frequency domain. There, we can check, using Parseval’s theorem, if a certain
number is there or not. The use of Parseval’s theorem leads to the above
integral. If the number p that we
want to check is not in the domain, the result of the integral is zero and the
number is a prime. If instead, the result is an integer, this integer will tell
us how many permutations of two divisors the number p has. And, in consequence information how many factors, the number p has. So, for any number p lower than 2m？- 1, you can check if it is prime or not, just making the
numerical definite integration. We will apply this integral in a computer
program to check the efficiency of the operation. We will check, if no further
developments are done, the numerical integration is inefficient computing-wise
compared with brute-force checking. To be added, is the question regarding the
level of accuracy needed (number of decimals and number of steps in the
numerical integration) to have a reliable result for large numbers. This will
be commented on the paper, but a separate study will be needed to have detailed
conclusions. Of course,

Abstract:
While the routine use of Leontief’s closed model is limited to the case
in which the whole income of an economy goes to wages, this paper shows that
the model also permits the representation of production programs corresponding
to every level of income distribution between wages and profits. In addition,
for each of these programs, the model allows calculating the price system and
the profit rate when this rate is the same in all industries. Thus, the results
obtained in Sraffa’s surplus economy are established following an alternative
way, this makes it possible to build a particular standard system for each
level of income distribution between wages and profits. Besides, the fact that
the model includes the set of households as a particular industrial branch permits
to build a balanced-growth path of the economy in which the quantities of work
used in each industry as well as the goods consumed by the workers are studied
explicitly, unlike what happens in von Neumann’s model. The paper also shows
that, under a weak assumption, the balanced-growth rate is independent of the
worker’s choice.

This paper studies, within a growth model, some effects of the inequality between the profit and growth rates on the reproduction of economic elites. To this end, it considers as functions of the capital/income ratio the relations between, on the one hand, the economic growth rate and, on the other hand, the growth rates of capital and of national income. Based on this, it shows that when the income of a particular socio-economic stratum increases with respect to the national income, the lower limit for the growth rate of the first income depends almost exclusively on the variations of the capital/income ratio and of the average productivity of labor, while the employment growth rate plays a secondary role. Moreover, the paper distinguishes between three categories of renter and establishes sufficient conditions for the reproduction of each one of them. It points out that the third category, which comprises those renter dynasties whose share in the national capital stock increases with each generation, constitutes a quasi-feudal development within capitalist societies.

Abstract:
This article studies the ratio of the rates of
profit and growth, in a growing economy, as a function of the average
productivity of capital. It is shown that, if the savings rate andalso the distribution of
income between wage and profit are constant, the ratio mentioned remains
constant or increases if the average productivity of capital respectively does
not change or changes at a steady rate, whether it increases or decreases. If
the change is repeated throughout a sufficiently large number of production
cycles, the first rate grows above the second, even if in the initial situation
the second rate is higher than the first. The result is the same if the savings
rate and the rate of change of the average productivity of capital fluctuate
within certain limits over a sufficiently large number of production cycles. In
each case, the number of cycles required depends on the initial situation and
the magnitude of the changes in both variables. These conclusions are
compatible with the relevant historical data for economic variables involved.
For this reason, they help to explain why, as a general rule, in a modern
economy the rate of profit is higher than thegrowth rate.

Abstract:
In Benítez Sánchez, A., Piketty’s Inequality between the Profit and Growth Rates and Its Implications
for the Reproduction of Economic Elites. Theoretical
Economic Letters6, 1363-1392. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/tel.2016.66125 each one of Examples 1, 2 and 7 contains a different error. This
addendum points out the errors and presents the corrected versions of the
examples.

Abstract:
This paper studies the origin of Piketty’s
inequality between the profit rate (r)
and the growth rate of the national income (g)
by focusing on the growth rate (γ) of
the r / g ratio in an economy that
grows gradually along a succession of production cycles. It is shown that,
given a succession of three production cycles, the value of γ in the last cycle is determined by the
equation 1+γ=(1+v)(1+k) where v is the
growth rate of the profit share (α) in the last cycle while κ is a function of three variables: the
income/capital ratio of the last cycle, the values of the savings rate in the
first two cycles and those of the growth rate of the income/capital ratio in
the last two. The equation just presented is also relevant for a succession of
more than three production cycles for which the yearly values of r, g and α are known. Indeed, in this case it is possible to
calculate the average values of γ and v from the empirical data, which then can be used in the equation to
determine the average value of κ.
Once the three variables are known,

Abstract:
in geographical regions where the hepatitis b virus (hbv) has high prevalence, liver cancer is the most common neoplasm. infection control is becoming more complex because of the considerable amount of asymptomatic carriers that exist in the world now. nevertheless, with the discovery and production of a vaccine against hepatitis b virus and its subsequent inclusion in the expanded program for immunization, this situation could change, by reducing the number of new cases and carriers in the future. this should in consequence reduce the mortality by virus-caused liver carcinoma.

Abstract:
El freno a la gran emigración desde principios de los a os ochenta, la política comunitaria de apoyo al medio rural y el aumento de la inmigración en Espa a han sido factores que, en principio, parecían poder influir en la recuperación económica y demográfica de las áreas rurales en crisis. Aunque así ocurrió en algunas de ellas, no ha sucedido lo mismo en las extensas áreas rurales de la Espa a interior que han continuado el proceso de regresión demográfica iniciado en los a os cincuenta. Este trabajo analiza la evolución de la población en los municipios de la provincia de Albacete en los a os noventa. El estudio concluye poniendo de manifiesto la persistencia de los procesos de despoblamiento en la mayor parte del espacio rural albacete o, en fuerte contraste con la polarización del crecimiento en unos pocos núcleos urbanos.