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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 324960 matches for " S Teferi "
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Collective radiation dose from diagnostic x-ray examination in nine public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
D Admassie, S Teferi, K Hailegenaw
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Medical x-ray exposures have the largest man made source of population exposure to ionizing radiation in different countries. Recent developments in medical imaging have led to rapid increases in a number of high dose xray examinations performed with significant consequences for individual patient doses and for collective dose to the population as a whole. It is therefore important in each country to make regular assessments of the magnitude of these large doses. Objectives: To calculate collective dose of the population as a result of radiation dose from diagnostic x-rays, thereby to estimate the annual incidence of cancer which would be reduced by the use of rare earth intensifying screen. Methods: Data on the number of diagnostic procedures using x-ray examination in year 2007 in nine governmental hospitals, excluding military hospitals, by body site were collected in Addis Ababa. The number of examinations of specific body site was multiplied by the average effective dose per examination to get the collective dose over the population. Based on International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) the fatality risk of fatal cancers (5% per Sv) was estimated. Results: In this study, the annual collective dose over the population is 31.21manSv (0.0.42mSv per person). Based on ICRP fatality risk of 500 fatal cancers per 10,000 man-sieverts (5% per Sv), estimation of incidence of fatal cancers cases in year 2007 was 2 cases half of which can be reduced by adoption of rare earth screens. Conclusion: Although the use of ionizing radiation for diagnostic medical procedures is an acceptable part of modern medicine, there is also the potential for inappropriate use and unnecessary radiation dose to the patient, so the request of radiography must be justified. It is estimated that the adoption of rare earth screen technology might reduce the annual incidence of cancer which would be fatal after an average latency period of 18.4 years by half, hence this research recommended adopting rare earth screen technology in Ethiopia. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2010;24(2):140-144]
X-ray reject analysis in Tikur Anbessa and Bethzatha hospitals
D Zewdeneh, S Teferi, D Admassie
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2008,
Abstract:
Determinants of alcohol drinking and its association with sexual practices among high school students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Cross sectional study  [PDF]
Dawit Teshome, Teferi Gedif
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.36057
Abstract: Introduction: Alcohol drinking and risky sexual practices have become serious public health problem among teenagers and young adults globally, including many developing countries. The available reports are sparse, especially there is a lack of recent and representative data for high school students in developing countries including Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, identify determinants, and examine the association of alcohol drinking with sexual practices among high school students in Addis Ababa, capital city of Ethiopia. Methods: School based cross sectional study was conducted from November to December 2010. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between students’ background characteristics and alcohol use, and alcohol use and sexual practices. Results: Among 2551 students surveyed, lifetime and current (past month) alcohol drinking was reported by 1166 (45.7%) and 676 (26.5%) students, respectively. Having sexual intercourse at least once in their lifetime was reported by 412 (16.2%) with151 (5.9%) of them being sexually active during a month prior to the survey. Having multiple sexual partners (52.5%), drinking alcohol before sexual intercourse (26.4%), and having sexual intercourse without the use of condom (47.3%) were also common among sexually active students. In adjusted logistic regression model, age (18 and 19 and older), living with 2 parents, getting pocket money, having alcohol drinking friends and attending general secondary school (grade 9-10) were positive predictors of current alcohol drinking. Nergative predictors of current alcohol drinking were being Protestant Christian and living with relatives or siblings. Conclusion: Alcohol drinking before sexual intercourse was a major problem among high school students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Male gender, older age and higher school grade, friends influence, religious affiliation, living with parents and getting pocket money were significant predictors of current alcohol drinking. Educating about substance use and risky sexual behaviors, engaging students in extracurricular activities and restrict access to alcohol to high school students may help in solution of these problems on a local scale.
Knowledge on breast cancer and its prevention among women household heads in Northern Ethiopia  [PDF]
Befikadu Legesse, Teferi Gedif
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.41006
Abstract:

Background: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the malignant diseases taking the lion’s share role in the devastating effects caused by cancer. BC related awareness and practice of females are known to have crucial contribution in the prevention and control efforts. The worst aspects of the disease in Ethiopia include absence of research and thus very limited information on any aspect. The study assessed knowledge and practice on BC among women household heads. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 845 women. The sample size was divided among five randomly selected kebeles (smallest government administrative units) proportional to the number of households. Samples were selected by systematic sampling technique. Data were collected by trained data collectors through a face-to-face interview using pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire from female household heads. Pearson chi-square and logistic regression tests were used to assess the determinants of BC knowledge and breast cancer self examination (BSE) practice. Results: The respondents’ age ranged from 20 to 75 years with a mean age of 33.66 ± 10.8. Onefifth (19.8%) of the respondents were illiterate, while 257 (31.8%) had primary education. Majority of the

X-ray film reject rate analysis at eight selected government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2010
S Teferi, D Zewdneh, D Admassie, B Nigatu, K Kebeta
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Improper practices in radiography that lead to possible repeating of procedures predispose patients for additional cost, more waiting time, and excess dose of ionizing radiation, leading to various dose dependent and dose independent health problems including cancer. In the face of such problems and the scarcity of resources, improving the quality and efficiency of radiology services is imperative. Objective: The purpose of this research was to identify the main causes of film faults as well as the pattern and magnitude of film rejection. Methods: Using a prospective cross-sectional hospital based approach; eight public hospitals were selected in Addis Ababa through convenience sampling. Adult and pediatrics radiographs with film faults were reviewed using a standardized checklist of common causes of reject. The collected data were then entered into a database for analysis using descriptive statistics. Results: Reject rate was calculated in eight governmental hospitals across all plain film examinations. The overall reject rate was 374 (3.1 %) in 12,165 x-ray exposures. Total reject rate by hospital showed 10.5% for Zewditu and 1.53% and 1.87% for Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH) and the Police Hospital, respectively. Conclusions: Rejected films were found to have been caused by numerous factors including poor technical judgment, patient motion, and poor supervision of staff. Hence, strategies need to be developed within medical imaging departments to improve the situation. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2012;26(1):54-59]
The use of remote sensing to quantify wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range, Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia
E. Teferi, S. Uhlenbrook, W. Bewket, J. Wenninger,B. Simane
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2010,
Abstract: Wetlands provide multiple ecosystem services such as storing and regulating water flows and water quality, providing unique habitats to flora and fauna, and regulating micro-climatic conditions. Conversion of wetlands for agricultural use is a widespread practice in Ethiopia, particularly in the southwestern part where wetlands cover large areas. Although there are many studies on land cover and land use changes in this region, comprehensive studies on wetlands are still missing. Hence, extent and rate of wetland loss at regional scales is unknown. The objective of this paper is to quantify wetland dynamics and estimate wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range (area covering 17 443 km2) in the Upper Blue Nile basin, a key headwater region of the river Nile. Therefore, satellite remote sensing imagery of the period 1986–2005 were considered. To create images of surface reflectance that are radiometrically consistent, a combination of cross-calibration and atmospheric correction (Vogelman-DOS3) methods was used. A hybrid supervised/unsupervised classification approach was used to classify the images. Overall accuracies of 94.1% and 93.5% and Kappa Coefficients of 0.908 and 0.913 for the 1986 and 2005 imageries, respectively were obtained. The results showed that 607 km2 of seasonal wetland with low moisture and 22.4 km2 of open water are lost in the study area during the period 1986 to 2005. The current situation in the wetlands of Choke Mountain is characterized by further degradation which calls for wetland conservation and rehabilitation efforts through incorporating wetlands into watershed management plans.
The use of remote sensing to quantify wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range, Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia
E. Teferi,S. Uhlenbrook,W. Bewket,J. Wenninger
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/hessd-7-6243-2010
Abstract: Wetlands provide multiple ecosystem services such as storing and regulating water flows and water quality, providing unique habitats to flora and fauna, and regulating micro-climatic conditions. Conversion of wetlands for agricultural use is a widespread practice in Ethiopia, particularly in the southwestern part where wetlands cover large areas. Although there are many studies on land cover and land use changes in this region, comprehensive studies on wetlands are still missing. Hence, extent and rate of wetland loss at regional scale is unknown. The objective of this paper is to quantify wetland dynamics and estimate wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range (area covering 17 443 km2) in the Upper Blue Nile basin, a key headwater region of the river Nile. Therefore, satellite remote sensing images of the period 1986–2005 were considered. To create images of surface reflectance that are radiometrically consistent, a combination of cross-calibration and atmospheric correction (Vogelman-DOS3) methods was used. A hybrid supervised/unsupervised classification approach was used to classify the images. Overall accuracies of 94.1% and 93.5% and Kappa Coefficients of 0.908 and 0.913 for the 1986 and 2005 imageries, respectively were obtained. The results showed that 607 km2 of seasonal wetland with low moisture and 22.4 km2 of open water are lost in the study area during the period 1986 to 2005. The current situation in the wetlands of Choke Mountain is characterized by further degradation which calls for wetland conservation and rehabilitation efforts through incorporating wetlands into watershed management plans.
Treatment outcome of children with severe acute malnutrition admitted to therapeutic feeding centers in Southern Region of Ethiopia
E Teferi, M Lera, S Sita, Z Bogale, DG Datiko, MA Yassin
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Inadequate intake of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and minerals is one of the causes for malnutrition. It often affects young children and contributes to more than 60% of deaths in children in developing countries. One in four of malnourished children receiving traditional treatment die during or soon after treatment. The study aimed to assess the treatment outcome of children treated in therapeutic feeding centers (TFC) in southern Ethiopia. Methods: A retrospective review of reports submitted by the TFCs was done during 2003-2004. Data was collected from the monthly reports using standardized formats. The variables included age, treatment centers, type of malnutrition and treatment outcome which were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Of 11,335 cases of malnutrition, 47% (5447) had severe wasting and 53% (6103) had edematous malnutrition. Of the total, 87% (11,191) were cured while 3.6% (468) had died. The average length of stay was 25 and 21 days with an average weight gain of 14 and 13.4 g/kg/d for children with severe wasting and edematous malnutrition, respectively. With increasing age, the death rate decrease and cure rate increased (p < 0.05 for both). Discussion: Our results show that the new management approach implemented in the TFC improved the treatment outcome of malnourished children compared to the minimum international standard set for management of severe acute malnutrition which is cure rate of at least 75% and death rate less than 10%, average length of stay of less than 30 days and average weight gain of 8g/kg/day.
Participatory Technology and Constraints Assessment to Improve the Livelihood of Beekeepers in Tigray Region, northern Ethiopia
G Yirga, M Teferi
Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science , 2010,
Abstract: Beekeeping is a long-standing practice in the rural communities of Ethiopia and appears as ancient history of the country. A three–part assessment and diagnostic study (Livelihood systems assessment, integrated honeybee management needs assessment and diagnostic survey) was undertaken from 2006-2008 in Tigray, Ethiopia to identify market and technological constraints facing the honey sub sector and asses bee pests and the control measures taken. Information was gathered through PRA, interview with key informants and integrated honeybee management diagnostic survey in the rural areas. The assessment and diagnostic activities were undertaken in six zones (Western, North western, Central, Eastern, Southern and Southeastern zones of the region). One hundred nineteen beekeepers were randomly selected. Information on the adoption of new technology, availability of honeybee pests, average annual harvest of honey, honeybee pest controlling measures, market and technological constraints etc. were sought from the beekeepers. Honey yield was markedly different for the traditional and modern hives. On average, it was about 8-15 kg/hive and 20-30 kg/hive from the traditional and modern hives respectively. Lack of adequate bee forages, poor market, lack of trained development agents, inadequate government support, bee pests and inadequate training are mainly the problems facing the honey sub sector in the region. There are different kinds of bee pests and predators. Honey is harvested twice a year. From this study it was realized that almost all beekeeping practices are traditional except little intervention with improved beekeeping practices.
Drug Utilization at Household Level in Nekemte Town and Surrounding Rural Areas, Western Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study  [PDF]
Edao Sado,Teferi Gedif
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1100651
Abstract: Background: At household levels drug may be hoarded and re-utilized inappropriately, shared within families and/or outside family and unnecessarily utilized in self-medication. Therefore this study was conducted to assess drug utilization at household level in Nekemte town and surrounding rural areas western Ethiopia. Methods: It was conducted on 844 households’ head through in-terviewing where households were stratified into urban and rural; a household was selected by using systematic random and cluster sampling in the town and rural areas respectively. Results: It was found that prevalence of drug hoarding was 49.9% where urban areas were 1.4 times more likely to hoard drug than rural areas (Adjusted OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.02 - 1.8) and it was also found that drug hoarding was associated with level of households’ education where household heads who had level of education higher than or equal primary were 1.5 times more likely to hoard drug (Adjusted OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.04 - 2.3). The prevalence of drug sharing was found to be 24.9% where urban areas were 0.4 times less likely to share drugs than surrounding rural areas (Crude OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.3 - 0.6). Nineteen point five percent of illness episodes were reported from total surveyed households where 36.3% of them were self-medicated with modern medicines. Self-medication with modern drugs was significantly associated with age older than fifteen years old (Crude OR = 0.37; %CI = 0.2, 0.83). Conclusions: Drug hoarding, sharing and self-medication with modern drugs particularly antibiotics are commonly practiced in the community, so they should be avoided through educating general public on drug use so as to minimize of risk of using expired drugs and accidental poisoning; under dose and inappropriate use; and combat antimicrobial resistance.
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