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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 186198 matches for " Ruth E. Mark "
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Understanding the individual with Alzheimer’s disease: Can socioemotional selectivity theory guide us?  [PDF]
Ruth E. Mark
Advances in Alzheimer's Disease (AAD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aad.2012.13010
Abstract: Individuals often get lost behind the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) while widespread differences between these patients are morecommon than similarities. Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST) suggests that as we age our goals change from future-oriented (acquiringnew information) to present-oriented (enhancing the emotional, especially positive, meaning of encounters). The goal of the current article is to examine whether the principles of SST might also apply for people with AD. Some aspects of SST are found especially in the early stages of AD when awareness is often intact and cognitive impairment is relatively limited. This review has clinical significance for the treatment of AD because it focuses on what is important to the individual rather than treating patients as a homogenous group. It also highlights the importance of social networks and emphasizes the role of the proxy in AD care. Lastly, it suggests that if those with AD (like the healthy elderly) have a positivity bias then positive emotional stimuli/wording/instructions could usefully be employed in their daily treatment. I suggest that SST may be a useful starting point when attempting to address what matters to individuals with AD and conclude by providing a few suggestions for future studies.
Attachment Styles are Related to ERPs Elicited to Angry Faces in an Oddball Paradigm  [PDF]
Ruth E. Mark, Fienke I. M. Geurdes, Marrie H. J. Bekker
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2012.21015
Abstract: Attachment theory suggests that anxious attachment is associated with hypervigilance to threatening social stimuli, and avoidant attachment with avoidance or suppression of processing such stimuli. Twenty-five students viewed angry, fearful and neutral female faces in four visual oddball tasks, and completed the Attachment Style Questionnaire, the Autonomy-Connectedness Scale, and Anxiety and Depression subscales of the Symptom Checklist-90. When the oddballs were angry faces in a background of neutral frequents, we found higher levels of autonomy and secure attachment to be related to larger N100 and smaller P300 amplitudes; higher levels of anxious attachment were, on the contrary, associated with smaller N100 and larger P300 amplitudes. Variation in attachment is related to approaching, or withdrawing from threatening stimuli, and ERP-techniques add to our understanding of how the attachment system actually works.
Asymmetry in Resting Alpha Activity: Effects of Handedness  [PDF]
Ruth E. Propper, Jenna Pierce, Mark W. Geisler, Stephen D. Christman, Nathan Bellorado
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2012.14014
Abstract: Study Aim: Frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha band power during rest shows increased right, and/or de-creased left, hemisphere activity under conditions of state or trait withdrawal-associated affect. Non-right-handers (NRH) are more likely to have mental illnesses and dispositions that involve such withdrawal-related affect. The aim of the study was to examine whether NRH might be characterized by increased right, relative to left, hemisphere activity during rest. Methods: The present research investigated that hypothesis by examining resting EEG alpha power in consistently-right-handed (CRH) and NRH individuals. Results: In support of the hypothesis, NRH demonstrated de-creased right hemisphere alpha power, and therefore increased right hemisphere activity, during rest, compared to CRH. Conclusions: The study demonstrates further support for an association between increased right hemisphere activity and negative affect via an association between such EEG activity and NRH.
DKK1 Mediated Inhibition of Wnt Signaling in Postnatal Mice Leads to Loss of TEC Progenitors and Thymic Degeneration
Masako Osada,Logan Jardine,Ruth Misir,Thomas Andl,Sarah E. Millar,Mark Pezzano
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009062
Abstract: Thymic epithelial cell (TEC) microenvironments are essential for the recruitment of T cell precursors from the bone marrow, as well as the subsequent expansion and selection of thymocytes resulting in a mature self-tolerant T cell repertoire. The molecular mechanisms, which control both the initial development and subsequent maintenance of these critical microenvironments, are poorly defined. Wnt signaling has been shown to be important to the development of several epithelial tissues and organs. Regulation of Wnt signaling has also been shown to impact both early thymocyte and thymic epithelial development. However, early blocks in thymic organogenesis or death of the mice have prevented analysis of a role of canonical Wnt signaling in the maintenance of TECs in the postnatal thymus.
Virally-Mediated Versus Grazer-Induced Mortality Rates in a Warm-Temperate Inverse Estuary (Spencer Gulf, South Australia)  [PDF]
Laurent Seuront, Mark Doubell, Paul Van Ruth
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2014.44024
Abstract: We investigated the seasonal dynamics of flow cytometrically-defined populations of viruses, heterotrophic bacteria, and the picoeukaryotic and prokaryotic phytoplankton at three sites in the temperate oligotrophic inverse estuary of Spencer Gulf (South Australia). We consistently identified two sub-populations of viruses, three sub-populations of heterotrophic bacteria, one population of picoeukaryotic phytoplankton and two populations of prokaryotic phytoplankton (cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus). Both the cytometric community composition and the abundance of viruses, heterotrophic bacteria and both prokaryotic (Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus) and eukaryotic picophytoplankton were consistent with previous observations conducted in South Australian continental shelf waters. Noticeably LDNA bacteria (i.e. inactive or dormant cells) were consistently significantly the most abundant group of heterotrophic bacteria (totaling from 29% to 68% of total bacterial abundance) and were up to 10-fold more abundant than that previously reported in South Australian continental shelf waters, including the nearby Saint Vincent Gulf. These results suggest an overall low activity of the microbial community, and are consistent with previous evidence that LDNA cells may play a greater role in heterotrophic processes than HDNA cells in oligotrophic waters. In an attempt to further assess the qualitative and quantitative nature of the mortality of these organisms, we used a specific dilution assay to assess the relative contribution of viruses and microzooplankton grazers to the mortality rates of heterotrophic bacteria, and picoeukaryotic and prokaryotic phytoplankton. We consistently reported site-specific, population specific and sea-son-specific viral lysis and grazing rates of heterotrophic bacteria and the picoeukaryotic and prokaryotic (cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus) phytoplankton across sites and seasons. Specifically, both viral lysis and micro-zooplankton grazing rates of heterotrophic bacteria were consistently relatively low across sites and seasons, even though their seasonality suggested an overall dominance of grazing over viral lysis in both summer and winter. In contrast, no seasonality is found in either lysis or grazing rates of prokaryotic and eukaryotic picophytoplankton, which are comparable to previous observations conducted in oligotrophic waters, suggesting the mortality dynamics of these populations is similar to those encountered in other oligotrophic waters. The
Electrical Resistivity Survey for Predicting Aquifer at Onicha-Ugbo, Delta State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Ruth E. Iserhien-Emekeme
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2014.27060

A geoelectric survey employing the vertical electrical sounding (VES) was carried out in parts of Onicha-Ugbo in Aniocha North Local Government Area of Delta State using Abem Terrameter SAS 300C together with SAS 2000 booster. The study was carried out with the aim of delineating the subsurface geologic sequence present in the study area, determining their geoelectrical parameters (layer thicknesses and resistivities), and delineating the structural and geomorphological features present beneath the subsurface. The results of the survey suggest that the subsurface comprises of 5 -  6 layers and that clay and silt content varies vertically and horizontally, thus influencing the apparent resistivity of the area. The geoelectric section developed shows that the subsurface units are dominantly sandy underlying loamy sandy topsoil which is relatively dry. The depth to water table from the sites is above 150 m and suggests that groundwater exploration is encouraging.

Vertical Electrical Sounding of Water-Bearing Sub-Surface of Issele-Azagba in Southern Nigeria  [PDF]
Ruth E. Iserhien-Emekeme
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.512066
Abstract: An electrical resistivity survey involving vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique was carried out in Issele-Azagba, Aniocha North Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. This was aimed at investigating the lithologic boundaries and classification of the various subsurface formations. The data obtained were subjected to a twofold interpretative procedure involving initial partial curve matching and computer iteration. Results showed that a maximum of five subsurface layers was delineated from the geoelectric sections. This is made up of loamy topsoil underlain by relatively continuous sandy units composed of different compaction, wetness and clay content. The result also showed that the fifth substratum of the geoelectric section was the aquiferous sand relevant in groundwater development within the study area. Analysis of the result had shown that the aquifers identified in this study were vulnerable contamination percolating from the surface due to the absence of a protective aquitards.
A model discrimination method for processes with different memory structure
Freidlin Mark,Pfeiffer Ruth
Mathematical Problems in Engineering , 1999,
Abstract: In this paper we develop a test for determining whether the observed sample path comes from a system with hysteresis perturbed by noise, or if it arises from a system governed by an ordinary differential equation with the same noise. A large sample size test is constructed, which is appropriate in many practical situations. Two models are considered as alternatives to the hysteresis model. An asymptotic expression for the cutoff point of the test is found using a version of the central limit theorem.
A model discrimination method for processes with different memory structure
Mark Freidlin,Ruth Pfeiffer
Mathematical Problems in Engineering , 1999, DOI: 10.1155/s1024123x99000988
Smooth metrics for snapping strings
Ruth Gregory,Mark Hindmarsh
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.52.5598
Abstract: We construct two possible metrics for abelian Higgs vortices with ends on black holes. We show how the detail of the vortex fields smooths out the nodal singularities which exist in the idealized metrics. A corollary is that apparently topologically stable strings might be able to split by black hole pair production. We estimate the rate per unit length by reference to related Ernst and C-metric instantons, concluding that it is completely negligible for GUT-scale strings. The estimated rate for macroscopic superstrings is much higher, although still extremely small, unless there is an early phase of strong coupling.
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