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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325255 matches for " S Phiri "
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Safe Motherhood Needs Assessment, Zambia, 1996
Jantine Jacobi, Dean S. Phiri, Rebbeca Kalwani
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 1999,
Abstract: As part of the development of a national reproductive health plan, Zambia's Ministry of Health carried out a safe motherhood needs assessment in 1996. The specific objectives of the assessment were to describe the availability, use and quality of maternal and newborn care, and to identify gaps in the provision of maternal care. Ninety-six health centres, eleven hospitals and nine district health management teams were surveyed. Clients and staff were interviewed at each of these sites using WHO's safe motherhood needs assessment methodology. While the 1992 Demographic Health Survey indicated that 96 per cent of pregnant women had at least one antenatal check-up and that only half delivered in a health facility, the assessment found substantial gaps in the availability and quality of care. The results provide information for development of the national safe motherhood policies and guidelines within a comprehensive reproductive health programme. (Afr J Reprod Health 1999; 3 [1]: 66 - 80) Key Words: Safe motherhood, Zambia, needs assessment
Root-Zone Soil Water Balance and Sunflower Yield under Deficit Irrigated in Zambia  [PDF]
Elijah Phiri, Simon Zimba
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2018.81005
Abstract: The study was conducted at the University of Zambia, Research Field Station, Lusaka, Zambia to evaluate the root zone soil water balance under full, and deficit irrigated sunflower. The specific objectives were: 1) to assess the sunflower growth and yield under varying irrigation water regimes; 2) to evaluate the root-zone water balance; and 3) to evaluate the water use efficiency of sunflower. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus, var Milika) was planted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four irrigated water regimes in four replications. The treatments comprised: treatment (T1) = 30% ETc; treatment (T2) = 54% ETc; treatment (T3) = 65% ETc; and treatment (T4) = 100% ETc. The sunflower crop was irrigated on a weekly irrigation schedule using sprinklers. The measured parameters included: weather data, soil moisture profiles, growth stages (emergence, flowering, maturity), above-ground biomass, and grain yield. The results of the study showed that growth parameter (biomass and seed yield) decreased with a decrease in applied irrigation water. The sunflower seed yield varied from 0.22 to 1.40-ton·ha-1 with an average yield of 0.81-ton·ha-1. The highest grain yield was obtained under treatment (T4), and the least grain in yield harvest was at treatment (T1). The statistical analysis showed significant differences in seed yield among the treatments. The treatments (T1 and T2) were not significantly different (p > 0.05). These results showed that when water deficit was set at 65% and 100% ETc and uniformly distributed throughout the sunflower growth, there were no significant differences in biomass, stover and seed yield. In literature, the allowable soil moisture depletion factor for irrigation scheduling of sunflower is set at 45%. The yield components decreased as irrigation levels decreased for each irrigation interval. The 65% ETc treatment could be recommended for sunflower irrigated in semi-arid regions and be used as a good basis for improved irrigation strategy development under water stressed environment.
Perceptions of registered nurses regarding factors influencing service delivery in expanding programmes in a primary healthcare setting
Nnoi. A. Xaba,Mmapheko D. Peu,Salaminah S. Phiri
Health SA Gesondheid , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of registered nurses regarding factors influencing service delivery regarding expansion programmes in a primary healthcare setting, using a qualitative approach. The registered nurses, who have been working in the clinics for more than two years and have been exposed to the expansion programmes there, were purposively sampled. Two focus group interviews were conducted in a neutral place and the data collected by the researcher Nnoi A. Xaba (N.A.X.). Data were analysed by the researcher and an independent co-coder using the Tesch method. Categories, subcategories and themes were identified; those that formed the basis of discussion were disabling factors, enabling factors, client-related factors, service-related factors and solutions to problems. It is recommended that integration of programmes and coordination be done at a provincial level and planned together with the training centres in order to alleviate problems in service delivery. Training on expansion programmes in the form of in-service education should be carried out continually in the region.Die doel van die studie was om die persepsie van geregistreerde verpleegkundiges met betrekking tot die faktore wat dienslewering van die uitbreidingsprogramme in ‘n primêre gesondheid opset beinvloed; te eksploreer en te beskryf. ‘n Kwalitatiewe benadering is gevolg in die iutvoering van die studie. ‘n Doelgerigte steekproef is uitgevoer vanuit geregistreerde verpleegkundiges wat vir langer as twee jaar in die klinieke werksaam was en blootgestel is aan die uitbreiding programme. Twee fokus groep onderhoude is deur die navorser Nnoi A. Xaba (N.A.X.) in ‘n neutrale opset uitgevoer. Data is deur die navorser en onafhanklike kodeerder ontleed volgens Tesch se metode van analise. Kategorie , sub-kategorie en temas was geidentifiseer. Die kategorie fundamenteel tot die bespreking behels: remmende faktore, bydraende faktore, kli nt-verwante faktore, diens-verwante faktore, en oplossing van probleme. Daar word aanbeveel dat die integrasie en koordinasie van programme op provisiale vlak beplan word in samewerking met opleidings instansies om die dienslewerings probleem te verlig. In die streek behoort opleiding met betrekking tot die uitbreidingsprogramme deurlopend deur middel van indiensopleiding gedoen word.
Incidence of lactic acidosis toxicity among patients on stavudine or zidovudine containing antiretroviral therapy at Lighthouse clinics
L Kachere,W Ng'ambi,S Phiri,H Tweya
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2012, DOI: 10.7448/ias.15.6.18315
Abstract: Although stavudine and zidovudine remain frequently used in low-income countries in Africa, they are associated with long-term toxicities. Lactic acidosis is one of the most serious toxicities in antiretroviral treatment (ART) and occurs predominantly in regimens containing stavudine (D4T) or zidovudine (AZT). We conducted this study to determine the incidence and risk factors for lactic acidosis among HIV-positive patients that have been on ART for at least 6 months. This study will bridge the gap that exists due to scarcity of data on the extent of toxicities due to long-term use of D4T and AZT. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using routine clinic data from the Lighthouse and Martin Preuss Centre electronic data systems. We used the clinic data collected between 1st January 2004 and 31st December 2011. We included into the analysis all patients that have been on D4T- or AZT-containing ARV drugs for at least 6 months. We analysed the data using Poisson regression of the number of cases of lactic acidosis (LA) on gender, age at ART initiation, baseline BMI, and lipodystrophy in order to determine the incidence and risk factors for lactic acidosis. All statistical analyses were done at 5% significance level. We identified 14,854 patients that have ever been on D4T- or AZT-containing ARV drugs for longer than 5 months. Of these, 43% were male and median age was 34 years. The total number of cases of confirmed LA was 342 with observed mortality rate 40% more than the patients without confirmed LA. There were 23.02 cases of LA for every 1000 patient-years on D4T- or AZT-containing ART regimens. The strongest risk factor identified for developing LA was having a baseline BMI >25 with incidence rate ratio (IRR) 3.11 (95% CI: 2.49, 3.88). The IRR for patients with a diagnosis of lipodystrophy was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.35, 2.32). Patients aged <30 years at ART initiation had 31% reduced risk of developing LA as compared to patients aged>39 years at ART initiation. We were unable to detect any increased risk associated with gender. Clinicians should always have significantly higher index of suspicion of LA in patients with established lipodystrophy, aged more than 30 years at ART initiation and patients with higher baseline BMIs. The number of cases of fatal lactic acidosis that did not present to the clinic is unknown but is likely to be significant.
A Model for Improving E-Tax Systems Adoption in Rural Zambia Based on the TAM Model  [PDF]
Patience Njina Soneka, Jackson Phiri
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2019.72062
Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the factors that influence the level of e-tax systems adoption in Zambia. The study focused on TaxOnline system used by domestic taxes division in Zambia. The study was conducted in rural Zambia. In this study, the researcher used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The sample size was purposively selected from various taxpayers who were coming through to Zambia Revenue Authority Solwezi internet bureau. 100 semi structured survey questionnaires were distributed with 100% response. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that, E-tax system in Zambia is useful, easy to use and also secure. Based on the findings, majority of the taxpayers are filing their returns and paying taxes online. However, there are few taxpayers who still feel E-tax is not useful, easy to use and secure. Therefore, more awareness and taxpayer education must continue to bring everyone on board. E-Tax involves E-Filing and E-Payment which is the process of submitting returns over the internet using an approved E-Tax system. Adoption is the action or fact of choosing to take up or follow something. Technology Acceptance Model is an information system theory that models how users come to accept and use a technology. TaxOnline is a system used in Zambia to file returns and pay taxes online.
Articles The prevalence, intensity and ecological determinants of helminth infection among children in an urban and rural community in Southern Malawi
KS Phiri
Malawi Medical Journal , 2001,
Abstract: Rapid urbanisation and poor town planning in Malawi has been associated with poor environmental hygiene and sanitation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence, intensity and some potential risk factors of intestinal helminth infections among children aged 3 - 14 years in an urban and rural community in Southern Malawi. A randomised cross-sectional survey was conducted in July, 1998. Data were collected through questionnaire interview regarding socio-demographic and environmental conditions from households in both areas. Stool samples were collected from 273 children in the urban community and 280 in the rural. There was a significant difference (p<0.001) in the prevalence of helminth infections between the urban and rural communities, 16.5% and 3.6% respectively. Most of the infections were light (93.2% for Ascaris lumbricodes, 85.7% for hookworm). Large variance to mean ratios of egg intensity within age groups and the total study population suggested a high degree of aggregation of the parasites in the communities. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that certain groups of children in the urban community were much more likely to develop helminth infection. They included children who had pools of water/sewage around houses (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.4 - 5), did not wear shoes (OR = 7.1, 95% CI = 2.7 - 19.2), did not attend school (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.2 - 6.5), had mothers who had 4 to 8 years of education (OR = 5.2, 95% CI = 2.0 - 14.0), had mothers below 35 years of age (OR = 4.09, 95% CI = 1.39 -16.28) and living in an urban community (OR = 5.3, 95% CI = 2.6-12.1). Efforts to reduce helminth infections should focus on reducing exposures. Malawi Medical Journal Vol 13, No.3 (Sept 2001): pp22-26
Evolution of anti-corruption journalism in Africa: lessons from Zambia
Isaac Phiri
Global Media Journal : African Edition , 2011, DOI: 10.5789/2-1-32
Abstract: All African countries, where there are functioning states, express a strong desire to curb corruption. The African Union has a convention to prevent and combat corruption. Zambia, under President Levy Mwanawasa, has positioned itself as a leader in Africa's fight against corruption. Last year, former Zambian President Frederick Chiluba was found guilty of grand corruption by a London court in a case brought against him by the Zambian government. There is general agreement that the media plays a significant role in the war against plunder of national resources by African leaders. However, studies that examine exactly how the media influences the decisions and actions of public actors in Africa's anti-corruption agenda are few. This paper aims to fill this gap. The goal is to use the Zambian case to gain a clearer understanding of the evolution of anti-graft journalism in Africa and to derive enduring insights into the relationship between the anti-corruption actions of the state and anti-corruption reporting by the press. Three key questions provide a framework for this investigation: 1) Is the press driving the Zambian government's anti-corruption campaign? 2) Is President Mwanawasa's 'zero-tolerance' campaign self-generated and the press simply following and reporting news events coming out of the bold steps already determined by the government? 3) Is it possible that the press and the state have found common ground and formed an informal but formidable alliance to combat graft?
Erectile Dysfunction: Clinical and Epidemiological Aspects in Senegal  [PDF]
Yoro Diallo, Racine Kane, Saint Charles Kouka, Boubacar Fall, Cyrille Ze Ondo, Abdoulaye N’Diaye, Adamson Phiri, Amadou Sékou Soumah, Babacar Diao, Cheickna Sylla
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2015.59023
Abstract: Introduction: The objective of our study was to analyze the clinical and epidemiologic aspects of erectile dysfunction in subjects with different comorbidities in Senegal. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective study over a period of 2 years on patients who presented themselves for consultation for erectile dysfunction. The study was carried out in the regions of Dakar and Thies at the Ouakam geriatric center and the Saint Jean of god Hospital of Thies respectively. Results: We enrolled into the study 402 patients with erectile dysfunction. The average age of our patients was 47 ± 5 years. Patients aged more than 60 years were the most. The majority of our patients had less than secondary school level education, 211 in total representing 52.5% of the study population compared to 14.9% having post baccalaureate level. A large number of these patients had professional activities (53.3%), followed by retirees (29.6%). Polygamous patients were more in number (51.5%). In our study sample, we registered 120 active smokers (29.9%). A hundred and ten of our patients were sedentary for periods of 5 months to 22 years. The average length of time before seeking help for erectile dysfunction in our patients was 2.8 years. Severe erectile dysfunction was predominant in the smoking group (54.2%) compared to (9.9%) in the non-smoking group. We found a large proportion of severe and moderate erectile dysfunction (66.3%) and (31.7%) respectively in diabetic than non-diabetic patients. Severe erectile dysfunction was more in hypertensive and diabetics. Severe erectile dysfunction was more present in hypertensive plus smokers (83.9%) than in non-smoking hypertensive patients (68.6%). Severe ED was found more in hypertension and diabetic subjects. Conclusion: Erectile dysfunction is most frequently related on one side to socio-environmental factors, and to co-existing comorbidities on the other side.
Access to continued professional education among health workers in Blantyre, Malawi
Adamson S Muula, Humphreys Misiri, Yamikani Chimalizeni, Davis Mpando, Chimota Phiri, Amos Nyaka
African Health Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Objective: To describe the current status of continued professional development (CPD) of healthcare personnel within the Ministry of Health (MoH) health centres in Blantyre, Malawi Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study utilizing an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Subjects: Healthcare workers in public health centers in Blantyre District, Malawi. Results: Fifty-seven healthcare workers participated of whom 47 (82.5%) were nurses, 8 (14.0%) were either medical assistants or clinical officers, and one laboratory technician and a dental therapist. At the time of the study, 50(87.7%) were prescribers and 54 (94.7%) had ever issued a prescription for medications. Participation in workshops and seminars within the past 12 months was reported by 54 (94.7%) of the participants and 49 (86.0%) reported that their health facilities had clinical hand-over meetings. All participants indicated desire to receive professional journals for free while only 35 (61.4%) were willing to pay for a journal subscription. Current personal and institutional subscription to a journal was low, at 2 (3.5%) each. About 30% had been trained to conduct research and 23 (40.1%) had ever conducted research with only 3 (5.3%) ever written a journal or newsletter article. 47.4% had access to a working phone at work and only 3 (5.3%) had access to internet facilities at all. Only 21% were satisfied with their own knowledge on health matters. Conclusions: Healthcare professionals in Blantyre\'s DHO zone are using mostly clinical hand-over meetings, seminars and workshops for their CPD. There is need to improve access to relevant professional journals. The regulatory or licensing boards for healthcare professional in Malawi should seriously consider mandatory CPD credits for re-registration Key Words: Malawi, continued professional development African Health Sciences Vol.4(3) 2004: 182-184
Increasing the capacity of health surveillance assistants in community mental health care in a developing country, Malawi.
F Kauye, C Chiwandira, J Wright, S Common, M Phiri, C Mafuta, LM Senganimalunje, M Udedi
Malawi Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Mental health services in Malawi are centralized in the three tertiary units which are located one in each of the three regions of Malawi and this means that most people with mental health problems do not get help. With severe shortages of mental health professionals in the country, integration of mental health into existing primary and community health services is the most feasible way of increasing access to services for people with mental health problems. This paper discusses a pilot program of integrating mental health in the activities of Health Surveillance Assistants (HSAs) who are community health workers in Malawi.
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