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Direction of Head Trauma and its Effect on Olfactory Bulb Volume in Post-Traumatic Anosmia
S Farshchi,J Mehdizadeh,SH Sharif Kashani,A Farshchi
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Anosmia is a physical sign in post-traumatic patients, which significantly reduces the quality of life. Anosmia occurs in up to 30% of cases with head trauma. In this study we aimed to compare the Olfactory Bulb Volume (OBV) in patients with posttraumatic anosmia in different impact positions and also with healthy individuals to find the relation between the two variables. Methods: Thirty-eight patients with posttraumatic anosmia and 27 healthy individuals with normal olfactory function were recruited in this case-control study performed in Amir Alam Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Variables of age, sex, time of trauma, site of trauma (frontoparietal/occipital), side of trauma, OBV, the results of olfactory identification tests and olfactory threshold were extracted and evaluated. We used non-contrasted 1.5-Tesla coronal brain MRI for the measurement of OBV.Results: There were no significant differences between cases and controls regarding sex and age. Olfactory bulb volume was significantly smaller in cases compared to the controls (P=0.004). Among the case group, OBV was smaller in anterior versus posterior head traumas (P=0.02). OBV was also smaller in ipsilateral rather than the contralateral side of trauma (P=0.01).Conclusion: The direction of trauma had a significant effect on OBV and it was smaller in traumas to the anterior and also ipsilateral sides of the head. It seems that changes in OBV differ due to the direction of head trauma and it can be helpful in predicting the prognosis of posttraumatic anosmia. Further studies are required for more conclusive statements.
Comparison the Analgesic Effects of Single Dose Administration of Tramadol or Piroxicam on Postoperative Pain after Cesarean Delivery
Amir Farshchi,Golbarg Ghiasi
Acta Medica Iranica , 2010,
Abstract: "nA multimodal approach to postcesarean pain management may enhance analgesia and reduce side effects after surgery. We investigated postoperative pain in a double-blinded, randomized, single-dose comparison of the monoaminergic and μ-opioid agonist tramadol, 100 mg (Group T) and piroxicam 20 mg (Group P) given IM alone- single dose in 150 patients who had elective cesarean delivery. All patients were assessed at 0, 6, 12 and 24 hours post operation for pain degree (by Visual Analogue Score: VAS 1-10), nausea and vomiting. Pain degree was classified as: Painless: 0, Mild: 1-4, Moderate: 5-8, Severe: 9-10. There was no significant difference between the efficacy of tramadol and piroxicam injections (P>0.05). Pain intensity decreased markedly over time in both groups. Mean±SEM pain degrees were as follows: P=7.7±0.5, T=8.2±0.8 after 0 hours; P=5.4±0.6, T=6.1±0.5 after 6 hours; P=3.3±0.4, T=3.4±0.7 after 12 hours; P=1.1±0.4, T=1.3±0.5 after 24 hours of surgery. Side effects were similarly minimal with all treatments. It might be concluded that i.m. injections of 20 mg piroxicam (single dose therapy) could relieve postoperative pain after cesarean section as well as tramadol and it could reduce opioid analgesic requirements with less adverse side effects during the first postoperative 24 h.
The Effect of Chronic Administration of Aegle Marmelos Seed Extract on Learning and Memory in Diabetic Rats
Amir Farshchi,Golbarg Ghiasi,Samireh Farshchi,Amin Taleb Ghobadi
Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Objective(s)Diabetes mellitus is associated with disturbances of learning and memory and cognitive functioning. Aegle marmelos Corr. from Rutaceae family is widely used in Iranian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Considering the beneficial antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of A. marmelos, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oral administration of A. marmelos on learning and spatial memory in diabetic rats using Morris water maze test.Materials and MethodsConsidering the beneficial antidiabetic potential of A. marmelos, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chronic oral administration of A. marmelos as cognitive enhancer, on learning and spatial memory in diabetic rats using Morris water maze test. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal-control, diabetic-control, and A. marmelos-treated diabetic groups (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.). Animals were treated for 4 weeks by A. marmelos or normal saline. Diabetes was induced by a single dose i.p. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg). In each group of animals, spatial learning and memory parameters were analyzed. ResultsClear impairment of spatial learning and memory was observed in diabetic group versus normal-control group. A. marmelos showed dose dependent improvement in spatial learning and memory parameters that swimming time (Escape Latency) in normal-control and A. marmelos-treated diabetic animals rats was significantly (P< 0.01) lower than diabetic-control, while swimming speed was significantly (P< 0.05) higher.ConclusionThe study demonstrated that A. marmelos has significant protective affect against diabetes-induced spatial learning and memory deficits. This effect could be attributed to hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of A. marmelos.
Effects of Boswellia Papyrifera Gum Extract on Learning and Memory in
Amir Farshchi,Golbarg Ghiasi,Samireh Farshchi,Peyman Malek Khatabi
Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Objective(s)Learning is defined as the acquisition of information and skills, while subsequent retention of that information is called memory. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Boswellia papyrifera on learning and memory paradigms in mice and rats.Materials and MethodsThis study was held at the Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Science, Kermanshah, Iran from September 2006 to March 2008. Male Wistar rats and male NMRI mice were randomly divided into control, B. papyrifera treated (50, 100, 150 mg/kg, p.o.), and piracetam (150 mg/kg) groups. Radial arm maze (RAM) and Morris water maze (MWM) were the screening tests used to assess the activity of B. papyrifera extract.ResultsThe mice treated with B. papyrifera (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) or piracetam (150 mg/kg) showed a decrease in number of days required to learned (P< 0.05) and time taken to find food by the learned mice in radial arm maze (P< 0.01). In Morris water maze, rats treated with the above mentioned doses showed dose dependent improvement in spatial learning. Escape latency during swimming in water maze in piracetam and B. papyrifera treated animals was significantly lower (P< 0.01) than control. Swimming distance was also significantly lower (P< 0.05) in the treated groups.Conclusion The results show facilitation of spatial learning and memory processes and thereby validate B. papyrifera traditional use of intelligence improving. The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins might be responsible for this activity of B. papyrifera.
Suppression of hole-mediated ferromagnetism in GaMnP by hydrogen
C. Bihler,M. Kraus,M. S. Brandt,S. T. B. Goennenwein,M. Opel,M. A. Scarpulla,R. Farshchi,O. D. Dubon
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1063/1.2952045
Abstract: We report the successful passivation of the Mn acceptors in GaMnP upon exposure to a remote dc hydrogen plasma. The as-grown films are non-metallic and ferromagnetic with a Curie temperature of T_C=55K. After hydrogenation the sample resistivity increases by approximately three orders of magnitude at room temperature and six orders of magnitude at 25 K. Furthermore, the hydrogenated samples are paramagnetic, which is evidenced by a magnetization curve at 5 K that is best described by a Brillouin function with g=2 and J=5/2 expected for Mn atoms in the 3d^5 configuration. These observations unambiguously proof that the ferromagnetism is carrier-mediated also in GaMnP.
Magnetocrystalline anisotropy and magnetization reversal in GaMnP synthesized by ion implantation and pulsed-laser melting
C. Bihler,M. Kraus,H. Huebl,M. S. Brandt,S. T. B. Goennenwein,M. Opel,M. A. Scarpulla,P. R. Stone,R. Farshchi,O. D. Dubon
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.75.214419
Abstract: We report the observation of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and the determination of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy in (100)-oriented single-crystalline thin film samples of GaMnP with x=0.042. The contributions to the magnetic anisotropy were determined by measuring the angular- and the temperature-dependencies of the FMR resonance fields and by superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. The largest contribution to the anisotropy is a uniaxial component perpendicular to the film plane; however, a negative contribution from cubic anisotropy is also found. Additional in-plane uniaxial components are observed at low temperatures, which lift the degeneracy between the in-plane [011] and [01-1] directions as well as between the in-plane [010] and [001] directions. Near T=5K, the easy magnetization axis is close to the in-plane [01-1] direction. All anisotropy parameters decrease with increasing temperature and disappear above the Curie temperature T_C. A consistent picture of the magnetic anisotropy of ferromagnetic GaMnP emerges from the FMR and magnetometry data. The latter can be successfully modeled when both coherent magnetization rotation and magnetic domain nucleation are considered.
Why Eating Breakfast Is Important for Optimising Human Metabolism?
HR Farshchi,MA Taylor,IA Macdonald
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2005,
Abstract: Breakfast consumption appears to have declined in the last decades and eating breakfast, especially cereal, is associated with a lower risk of obesity. Serum cholesterol concentration is reported to be lower in adults eating breakfast (EB) and higher among those not. No study, to our knowledge, has investigated the effect of skipping breakfast (SB) on various aspect of energy metabolism. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of EB or SB on adult energy, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. 10 healthy women (BMI: 23.2, SD: 1.4) were recruited after giving informed consent. Each subject participated in a randomised crossover trial which encompassed two 14-day intervention periods; EB in one of them and SB in the other with a 2-wk wash out period between. In EB, subjects were asked to consume a pack of whole grain cereal (Kellogg’s, UK, 45 g) with 200 ml semi-skimmed milk between 07:00-08:00 and eat a chocolate bar (Nestle, 48g.) at 10.30-11.00. Then, they consumed 4 further meals of similar content to usual in the rest of the day at predetermined times every day for 2 wk. In SB, subjects consumed the chocolate at 10.30-11.00, and then had the cereal and semi-skimmed milk at 12.00-12.30. Then, they consumed 4 further meals of similar content to usual as for EB. Subjects consumed their normal diet for a 2-wk washout period between the two intervention periods. Subjects recorded their food intake on 3 days during each intervention, and came to the laboratory after an overnight fast at the start and end of each intervention period and their weight and anthropometric variables were measured. Blood samples were taken for glucose, lipids and insulin before and for 3 hr after a test meal (milk shake containing 30 kJ/kg, 50% CHO). Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured by indirect calorimetry before and after the test meal. Repeated-measures ANOVA, and paired t.test were used for the statistical comparisons. SB was associated with higher fasting total (3.4±0.4 compared with 3.1±0.4 mmol/l after EB, P<0.02) and LDL (1.8±0.3 compared with 1.6±0.3 mmol/l after EB, P< 0.04) cholesterol. Fasting glucose and insulin were not affected by breakfast but AUC of insulin responses to the test meal was higher after SB compared to after EB (mean ± SD (mIU/l over 3h.) was 82.6±44.0 and 73.6±42.0 respectively, P< 0.01). Mean recorded energy intake was lower during EB (0.38 MJ/day lower than the mean energy intake of SB, P< 0.002) while fasting RMR and postprandial thermogenesis were not different between the two periods. In conclusion, skipping breakfast appears to produce highe
Antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects of Teucrium hyrcanicum aqueous extract in male mice and rats
Amir Farshchi,Golbarg Ghiasi,Akbar Abdollahuasl
Physiology and Pharmacology , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects of Teucrium hyrcanicum aqueous extract in male mice and rats. Methods: To assess the antiinflammatory effect, we used carrageenan- and dextran-induced paw oedema and for determination of the antinociceptive effect, acetic acid-induced writhing, tail flick and formalin pain tests were used. Results: The extract of T. hyrcanicum (50–200 mg/kg) and acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg) produced a significant inhibition of the second phase response in the formalin pain model (P<0.01), while only the high dose of the extract (200 mg/kg) showed an analgesic effect in the first phase. The extract also inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes in a dose-dependent manner. The tail flick latency was dose dependently enhanced by the extract but this was significantly lower than that produced by morphine 10 mg/kg (P<0.05). The extract (25–250 mg/kg) administered 1 h before carrageenan-induced paw swelling produced a dose dependent inhibition of the oedema. No effect was observed with the dextran-induced oedema model. Conclusion: The obtained data suggest antiinflammatory and analgesic effects for the aqueous extract of Teucrium hyrcanicum, which may be mediated via both peripheral and central mechanisms. The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids might be responsible for the antiinflammatory activity of this plant.
A Novel Randomized Search Technique for Multiple Mobile Robot Paths Planning In Repetitive Dynamic Environment
Vahid Behravesh,Seyyed Mohammad Reza Farshchi
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA) , 2012, DOI: 10.11591/ijra.v1i4.1260
Abstract: Presented article is studying the issue of path navigating for numerous robots. Our presented approach is based on both priority and the robust method for path finding in repetitive dynamic. Presented model can be generally implementable and useable: We do not assume any restriction regarding the quantity of levels of freedom for robots, and robots of diverse kinds can be applied at the same time. We proposed a random method and hill-climbing technique in the area based on precedence plans, which is used to determine a solution to a given trajectory planning problem and to make less the extent of total track. Our method plans trajectories for particular robots in the setting-time scope. Therefore, in order to specifying the interval of constant objects similar to other robots and the extent of the tracks which is traversed. For measuring the hazard for robots to conflict with each other it applied a method based on probability of the movements of robots. This algorithm applied to real robots with successful results. The proposed method performed and judged on both real robots and in simulation. We performed sequence of100tests with 8 robots for comparing with coordination method and current performances are effective. However, maximizing the performance is still possible. These performances estimations performed on Windows operating system and 3GHz Intel Pentium IV with and compiles with GCC 3.4. We used our PCGA robot for all experiments. For a large environment of 19×15m2where we accomplished 40tests, our model is competent to plan high-quality paths in a severely short time (less than a second). Moreover, this article utilized lookup tables to keep expenses the formerly navigated robots made, increasing the number of robots don’t expand computation time.
Effects of Occupational Therapy and Neurofeedback on Recovery of the Motor Function in Stroke Patients (A Single-System Design)
M Farshchi,M Akbarfahimi,MA Nazari
Modern Rehabilitation , 2012,
Abstract: Background and aim: Motor impairments, such as hemiparesis, incoordination and spasticity, are the most common deficits after stroke. Most patients show recovery in some of their lost motor function over time. Motor rehabilitation are included mixed of combined movement therapy techniques in many occupational clinics. cerebral waves such as Theta wave can influence on patients function. There fore, the purpose of this study is to understand the influence of combined of occupational therapy and neurofeedback on motor recovery of stroke patients.Materials and methods :This study used a single-system (A-B) design. During the baseline phase patient's function of upper and lowe limb were measured by Fugl-Meyer and Berg Test on three day intervals during 4 week and have occupational therapy every day. After this time, their treatment program began. In this phase they received combined of neurofeedback and occupational therapy for 4 week. Then results of evaluations of two phases were analysed. Results: Both cases show significant recovery at upper limbs( case1 81.1% , case2 68.1%) and lower limbs( case1 73.1% , case2 75.4% ) in Fugel-Mayer test and Berg test( case1 51.6% , case2 68.1%).Conclusion:Regarding the significant recovery of upper and lower limb function of patients, adding neurofeedback to routine occupational therapy can be considered as a practical method in rehabilitation of stroke patients. However further research is needed.
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