Abstract:
We investigate the superfluid phase transition and single-particle excitations in the BCS (Bareen-Cooper-Schrieffer)-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas with mass imbalance. In our recent paper [R. Hanai, et. al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 053621 (2013)], we showed that an extended $T$-matrix approximation (ETMA) can overcome the serious problem known in the ordinary (non-self-consistent) $T$-matrix approximation that it unphysically gives double-valued superfluid phase transition temperature $T_{\rm c}$ in the presence of mass imbalance. However, at the same time, the ETMA was also found to give the vanishing $T_{\rm c}$ in the weak-coupling and highly mass-imbalanced case. In this paper, we inspect the correctness of this ETMA result, using the self-consistent $T$-matrix approximation (SCTMA). We show that the vanishing $T_{\rm c}$ is an artifact of the ETMA, coming from an internal inconsistency of this theory. The superfluid phase transition actually always occurs, irrespective of the ratio of mass imbalance. We also apply the SCTMA to the pseudogap problem in a mass-imbalanced Fermi gas. We show that pairing fluctuations induce different pseudogap phenomena between the the light component and heavy component. We also point out that a $^6$Li-$^{40}$K mixture is a useful system for the realization of a hetero pairing state, as well as for the study of component-dependent pseudogap phenomena.

Abstract:
We investigate single-particle properties of a strongly interacting ultracold Fermi gas with mass imbalance. Using an extended $T$-matrix theory, we calculate the density of states, as well as the single-particle spectral weight, in the unitarity limit above the superfluid phase transition temperature $T_{\rm c}$. We show that the momentum regions where pairing fluctuations strongly affect single-particle excitations are different between light fermions and heavy fermions, reflecting the difference of the Pauli blocking effects between them. In addition, we obtain different pseudogap phenomena associated with pairing fluctuations in between the two components. Since the realization of a mass-imbalanced superfluid Fermi gas is an important challenge in this field, our results would contribute to the understanding of physical properties of the hetero-pairing state.

Abstract:
Formation of RNA-DNA hybrid, or R-loop, was studied in vitro by transcribing an AGGAG repeat with T7 RNA polymerase. When ribonuclease T1 was present, R-loop formation in cis was diminished, indicating that the transcript was separated from the template and reassociated with it. The transcript was found to form an R-loop in trans with DNA comprising the AGGAG repeat, when the DNA was supercoiled. Results of chemical modification indicated that the duplex opened at the AGGAG repeat under negative supercoiling. 1. Introduction The DNA-dependent RNA polymerase separates product RNA from its template DNA, thereby making the RNA available to ensuing cellular processes [1, 2]. The polymerase possesses structural elements for this separation and the RNA transcript is extruded through a hole of the polymerase molecule [3–6]. Despite this “separator” function of the polymerase, some transcripts have been known to anomalously form an RNA:DNA hybrid, or an R-loop, with their template, and R-loops have been implicated in a number of biological processes [7]. One classical example is the colE1 replication origin, where the RNA in the R-loop serves as the primer of DNA replication [8]. A more recent example is the FLOWERING LOCUS C of Arabidopsis thaliana, where an R-loop at the promoter of the COOLER gene represses the transcription of the gene [9]. In addition to the “separator” function of the RNA polymerase, cellular processes ensuing transcription, such as splicing and RNA export, also serve to sequester RNA from the template DNA. Compromising such a function has been shown to result in hyperrecombination [7, 10]. R-loops have also been observed at G-rich repetitive sequences in immunoglobulin class-switch regions, although R-loop per se is not considered to trigger class-switching [11–16]. R-loop formation at a class-switch region was first shown for the murine region [11]. Transcription of supercoiled plasmid DNA containing a 2.3？kb fragment of the region resulted in relaxation of the DNA, and the relaxation was reversed by RNase H treatment, which indicated R-loop formation. The relaxation was dependent on the direction of transcription. Radiolabeling experiments showed that the R-loop formed also when the template was linearized and that the RNA content in the R-loop was solely A and G [12]. The latter result, together with the length of the RNase A-resistant RNA bound to the DNA, indicated that the R-loop formed at the 28 tandem repeats of AGGAG in the region. Despite the simple repetitive nature of the sequence, the exact mechanism of the R-loop formation

Abstract:
We theoretically investigate a Bose-condensed exciton gas out of equilibrium. Within the framework of the combined BCS-Leggett strong-coupling theory with the non-equilibrium Keldysh formalism, we show how the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of excitons is suppressed to eventually disappear, when the system is in the non-equilibrium steady state. The supply of electrons and holes from the bath is shown to induce quasi-particle excitations, leading to the partial occupation of the upper branch of Bogoliubov single-particle excitation spectrum. We also discuss how this quasi-particle induction is related to the suppression of exciton BEC, as well as the stability of the steady state.

Abstract:
We theoretically investigate magnetic properties of a unitary Fermi gas in a harmonic trap. Including strong pairing fluctuations within the framework of an extended $T$-matrix approximation (ETMA), as well as effects of a trap potential within the local density approximation (LDA), we calculate the local spin susceptibility $\chi(T,r)$ above the superfluid phase transition temperature $T_{\rm c}$. We show that the formation of preformed singlet Cooper pairs anomalously suppresses $\chi(T,r)$ in the trap center near $T_{\rm c}$. We also point out that, in the unitarity limit, the spin-gap temperature in a uniform Fermi gas can be evaluated from the observation of the spatial variation of $\chi(T,r)$. Since a real ultracold Fermi gas is always in a trap potential, our results would be useful for the study of how this spatial inhomogeneity affects thermodynamic properties of an ultracold Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region.

Abstract:
We investigate single-particle properties of a mass-imbalanced Fermi gas in the BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer)-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover region. In the presence of mass imbalance, we point out that the ordinary $T$-matrix approximation, which has been extensively used to clarify various BCS-BEC crossover physics in the mass-balanced case, unphysically gives a double-valued solution in terms of the superfluid phase transition temperature $T_{\rm c}$ in the crossover region. To overcome this serious problem, we include higher order strong-coupling corrections beyond the $T$-matrix level. Using this extended $T$-matrix theory, we calculate single-particle excitations in the normal state above $T_{\rm c}$. The so-called pseudogap phenomena originating from pairing fluctuations are shown to be different between the light mass component and heavy mass component, which becomes more remarkable at higher temperatures. Since Fermi condensates with hetero-Cooper pairs have recently been discussed in various fields, such as exciton (polariton) condensates, as well as color superconductivity, our results would be useful for the further development of Fermi superfluid physics, beyond the conventional superfluid state with homo-Cooper pairs.

Abstract:
We investigate the possibility that the broken spatial inversion symmetry by a trap potential induces a spin-triplet Cooper-pair amplitude in an $s$-wave superfluid Fermi gas. Being based on symmetry considerations, we clarify that this phenomenon may occur, when a spin rotation symmetry of the system is also broken. We also numerically confirm that a triplet pair amplitude is really induced under this condition, using a simple model. Our results imply that this phenomenon is already present in a trapped $s$-wave superfluid Fermi gas with spin imbalance. As an interesting application of this phenomenon, we point out that one may produce a $p$-wave superfluid Fermi gas, by suddenly changing the $s$-wave pairing interaction to a $p$-wave one by using the Feshbach resonance technique. Since a Cooper pair is usually classified into the spin-singlet (and even-parity) state and the spin-triplet (and odd-parity) state, our results would be useful in considering how to mix them with each other in a superfluid Fermi gas. Such admixture has recently attracted much attention in the field of non-centrosymmetric superconductivity, so that our results would also contribute to the further development of this research field, on the viewpoint of cold Fermi gas physics.

Abstract:
We investigate the specific heat at constant volume $C_V$ in the BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer)-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas above the superfluid phase transition temperature $T_{\rm c}$. Within the framework of the strong-coupling theory developed by Nozi\`eres and Schmitt-Rink, we show that this thermodynamic quantity is sensitive to the stability of preformed Cooper pairs. That is, while $C_V(T\gesim T_{\rm c})$ in the unitary regime is remarkably enhanced by {\it metastable} preformed Cooper pairs or pairing fluctuations, it is well described by that of an ideal Bose gas of long-lived {\it stable} molecules in the strong-coupling BEC regime. Using these results, we identify the region where the system may be viewed as an almost ideal Bose gas of stable pairs, as well as the pseudogap regime where the system is dominated by metastable preformed Cooper pairs, in the phase diagram of an ultracold Fermi gas with respect to the strength of a pairing interaction and the temperature. We also show that the calculated specific heat agrees with the recent experiment on a $^6$Li unitary Fermi gas. Since the formation of preformed Cooper pairs is a crucial key in the BCS-BEC crossover phenomenon, our results would be helpful in considering how fluctuating preformed Cooper pairs appear in a Fermi gas, to eventually become stable, as one passes through the BCS-BEC crossover region.

Abstract:
We investigate the superfluid phase transition and effects of mass imbalance in the BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer)-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover regime of an cold Fermi gas. We point out that the Gaussian fluctuation theory developed by Nozi\`eres and Schmitt-Rink and the $T$-matrix theory, that are now widely used to study strong-coupling physics of cold Fermi gases, give unphysical results in the presence of mass imbalance. To overcome this problem, we extend the $T$-matrix theory to include higher-order pairing fluctuations. Using this, we examine how the mass imbalance affects the superfluid phase transition. Since the mass imbalance is an important key in various Fermi superfluids, such as $^{40}$K-$^6$Li Fermi gas mixture, exciton condensate, and color superconductivity in a dense quark matter, our results would be useful for the study of these recently developing superfluid systems.

Abstract:
We investigate magnetic properties and strong coupling corrections in the BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer)-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas. Within the framework of an extended $T$-matrix theory, we calculate the spin susceptibility $\chi$ above the superfluid phase transition temperature $T_{\rm c}$. In the crossover region, the formation of preformed Cooper pairs is shown to cause a non-monotonic temperature dependence of $\chi$, which is similar to the so-called spin-gap phenomenon observed in the under-doped regime of high-$T_{c}$ cuprates. From this behavior of $\chi$, we determine the spin-gap temperature as the temperature at which $\chi$ takes a maximum value, in the BCS-BEC crossover region. Since the spin susceptibility is sensitive to the formation of singlet Cooper pairs, our results would be useful in considering the temperature region where pairing fluctuations are important in the BCS-BEC crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas.