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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325424 matches for " S Khademvatan "
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The Effect of Aqueous Garlic Extract on Interleukin-12 and 10 Levels in Leishmania Major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) Infected Macrophages
MJ Gharavi,M Nobakht,S Khademvatan,F Fani
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2011,
Abstract: Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunomodulation effects of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) in the cultured macrophages infected by Leishmania major.Methods: After J774 macrophages proliferation in RPMI1640 and incubation with Leishmania for 72 hours, AGE was added in doses of 9.25, 18.5, 37, 74 and 148 mg/ml for 18, 24 and 48 hours and cell culture supernatants were harvested. The Leishmania infected J774 cells to assess the cell viability was examined using trypan blue and methylthiazol tetrazolium assay (MTT). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed on cell culture supernatants for measurement of interleukin IL-10 and IL-12.Results: Dose of 37 mg/ml for 48 hours of garlic extract was the most potent dose for activation of amastigotes infected macrophages. In addition, AGE increased the level of IL-12 in Leishmania infected cell lines significantly.Conclusions: AGE treated cell is effective against parasitic pathogens, and AGE induced IL-12 differentially affected the immune response to invading Leishmania parasites.
Induction of Apoptosis by Miltefosine in Iranian Strain of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes
S Khademvatan,MJ Gharavi,L Akhlaghi,A Samadikuchaksaraei
Iranian Journal of Parasitology , 2009,
Abstract: "nBackground: Miltefosine is a new drug of choice for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. Numerous experi-mental studies have shown miltefosine is effective on Leishmania donovani, however, effectiveness of miltefos-ine in treatment of L. infantum is not fully understood. The aims of the present study were to evaluate cytotoxic effects of miltefosine on Iranian strain of L. infantum, and to determine its 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) as well as lethal dose. "nMethods: Anti-L. infantum activity of miltefosine was studied by treatment of cultured promastigotes with vari-ous concentration of miltefosine. MTT assay was used to determine L. infantum viability and the results were expressed as IC50. Annexin-V FLUOS staining was performed to study apoptotic properties of this drug by us-ing FACS flow cytometry."nResults: Miltefosine led to dose-dependent death of L. infantum with features compatible with apoptosis includ-ing cell shrinkage, DNA laddering, and externalization of phosphatidylserine with preservation of integrity of plasma membrane. The 100% effect was achieved at 22 μM and IC50 after 48 hours of incubation was 7 μM."nConclusion: Miltefosine exerts cytotoxic effect on Iranian strain of L. infantum via an apoptosis-related mechanism.
A molecular study on cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions in Khuzestan province (South west of Iran)
Jasem Saki,Shahram Khademvatan
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction and objective: One of the most likely factors influencing on the clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis, is genetic variability of Leishmania parasites that is currently controversial. The aim of this study was to identify the possible correlation between clinical cutaneous lesions and genetic of the causative Leishmania agents in Khuzestan, south west of Iran.Materials and methods: Fourteen samples from patients with different size of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) lesions referred to health centers and medical diagnosis laboratories of Ahvaz, Dashteazadegan, Shush, Hendijan and Ramhormoz were collected and studied by mini-exonePCR-RFLP and sequencing methods. The diameter of lesions was measured by a blinded caliper and flexible ruler.Results: Enzyme electrophoretic analysis of different isolates of L. major and L. tropica separated from lesions with different sizes have revealed no heterogeneity in this species, whereas alignment of the mini-exonesequencing isolates revealed 97-99% identity and 2-8 nucleotide substitution. Identity was 99% in isolates obtained from Lesions with near Sizes. Conclusion: This study revealed nucleotides substitutions among sequences of causative agents for different size of lesions. In order to find any correlation between genetic and clinical manifestation in CL, a comprehensive study with more samples from more geographical area is needed. Significance and impact of the study. Information about relationship between the parasite's genetic variability and the clinical form of CL may help us to understand the pathway and a molecular target for devising effective treatment.
Miltefosine induces metacaspase and PARP genes expression in Leishmania infantum
Khademvatan, Shahram;Gharavi, Mohammad Javad;Saki, Jasem;
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-86702011000500005
Abstract: objectives: apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death (pcd) that occurs in both animal and plant cells. protozoan parasites possess metacaspase and these caspase-related proteases could be involved in the pcd pathways in these organisms. therefore we analyzed the activities of metacaspase and parp genes in leishmania infantum (mcan/ir/96/lon49) treated with miltefosine. materials and methods: anti-leishmania activity of miltefosine was studied by treatment of cultured promastigotes with various concentration of miltefosine. mtt assay and annexin-v fluos staining by using facs flow cytometry methods were used. cytotoxic potential of hepc on the amastigots of l.infantum was evaluated in j774 cell line. in addition, metacaspase and parp genes expression of treated l. infantum were studied. results: miltefosine led to dose-dependent death of l. infantumwith features compatible with apoptosis. over expression of metacaspase and parp was seen 6 hr after treatment. conclusions: our study showed that miltefosine exerts cytotoxic effect on l. infantum via an apoptotic-related mechanism.
The Role of Toxoplasmosis in Ophthalmic Disorders
J Saki,MJ GHaravi,SH Khademvatan
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2007,
Abstract: Introdution: Toxoplasosis is a parasitic infection that created by protozoan named Toxoplasma gondii. A definitive host is cat and intermediate hosts are mammalian and birds (tissue cyst in organs). Human be infected via ingestion oocyst and row or undercooked contaminated meat. The causative agent transforms to tissue cyst in the divers organs especially in eye and bring about O.T .The majorities of cases are asymptomatic but the protozoan can locate in the eye and create acute corioritinite .The most prevalent causative agent of corioritinite is toxoplasmosis and it is estimated that 35% of corioritinite cases in children and adult, attributed to toxoplasma gongii Methods: Many articles about pathologic effects, prevalence, life cycle of toxoplasma gongii affected groups and ontrol of the infection have been studied. Resultss: Ocular toxoplasmosis in the human manifests most commonly following congenital infection. Experimentally it is showed that 5.3% of the mice offspring going on to develop bilateral or unilateral cataracts. Lymphocytes and macrophages were seen to enter the eye and the presence of degraded photoreceptor segments within macrophage phagolysosomes was shown. Retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE), were also found to migrate, enter the eye and participate in phagocytosis. Conclusion: Because to high prevalence of toxoplasmosis (70% in some regions) it is deserved that toxoplasmosis be considered as a main causative agnate of corioritinite and ophtalmogists insert toxoplasma gongii as a causative agent in the clinical table.
Comparison of Traditional Methods and PCR for Diagnosis of Cutaneous
Shahram Khademvatan,Jasem Saki,Sharif Maraghi
Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Background: The usual method for laboratory diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis was the direct observation of parasites under a light microscope. Although this method has high specificity, it has low sensitivity. The purpose of this study is to compare three methods of direct observation, culture and Mini-exon-PCR to diagnose cutaneous leishmaniasis in Khuzestan province. This study intends to compare sensitivity of PCR approach with sensitivity of the existing traditional methods to diagnose cutaneous leishmaniasis using Mini-exon gene.Materials and Methods: A total 216 skin biopsies prepared from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were studied though direct method, culture in NNN, culture in RPMI 1640 and Mini-exon-PCR and the sensitivity of these methods were compared with each other. In this study Mini-exon-PCR was considered as the gold standard method.Results: Results showed that 46.7% with direct method, 35.1% with culture method in RPMI 1640, 57.8% with culture method in NNN and 70.3% with PCR were positive. Sensitivity was obtained 66.4% for microscopic observation, 50% for culture in RPMI1640, and 82.2% for culture in NNN and 100% for PCR.Conclusion: This study showed that PCR on samples stored in normal saline has higher sensitivity and specificity than other traditional methods (p>0.05). Thus, Mini-exon-PCR on samples in normal saline is a reliable method to diagnose cutaneous leishmaniasis, especially in cases where the diagnosis is negative with the other methods.
Glomerulopathy Associated with Visceral leishmaniasis
Sh Khademvatan,M Nobakht,J Saki,L Akhlaghi
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2007,
Abstract: Background: A fundamental feature of most parasitic infections is their chronicity. Although renal disease is not one of the common presenting features, many parasitic infections are associated with glomerular lesions. Glomerular lesions are observed with visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) caused by Leishmania donovani. Leishmanial parasites affect children under 2 yaer in more than 88 countries. Thus study of glomerulopathy Associated with Visceral leishmaniasis is very important. Methods: In this retrospective study we review the glomerulopathies observed in visceral leishmaniasis and the pathogenic mechanisms thought to be involved in the individual infections, and discuss the general mechanisms that can be extracted from these observations. Results: Prospective studies have shown that 60% of patients with kala-azar have mild proteinuria with benign changes in the urinary sediment (microscopic hematuria and leukocyturia). The pathological picture is a glomerulonephritis ranging from purely mesangioproliferative to membraneoproliferative. Amyloidosis can be a complication of kala-azar. Using immunofluorescence, IgG, IgM, IgA, and C3 are seen in the mesangium with some extensions along the capillary loop. Conclusion: Kala-azar is usually associated with hyperimmunoglobulinemia with high IgG levels, circulating immune complexes, and high titers of rheumatoid factor and cryoglobulin. Together with the presence of immunoglobulins in the glomeruli, this suggests the pivotal role of polyclonal B-cell activation and “classical” B-cell activation in the pathogenesis of leishmanial nephritis.
The Effect of Garlic Extract on Expression of INFγ And Inos Genes in Macrophages Infected with Leishmania Major
MJ Gharavi,M Nobakht,SH Khademvatan,E Bandani
Iranian Journal of Parasitology , 2011,
Abstract: Background: The study was aimed to show the effect of molecular mechanism of Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) on expression of IFNγ and iNOS genes in Leishmania major.Methods: Leishmania major promastigotes (MRHO/IR/75/ER) were added to the in-vitro cultured J774 cell line, the cells were incubated for 72 hours. Various concentrations of garlic extract (9.25, 18.5, 37, 74, 148 mg/ml) were added to the infected cells. MTT assay was applied for cellular proliferation. After 72 hours of incubation, supernatants were collected and total RNA was extracted from the infected cells. The express of IFNγ and iNOS genes were studied by RT-PCR method.Results: The colorimetric MTT assay after 3 days of incubation showed cytotoxic effect of garlic extract with an IC50 of 37 mg/ml. In addition, IFNγ and iNOS genes expression by RT-PCR indicated that garlic extract lead to over expression of these genes in J774 cell line infected with L. major.Conclusion: Garlic extract exerts cytotoxic effect on infected J774 cell line. In addition, the hypothesis that garlic can improve cellular immunity with raising the expression of IFNγ and of iNOS genes con-firmed.
INOS and IFN? Gene Expression in Leishmania major-Infected J774 Cells Treated With Miltefosine
Shahram Khademvatan,Mohammad Javad Gharavi,Elham Yousefi,Jasem Saki
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2011,
Abstract: Miltefosine is the new drug of choice for the treatment of leishmaniasis. The aim of this work was to study the molecular mechanisms and immunomudolatory properties of miltefosine in J774 cell line infected with the Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) parasite. In this experimental study infected J774 cell line by L. major, treated by miltefosine and incubated for 72 h. Total RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesis. RT- PCR was used for study of IFN? and iNOS gene expression. IFN? and iNOS proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. Cell culture supernatant was examined by ELISA for of IL12 and IL10 concentration. After 4 h incubation, miltefosine increased iNOS and IFN? gene expression in L. major infected J774 cell line. Western blot analysis of extracted cell proteins showed 130 and 17 kDa of bonds related to iNOS and IFN?, respectively. After 48 h treatment with miltefosine, analysis of cell supernatant with ELISA showed a significant increase of IL12 but no change in IL10 Cytokine. Study showed that miltefosine in addition to its direct effect can improve cellular immunity with rising of IFN? and of iNOS genes expression that are able to activate macrophages.
PCR-Based Molecular Characterization of Toxocara spp. Using Feces of Stray Cats: A Study from Southwest Iran
Shahram Khademvatan, Fakher Rahim, Mahdi Tavalla, Rahman Abdizadeh, Mahmoud Hashemitabar
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065293
Abstract: Feces of stray cat are potential sources of gastrointestinal parasites and play a crucial role in spreading and transmitting parasite eggs, larvae, and oocysts through contamination of soil, food, or water. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection in stray cats in Ahvaz city, southwest Iran. Eggs of Toxocara spp. in feces of stray cats were detected by the sucrose flotation method, and identification was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. Of the 140 fecal samples that were randomly collected from public environments during the months of January to May 2012, 45% were found to harbour Toxocara spp. eggs. The highest prevalence of Toxocara spp. eggs was found in the central area of Ahvaz city (28.6%). T. canis eggs were found in 4 (6.34%) of the 63 positive samples. Stray cats are found in parks, playgrounds, and other public places and may be a potential contamination risk. Identification of Toxocara spp. using molecular methods is sufficiently sensitive to detect low levels of parasites and identify the different Toxocara spp. in feces. The relatively high prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection may continue to increase due to lack of effective environmental hygiene control in Iran. Consequently, there is a need to plan adequate programs to detect, identify, and control this infection as well as stray cats in the region.
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