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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 338 matches for " Ryosei Konishi "
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Wide and Fast Wavelength-Swept Fiber Laser Based on Dispersion Tuning for Dynamic Sensing
Shinji Yamashita,Yuichi Nakazaki,Ryosei Konishi,Osamu Kusakari
Journal of Sensors , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/572835
Abstract: We have developed a unique wide and fast wavelength-swept fiber laser for dynamic and accurate fiber sensing. The wavelength tuning is based on the dispersion tuning technique, which simply modulates the loss/gain in the dispersive laser cavity. By using wideband semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), the sweep range could be as wide as ~180 nm. Since the cavity contains no mechanical components, such as tunable filters, we could achieve very high sweep rate, as high as ~200 kHz. We have realized the swept lasers at three wavelength bands, 1550 nm, 1300 nm, and 800 nm, using SOAs along with erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs), and in two laser configurations, ring and linear ones. We also succeeded in applying the swept laser for a dynamic fiber-Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system. In this paper, we review our researches on the wide and fast wavelength-swept fiber lasers.
Preparation and Characteristics of Film Dosage Form Natural Polysaccharides  [PDF]
Yoshifumi Murata, Kyoko Kofuji, Norihisa Nishida, Ryosei Kamaguchi
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2011.23028
Abstract: We investigated preparation of film dosage form (FD) from natural polysaccharides using the casting method without organic solvents, heating or pH control. Ferulic acid (FA) and catechin were employed as model compounds incorporated in the FD, and the release profile of each compound from the form was investigated in the limited medium. Film formation was affected by the addition of the model compound to the polysaccharide solution. Rigid FD was obtained with 2% low-molecular-weight alginate (L-ALG; thickness, 65 µm), and it hardened after the addition of 0.5% polygalacturonic acid, although the thickness of the film did not change. The FDs immediately released the model compound, and the forms dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline. FD modification did not affect the FA release rate except in the early stage. FD would be a useful dosage form, especially for preventing or treating localized problems in the oral cavity.
Development of Oral Dissolving Gelatin Beads Containing Allopurinol for the Prevention and Treatment of Mucositis  [PDF]
Yoshifumi Murata, Takashi Isobe, Kyoko Kofuji, Masafumi Mizutani, Ryosei Kamaguchi
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.33039
Abstract: Oral dissolving gelatin beads (GBs) containing allopurinol (AP) were prepared by the seamless capsule method and their rheological properties were examined. The release profiles of both gelatin and AP from GBs were also investigated in limited dissolution medium. GBs containing AP provided an easy-to-handle dosage form, but the physical strength of the beads immediately decreased upon contact with physiological saline at 37℃. Gelatin was released from the outer layer of GBs in physiological saline, with almost all the gelatin dissolved after 5 min, together with approximately 30% of the AP contained in the inner layer of the GB. The oral administration of GBs likely results in immediate softening of the GB upon contact with saliva. The released AP acts directly at inflammation sites, in a manner similar following oral rinsing with an AP suspension. Therefore, GBs are a useful dosage form for preventing or treating localized problems in the oral cavity, such as mucositis.
Development of Film Dosage Forms Containing Miconazole for the Treatment of Oral Candidiasis  [PDF]
Yoshifumi Murata, Takashi Isobe, Kyoko Kofuji, Norihisa Nishida, Ryosei Kamaguchi
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2013.43047

Film dosage forms (FDs) containing miconazole (MCZ) for the treatment of oral candidiasis were prepared using water-soluble polysaccharides, and the dissolution profiles of MCZ from the FDs were investigated. In addition, the forms were modified by the addition of a surface active agent to accelerate the drug dissolution rate. Circular films incorporating MCZ were obtained using each polysaccharide. Most FDs were easy to handle and resistant to tearing. No diffraction peaks were observed in the X-ray diffractograms of FDs. FDs prepared with sodium alginate or pullulan immediately swelled and disintegrated in aqueous medium, whereas MCZ incorporated in the FD gradually dissolved. A marked acceleration in the MCZ dissolution rate was observed when FD was prepared with polysaccharide containing a surfactant. These results confirmed that modified FDs are useful for treating localized conditions in the oral cavity, such as oral candidiasis, and that FDs can simplify the administration of drugs to patients.

Uptake of Bile Acid into Calcium-Induced Alginate Gel Beads Containing β-Chitosan Weak Acid Salt  [PDF]
Yoshifumi Murata, Kyoko Kofuji, Norihisa Nishida, Ryosei Kamaguchi
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.54042

Recently, potential applications for β-chitosan (β-CS) have been examined. In the present study, calcium-induced alginate gel beads (Alg-Ca) containing weak acid salts of β-CS were prepared and examined with regard to their ability to adsorb bile acids in vitro. More than 70% of taurocholate dissolved in solution was taken up by Alg-Ca containing 100 mg β-CS, sim. ilar to the degree of uptake observed with Alg-Ca containing α-CS salt. The adsorption of bile acid was affected by the absolute amount of β-CS and/or the acid concentration of the preparation. A secondary bile acid, taurodeoxycholate, was also adsorbed by Alg-Ca containing weak acid salts of β-CS. Therefore, β-CS might be used to adsorb bile acids within the gastrointestinal tract in the same manner as an anion-exchange resin, and thus serve as a complementary means by which to prevent hyperlipidemia.

Cyclodextrin-Modified Film Dosage Forms for Oral Candidiasis Treatment  [PDF]
Yoshifumi Murata, Kyoko Kofuji, Shushin Nakano, Ryosei Kamaguchi
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2015.65027
Abstract: Oral candidiasis is a common disease in patients with dry mouth. In this study, film dosage forms (FD) incorporating miconazole nitrate, an antifungal agent, were prepared with water-soluble polysaccharide and cyclodextrin (CD). The dissolution profiles of the drug from the FDs were investigated in limited dissolution medium. Soft films were obtained from sodium alginate containing 0.5% α-CD, β-CD, or γ-CD. Most FDs were easy to handle, though the film tearing resistance was lower than that of CD-free FDs. Addition of CD to the FD accelerated the drug dissolution rate. Interestingly, this phenomenon was also observed in FDs prepared with pullulan. In contrast, acceleration of the drug dissolution rate was not observed when CD polymer was added to the base solution. The initial drug dissolution rate was controllable by the amount of CD added to the FD. Therefore, FDs prepared with these materials are useful to treat oral candidiasis in patients with dry mouth syndrome.
An Implementation of the Japanese Autobiographical Method Seikatsu Tsuzurikata—“Life Writing”—In a US Elementary School  [PDF]
Scott Richardson, Haruka Konishi
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.49080

This article explores the historical, philosophical, curricular, and practical methods of the Japanese auto-biographical method, “seikatusu tsuzurikata” and its implementation in a US elementary school. Seikatsu tsuzurikata is a progressive form of journaling that “provokes students to ‘objectively’ observe the reality surrounding them in terms of their own senses without any intervention of anyone else’s authority”, by writing essays “reflecting on their social situation” (Asanuma, 1986: pp. 153, 155). Part of life writing’s central philosophy is that students are not required to participate. For students who engaged in life writing, several benefits resulted, according to their teachers. However, we found that students had great difficulty articulating their social and emotional worlds because this kind of reflective work was uncomfortable and foreign to students who were subjected to teacher-driven, “content”, and “standards based” instruction. This article concludes by exploring the possibility of connecting life writing with social-emotional learning (SEL).

Correction: Three-parameter lognormal distribution ubiquitously found in cDNA microarray data and its application to parametric data treatment
Tomokazu Konishi
BMC Bioinformatics , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-5-82
Abstract: f(ri) = [k/{(2π)1/2 σ(ri - γ)}] exp [-{log(ri - γ) - μ}2/2σ2] for ri > γ,where k is a compensation constant (k = loge = 0.4343), σ and μ are the shape and scale parameters for log(ri - γ), respectively.The threshold parameter, γ, was found through trial and improvement calculation processes; in the trial, the distribution of log(ri - γ) was checked by normal probability plotting, and the value that gave the best fit to the model was selected for γ. The fitness was evaluated by the sum of absolute differences between the model and log(ri - γ), within the interquartile range of data. The parameter μ was found as the median of log(ri - γ), and the parameter σ was found from the interquartile range of log(ri - γ); these are known as robust alternatives for the arithmetic mean and standard deviation, respectively. Parameters μ and σ were found for each data grid, a group of data for DNA spots that were printed by an identical pin in order to avoid divergences caused by pin-based differences. Z-normalization was carried out for each datum asZri = {log(ri - γ) - μ}/σ.Intensity data (ri) less than γ were treated as "data not detected", since such data might contain negative noise larger than the signal (see Results).
Three-parameter lognormal distribution ubiquitously found in cDNA microarray data and its application to parametric data treatment
Tomokazu Konishi
BMC Bioinformatics , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-5-5
Abstract: A three-parameter lognormal distribution model was tested on over 300 sets of microarray data. The model treats the hybridization background, which is difficult to identify from images of hybridization, as one of the parameters. A rigorous coincidence of the model to data sets was found, proving the model's appropriateness for microarray data. In fact, a closer fitting to Northern analysis was obtained. The model showed inconsistency only at very strong or weak data intensities. Measurement of z-scores as well as calculated ratios was reproducible only among data in the model-consistent intensity range; also, the ratios were independent of signal intensity at the corresponding range.The model could provide a universal standard for data, simplifying data analysis and knowledge integration. It was deduced that the ranges of inconsistency were caused by experimental errors or additive noise in the data; therefore, excluding the data corresponding to those marginal ranges will prevent misleading analytical conclusions.Since microarray data contain systematic variations that are derived from various experimental sources, the data should be normalized prior to comparison with other such data. In order to perform such normalization, some stable data characters that represent the data set are found and/or assumed. By making such characters identical, each data set is adjusted to other data sets, to a reference experiment's data, or to a mathematics model. A normalization method is based on ideas or concepts in which elements of data are considered to be the stable characters, and on the design of calculations regarding how data sets are to be adjusted. It is clear that these concepts affect the normalization results; such concepts behind the normalization are often closely connected with the evaluation of differences in data. Indeed, these concepts should originate from experimental observations and/or biologically appropriate assumptions. As an introduction, it might be he
Confinement via strongly-coupled non-Abelian monopoles
Konishi, Kenichi
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2013,
Abstract: New types of confinement phase emerge as singular SCFT's appearing as infrared-fixed-points of N=2 supersymmetric QCD (SQCD) are perturbed by an N=1 adjoint mass term. Based on a recent remarkable work on infrared-fixed-point SCFT of highest criticalities by Gaiotto, Seiberg and Tachikawa, we discuss physics of certain confining systems in SU(N), USp(2N) or SO(N) gauge theories. These show features different from a straightforward dual superconductivity picture of confinement a' la 't Hooft and Mandelstam, which might suggest a new venue in exploring the quark confinement mechanism in the real-world QCD.
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