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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4025 matches for " Ryan Zemel "
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Uncovering Consumer Mindsets Regarding Raw Beverages  [PDF]
Ryan Zemel, Attila Gere, Petraq Papajorgji, Glenn Zemel, Howard Moskowitz
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2018.93020
Abstract: Nutritional fads in the health and fitness world are constantly changing. Each new craze has its believers and critics. For the consumer, “what to believe” becomes a topic filled with uncertainty. This paper presents a systematic approach to understanding what consumers believe about the health messaging of “raw beverages”. The paper presents both substantive results from US consumers, as well as demonstrates a general approach by which researchers can more deeply understand the consumer mind with respect to the specifics of health and wellness issues.
Ranking via Sinkhorn Propagation
Ryan Prescott Adams,Richard S. Zemel
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: It is of increasing importance to develop learning methods for ranking. In contrast to many learning objectives, however, the ranking problem presents difficulties due to the fact that the space of permutations is not smooth. In this paper, we examine the class of rank-linear objective functions, which includes popular metrics such as precision and discounted cumulative gain. In particular, we observe that expectations of these gains are completely characterized by the marginals of the corresponding distribution over permutation matrices. Thus, the expectations of rank-linear objectives can always be described through locations in the Birkhoff polytope, i.e., doubly-stochastic matrices (DSMs). We propose a technique for learning DSM-based ranking functions using an iterative projection operator known as Sinkhorn normalization. Gradients of this operator can be computed via backpropagation, resulting in an algorithm we call Sinkhorn propagation, or SinkProp. This approach can be combined with a wide range of gradient-based approaches to rank learning. We demonstrate the utility of SinkProp on several information retrieval data sets.
Unifying Visual-Semantic Embeddings with Multimodal Neural Language Models
Ryan Kiros,Ruslan Salakhutdinov,Richard S. Zemel
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Inspired by recent advances in multimodal learning and machine translation, we introduce an encoder-decoder pipeline that learns (a): a multimodal joint embedding space with images and text and (b): a novel language model for decoding distributed representations from our space. Our pipeline effectively unifies joint image-text embedding models with multimodal neural language models. We introduce the structure-content neural language model that disentangles the structure of a sentence to its content, conditioned on representations produced by the encoder. The encoder allows one to rank images and sentences while the decoder can generate novel descriptions from scratch. Using LSTM to encode sentences, we match the state-of-the-art performance on Flickr8K and Flickr30K without using object detections. We also set new best results when using the 19-layer Oxford convolutional network. Furthermore we show that with linear encoders, the learned embedding space captures multimodal regularities in terms of vector space arithmetic e.g. *image of a blue car* - "blue" + "red" is near images of red cars. Sample captions generated for 800 images are made available for comparison.
Exploring Models and Data for Image Question Answering
Mengye Ren,Ryan Kiros,Richard Zemel
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: This work aims to address the problem of image-based question-answering (QA) with new models and datasets. In our work, we propose to use neural networks and visual semantic embeddings, without intermediate stages such as object detection and image segmentation, to predict answers to simple questions about images. Our model performs 1.8 times better than the only published results on an existing image QA dataset. We also present a question generation algorithm that converts image descriptions, which are widely available, into QA form. We used this algorithm to produce an order-of-magnitude larger dataset, with more evenly distributed answers. A suite of baseline results on this new dataset are also presented.
A Multiplicative Model for Learning Distributed Text-Based Attribute Representations
Ryan Kiros,Richard S. Zemel,Ruslan Salakhutdinov
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: In this paper we propose a general framework for learning distributed representations of attributes: characteristics of text whose representations can be jointly learned with word embeddings. Attributes can correspond to document indicators (to learn sentence vectors), language indicators (to learn distributed language representations), meta-data and side information (such as the age, gender and industry of a blogger) or representations of authors. We describe a third-order model where word context and attribute vectors interact multiplicatively to predict the next word in a sequence. This leads to the notion of conditional word similarity: how meanings of words change when conditioned on different attributes. We perform several experimental tasks including sentiment classification, cross-lingual document classification, and blog authorship attribution. We also qualitatively evaluate conditional word neighbours and attribute-conditioned text generation.
Input Warping for Bayesian Optimization of Non-stationary Functions
Jasper Snoek,Kevin Swersky,Richard S. Zemel,Ryan P. Adams
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Bayesian optimization has proven to be a highly effective methodology for the global optimization of unknown, expensive and multimodal functions. The ability to accurately model distributions over functions is critical to the effectiveness of Bayesian optimization. Although Gaussian processes provide a flexible prior over functions which can be queried efficiently, there are various classes of functions that remain difficult to model. One of the most frequently occurring of these is the class of non-stationary functions. The optimization of the hyperparameters of machine learning algorithms is a problem domain in which parameters are often manually transformed a priori, for example by optimizing in "log-space," to mitigate the effects of spatially-varying length scale. We develop a methodology for automatically learning a wide family of bijective transformations or warpings of the input space using the Beta cumulative distribution function. We further extend the warping framework to multi-task Bayesian optimization so that multiple tasks can be warped into a jointly stationary space. On a set of challenging benchmark optimization tasks, we observe that the inclusion of warping greatly improves on the state-of-the-art, producing better results faster and more reliably.
Fast Exact Inference for Recursive Cardinality Models
Daniel Tarlow,Kevin Swersky,Richard S. Zemel,Ryan Prescott Adams,Brendan J. Frey
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Cardinality potentials are a generally useful class of high order potential that affect probabilities based on how many of D binary variables are active. Maximum a posteriori (MAP) inference for cardinality potential models is well-understood, with efficient computations taking O(DlogD) time. Yet efficient marginalization and sampling have not been addressed as thoroughly in the machine learning community. We show that there exists a simple algorithm for computing marginal probabilities and drawing exact joint samples that runs in O(Dlog2 D) time, and we show how to frame the algorithm as efficient belief propagation in a low order tree-structured model that includes additional auxiliary variables. We then develop a new, more general class of models, termed Recursive Cardinality models, which take advantage of this efficiency. Finally, we show how to do efficient exact inference in models composed of a tree structure and a cardinality potential. We explore the expressive power of Recursive Cardinality models and empirically demonstrate their utility.
Show, Attend and Tell: Neural Image Caption Generation with Visual Attention
Kelvin Xu,Jimmy Ba,Ryan Kiros,Kyunghyun Cho,Aaron Courville,Ruslan Salakhutdinov,Richard Zemel,Yoshua Bengio
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Inspired by recent work in machine translation and object detection, we introduce an attention based model that automatically learns to describe the content of images. We describe how we can train this model in a deterministic manner using standard backpropagation techniques and stochastically by maximizing a variational lower bound. We also show through visualization how the model is able to automatically learn to fix its gaze on salient objects while generating the corresponding words in the output sequence. We validate the use of attention with state-of-the-art performance on three benchmark datasets: Flickr8k, Flickr30k and MS COCO.
Skip-Thought Vectors
Ryan Kiros,Yukun Zhu,Ruslan Salakhutdinov,Richard S. Zemel,Antonio Torralba,Raquel Urtasun,Sanja Fidler
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: We describe an approach for unsupervised learning of a generic, distributed sentence encoder. Using the continuity of text from books, we train an encoder-decoder model that tries to reconstruct the surrounding sentences of an encoded passage. Sentences that share semantic and syntactic properties are thus mapped to similar vector representations. We next introduce a simple vocabulary expansion method to encode words that were not seen as part of training, allowing us to expand our vocabulary to a million words. After training our model, we extract and evaluate our vectors with linear models on 8 tasks: semantic relatedness, paraphrase detection, image-sentence ranking, question-type classification and 4 benchmark sentiment and subjectivity datasets. The end result is an off-the-shelf encoder that can produce highly generic sentence representations that are robust and perform well in practice. We will make our encoder publicly available.
Aligning Books and Movies: Towards Story-like Visual Explanations by Watching Movies and Reading Books
Yukun Zhu,Ryan Kiros,Richard Zemel,Ruslan Salakhutdinov,Raquel Urtasun,Antonio Torralba,Sanja Fidler
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Books are a rich source of both fine-grained information, how a character, an object or a scene looks like, as well as high-level semantics, what someone is thinking, feeling and how these states evolve through a story. This paper aims to align books to their movie releases in order to provide rich descriptive explanations for visual content that go semantically far beyond the captions available in current datasets. To align movies and books we exploit a neural sentence embedding that is trained in an unsupervised way from a large corpus of books, as well as a video-text neural embedding for computing similarities between movie clips and sentences in the book. We propose a context-aware CNN to combine information from multiple sources. We demonstrate good quantitative performance for movie/book alignment and show several qualitative examples that showcase the diversity of tasks our model can be used for.
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