Abstract:
Background: Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy; however, mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis remain obscure.Endometrial carcinoma has been classified into two major categories: type I (related to estrogen or endometrioid adenocarcinoma)and type II (unrelated to estrogen).Estrogen is the main trigger for the abnormal proliferation in the endometrial epithelium but progesterone can inhibit this process. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in all types of endometrial hyperplasia in comparison to endometrioid adenocarcinoma of endometrium. Methods: Forty-seven specimens including 23 cases of histopathologically confirmed hyperplastic endometrium (12 simple hyperplasia, 5 complex hyperplasia without atypia, and 6 complex hyperplasia with atypia) and 24 cases of endometrial carcinoma were studied. Immunohistochemical staining of estrogen and progesterone receptors was performed in paraffin-embedded blocks and expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors were scored according to the proportion of positive staining cells. Results: Overexpression of progesterone receptors was seen in 18 (75%) out of 24 cases of endometrial carcinoma and 23 (100%) of all types of endometrial hyperplasia. The aforesaid differences were statistically significant (P=0.023). 70.8% of cases with endometrial carcinoma were 3+ for immunohistochemical staining of progesterone receptors as were 85.7% of the cases with endometrial hyperplasia; the difference being also statistically significant (P=0.02).Conclusion: Considering the increased proportion of progesterone receptor expression in all types of hyperplastic endometrium in comparison to endometrial carcinoma, hormonal therapy by progestinal agents is recommended as a treatment of choice.

Abstract:
Background: The aims of this study were to evaluate the trend and clinical utility of the autopsy in Bahrami Childrens Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Methods: In this retrospective descriptive-analytic survey during a six years course from 1998 to 2003, autopsies in the hospital were studied. The clinical and autopsy diagnoses were compared and categorized as follows: 1. Change (Clinical and Autopsy diagnoses discordant), 2. Add (Significant unexpected findings noted on the autopsy, although the clinical diagnosis was not altered), 3. Confirm (Clinical and Autopsy diagnoses concordant), 4. Autopsy inconclusive Findings: Eighty four autopsies were studied. Out of 350 neonatal deaths, autopsy was performed in 74 neonates (21%) and of 249 under 5 year deaths (except neonates) autopsy was performed in only 10 cases (4%). The autopsy rate declined during these years. In 61 cases (73%) the autopsy diagnoses confirmed the clinical diagnosis, in 10 cases (12%) it changed the clinical diagnoses, in 11 cases (13%) it significantly added to the clinical diagnoses and in 2 cases (2%) it was inconclusive. Conclusions: This study reveals a decline in neonatal and infant autopsy during a six year period. This study also demonstrates that neonatal and infant autopsy continues to provide clinically useful data in 25% of cases and remains a valuable tool in pediatric medicine.

Abstract:
Fine- needle (FNA) cytology of ovary is a simple method for evaluation of ovarian masses. But there is controversy about its reliability in differentiating between benign and malignant neoplasms. To evaluate the efficiacy of FNA cytology in the distinction between benign and malignant masses of ovary, we examined 55 fine needle aspirations from 55 women 14-74 years of age. The aspirations were performed on fresh resected ovarian masses, which were sent to the pathology department for intraoperative consultation. All smears wee papanicolaou- stained and studied in two stages. In the first stage the smears were studied without any clinical and gross pathologic information and in the second stage clinical and gross pathologic information was available. In the first stage the results were classified as benign, malignant and inconclusive. In the second stage there was no inconclusive case so the results were divided into benign and malignant. By comparing the cytologic results with histologic diagnoses (gold standard), the sensitivity and specifity of FNA cytology was determine in the two stages. In the first stage, 11 cases were considered inconclusive and the sensitivity and specifity of the method was 87.5% and 8.33%, respectively. In the second stage the sensitivity and specifity was 78.7% and 92.7% , respectively with no inconclusive case.We conclude that FNA cytology of ovary is a reliable method for distinction between benign and malignant ovarian masses.

Abstract:
We analyze in detail the description of type IIB theory on a Calabi-Yau three-fold near a conifold singularity in terms of intersecting D-branes. In particular we study the singularity structure of higher derivative $F$-terms of the form $F_g W^{2g}$ where $W$ is the gravitational superfield. This singularity is expected to be due to a one -loop contribution from a charged soliton hypermultiplet becoming massless at the conifold point. In the intersecting D-brane description this soliton is described by an open string stretched between the two D-branes. After identifying the graviphoton vertex as a closed string operator we show that $F_g$'s have the expected singularity structure in the limit of vanishing soliton mass.

Abstract:
We study Little String Theories (LST) with ${\cal N}=(1,0)$ supersymmetry arising, in a suitable double scaling limit, from 5-branes in heterotic string theory or in the heterotic-like type II/$(-)^{F_L}\times {\rm shift}$. The limit in question, previously studied in the type II case, is such that the resulting holographically dual pairs, i.e. bulk string theory and LST are at a finite effective coupling. In particular, the internal $(2,2)$ SCFT on the string theory side is non-singular and given by $SL(2)/U(1)\times SU(2)/U(1)$ coset. In the type II orbifold case, we determine the orbifold action on the internal SCFT and construct the boundary states describing the non-BPS massive states of a completely broken $SO$ gauge theory, in agreement with the dual picture of D5-branes in type II/$\Omega\times {\rm shift}$. We also describe a different orbifold action which gives rise to a $Sp$ gauge theory with $(1,1)$ supersymmetry. In both the heterotic SO(32) and $E_8\times E_8$ cases, we determine the gauge bundles which correspond to the above SCFT and break down the gauge groups to $SU(2)\times SO(28)$ and $E_7\times E_8$ respectively. The double scaling limit in this case involves taking small instanton together with small string coupling constant limit. We determine the spectrum of chiral gauge invariant operators with the corresponding global symmetry charges on the LST side and compare with the massless excitations on the string theory side, finding agreement for multiplicities and global charges.

Abstract:
We study bound states of D-p-branes and D-(p+2)-branes. By switching on a large magnetic field F on the (p+2) brane, the problem is shown to admit a perturbative analysis in an expansion in inverse powers of F. It is found that, to the leading order in 1/F, the quartic potential of the tachyonic state from the open string stretched between the p- and (p+2)-brane gives a vacuum energy which agrees with the prediction of the BPS mass formula for the bound state. We generalize the discussion to the case of m p-branes plus 1 (p+2)-brane with magnetic field. The T dual picture of this, namely several (p+2)-branes carrying some p-brane charges through magnetic flux is also discussed, where the perturbative treatment is available in the small F limit. We show that once again, in the same approximation, the tachyon condensates give rise to the correct BPS mass formula. The role of 't Hooft's toron configurations in the extension of the above results beyond the quartic approximation as well as the issue of the unbroken gauge symmetries are discussed. We comment on the connection between the present bound state problem and Kondo-like problems in the context of relevant boundary perturbations of boundary conformal field theories.

Abstract:
We study, using ADHM construction, instanton effects in an ${\CN}=2$ superconformal $Sp(N)$ gauge theory, arising as effective field theory on a system of $N$ D-3-branes near an orientifold 7-plane and 8 D-7-branes in type I' string theory. We work out the measure for the collective coordinates of multi-instantons in the gauge theory and compare with the measure for the collective coordinates of $(-1)$-branes in the presence of 3- and 7-branes in type I' theory. We analyse the large-N limit of the measure and find that it admits two classes of saddle points: In the first class the space of collective coordinates has the geometry of $AdS_5\times S^3$ which on the string theory side has the interpretation of the D-instantons being stuck on the 7-branes and therefore the resulting moduli space being $AdS_5\times S^3$, In the second class the geometry is $AdS_5\times S^5/Z_2$ and on the string theory side it means that the D-instantons are free to move in the 10-dimensional bulk. We discuss in detail a correlator of four O(8) flavour currents on the Yang-Mills side, which receives contributions from the first type of saddle points only, and show that it matches with the correlator obtained from $F^4$ coupling on the string theory side, which receives contribution from D-instantons, in perfect accord with the AdS/CFT correspondence. In particular we observe that the sectors with odd number of instantons give contribution to an O(8)-odd invariant coupling, thereby breaking O(8) down to SO(8) in type I' string theory. We finally discuss correlators related to $R^4$, which receive contributions from both saddle points.

Abstract:
"nBackground: Endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract. Different molecular alterations have been described in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma that, the most frequently altered gene is mutations of PTEN. Up to 50-83% of endometrioid carcinoma reveal altered PTEN characterized by loss of expression. In endometrial hyperplasia, which are precursors of endometrioid carcinoma, loss of PTEN expression is 30-63%."n"nMethods: Immunohistochemical staining was performed on 90 cases of endometrial curettage including: 30 proliferative endometrium, 30 hyperplastic endometrium and 30 endometroid carcinoma."n"nImmunohistochemical specimens were graded semiquatitatively by considering the percentage of staining with two cut-point 10% & 50% on the whole section for each specimen."n"nResults: loss of PTEN expression was observed 0%, 0%, 30% of 51.7% in proliferative, simple hyperplasia, complex hyperplasia and endometrioid carcinoma respectively with cut-point 10% and 0%, 5.3%, 30%, 52.2% in endometrioid carcinoma respectively with cut-point 50%. Also there was no difference in PTEN expression between atypical complex hyperplasia and endometrioid carcinoma but there was significant difference between simple hyperplasia and proliferative with endometrioid carcinoma & atypical complex hyperplasia."n"nConclusion: These results show loss of PTEN expression in endmetrioid carcinoma and no differences between endometrioid carcinoma and atypical complex hyperplasia. Therefore, assessment of PTEN expression by negative immunostaining and matched with routine hematoxylin and eosin stained can be a new tool for diagnosis of endometrioid carcinoma.

Abstract:
"n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Cancer of uterine cervix is the second cause of death in women in the world and the most common cause in developing countries. Because the majority of women with invasive cervical cancer of the uterine have not previously undergone screening, many clinicians assume that Pap smear has a high degree of accuracy; but problems such as false positive and false negative interpretations, as well as interobserver variability have questioned its validity."n"nMethods : We retrieved 162 positive cervical smears that had been originally interpreted as ASC-US, ASC-H, LSIL, HSIL, SCC, AGC and adenocarcinoma from the cytology archives of Women's Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The slides were rescreened by an experienced pathologist and reclassified in the mentioned categories. All the 162 slides were reviewed by three more pathologists in a blind study using interpretative criteria utilized in their daily routine to evaluate interobserver reproducibility. To increase the level of interobserver agreement, the diagnostic categories were reduced to squamous Vs. glandular abnormalities and invasive (SCC and adenocarcinoma) Vs. non-invasive abnormalities."n"nResults : The results obtained in this study indicated slight interobserver agreement (k=0.26). The most reproducible category was the invasive category (SCC in addition to adenocarcinoma) and the least agreement was seen for HSIL (k=0.19). "n"nConclusion: This study showed that reproducibility of cytological interpretation of conventional Pap smears varies among interpretive categories and the overall interobserver agreement is slight. Since convening on the reduction of interobserver discrepancy in Pap smear interpretations necessitates more reliable information of interpretative variability, larger studies need to be undertaken.

Abstract:
(Talk presented at the 1992 ICTP summer workshop in high energy physics and cosmology) The BRST cohomology ring for $(p,q)$ models coupled to gravity is discussed. In addition to the generators of the ghost number zero ring, the existence of a generator of ghost number $-1$ and its inverse is proven and used to construct the entire ring. Some comments are made regarding the algebra of the vector fields on the ring and the supersymmetric extension.