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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8521 matches for " Ruth Chan "
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Prevention of Overweight and Obesity: How Effective is the Current Public Health Approach
Ruth S.M. Chan,Jean Woo
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7030765
Abstract: Obesity is a public health problem that has become epidemic worldwide. Substantial literature has emerged to show that overweight and obesity are major causes of co-morbidities, including type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, various cancers and other health problems, which can lead to further morbidity and mortality. The related health care costs are also substantial. Therefore, a public health approach to develop population-based strategies for the prevention of excess weight gain is of great importance. However, public health intervention programs have had limited success in tackling the rising prevalence of obesity. This paper reviews the definition of overweight and obesity and the variations with age and ethnicity; health consequences and factors contributing to the development of obesity; and critically reviews the effectiveness of current public health strategies for risk factor reduction and obesity prevention.
A Prospective Cohort Study Examining the Associations of Dietary Calcium Intake with All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Older Chinese Community-Dwelling People
Ruth Chan, Jason Leung, Jean Woo
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080895
Abstract: Background Most epidemiological studies of calcium intake and mortality risk have been conducted in populations with moderate to high calcium intake, and limited studies have focused on populations with low habitual calcium intake (i.e., mean dietary calcium intake <700 mg/d). Objective This study investigated the association between dietary calcium intake and death from all causes and cardiovascular disease in Chinese population with low habitual calcium intake. Design Data from 3,139 Chinese men and women in a population-based prospective cohort study, aged >=65 years and free of heart diseases or stroke at baseline, were analyzed. Primary outcome measures, identified from the death registry, were death from all causes and cardiovascular disease. Dietary calcium intake assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire was categorized into sex-specific quartiles. Data on use of supplemental calcium (yes or no) including individual calcium supplements and other calcium containing supplement were collected. Cox regression models adjusted for demographic and lifestyle variables were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results During a median of 9.1 years of follow-up, 529 all-cause deaths (344 men, 185 women) and 114 (74 men, 40 women) deaths from cardiovascular disease were identified. An inverse trend between dietary calcium intake and mortality was observed. Compared with the lowest quartile (<458 mg/d for men, <417 mg/d for women), the highest quartile of dietary calcium intake (>762 mg/d for men, >688 mg/d for women) had a significantly reduced risk of all-cause mortality (multivariate HR=0.63, 95% CI=0.49-0.81, Ptrend<0.001) but an insignificant decreased risk of cardiovascular mortality (multivariate HR=0.70, 95% CI=0.41-1.21, Ptrend=0.228). Similar inverse association was observed when the analyses were stratified on calcium supplemental use. Conclusions Higher intake of dietary calcium was associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality and possibly cardiovascular mortality in Chinese older people with low habitual calcium intake.
Dynamics of dark energy models and centre manifolds
Christian G. Boehmer,Nyein Chan,Ruth Lazkoz
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2012.06.064
Abstract: We analyse dark energy models where self-interacting three-forms or phantom fields drive the accelerated expansion of the Universe. The dynamics of such models is often studied by rewriting the cosmological field equations in the form of a system of autonomous differential equations, or simply a dynamical system. Properties of these systems are usually studied via linear stability theory. In situations where this method fails, for instance due to the presence of zero eigenvalues in the Jacobian, centre manifold theory can be applied. We present a concise introduction and show explicitly how to use this theory in two concrete examples.
Relative Contributions of Geographic, Socioeconomic, and Lifestyle Factors to Quality of Life, Frailty, and Mortality in Elderly
Jean Woo,Ruth Chan,Jason Leung,Moses Wong
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008775
Abstract: To date, few studies address disparities in older populations specifically using frailty as one of the health outcomes and examining the relative contributions of individual and environmental factors to health outcomes.
Nutritionist’s Variation in Counseling Style and the Effect on Weight Change of Patients Attending a Community Based Lifestyle Modification Program
Kris Y. W. Lok,Ruth S. M. Chan,Mandy M. M. Sea,Jean Woo
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7020413
Abstract: Information concerning the nature of nutritionist-patient relationships is very limited. This qualitative and quantitative study examined nutritionist’s skills, attributes, and beliefs towards nutrition counseling during a lifestyle modification intervention program, and whether this affected the patient’s weight outcome. 24 nutrition consultations were observed during the program and the nutritionists were interviewed for their perception on practice (n = 4). A statistically significant difference was observed between the nutritionists in regard to patient’s weight change after adjustment for age and baseline weight (p < 0.001). Key nutritionist skills identified that influenced weight outcome were meticulous investigation of the underlying obesity cause, identification of the subject’s stage of change, and psychological support.
Optimising Homing Endonuclease Gene Drive Performance in a Semi-Refractory Species: The Drosophila melanogaster Experience
Yuk-Sang Chan, David S. Huen, Ruth Glauert, Eleanor Whiteway, Steven Russell
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054130
Abstract: Homing endonuclease gene (HEG) drive is a promising insect population control technique that employs meganucleases to impair the fitness of pest populations. Our previous studies showed that HEG drive was more difficult to achieve in Drosophila melanogaster than Anopheles gambiae and we therefore investigated ways of improving homing performance in Drosophila. We show that homing in Drosophila responds to increased expression of HEGs specifically during the spermatogonia stage and this could be achieved through improved construct design. We found that 3′-UTR choice was important to maximise expression levels, with HEG activity increasing as we employed Hsp70, SV40, vasa and βTub56D derived UTRs. We also searched for spermatogonium-specific promoters and found that the Rcd-1r promoter was able to drive specific expression at this stage. Since Rcd-1 is a regulator of differentiation in other species, it suggests that Rcd-1r may serve a similar role during spermatogonial differentiation in Drosophila. Contrary to expectations, a fragment containing the entire region between the TBPH gene and the bgcn translational start drove strong HEG expression only during late spermatogenesis rather than in the germline stem cells and spermatogonia as expected. We also observed that the fraction of targets undergoing homing was temperature-sensitive, falling nearly four-fold when the temperature was lowered to 18°C. Taken together, this study demonstrates how a few simple measures can lead to substantial improvements in the HEG-based gene drive strategy and reinforce the idea that the HEG approach may be widely applicable to a variety of insect control programs.
Quintessence with quadratic coupling to dark matter
Christian G. Boehmer,Gabriela Caldera-Cabral,Nyein Chan,Ruth Lazkoz,Roy Maartens
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.81.083003
Abstract: We introduce a new form of coupling between dark energy and dark matter that is quadratic in their energy densities. Then we investigate the background dynamics when dark energy is in the form of exponential quintessence. The three types of quadratic coupling all admit late-time accelerating critical points, but these are not scaling solutions. We also show that two types of coupling allow for a suitable matter era at early times and acceleration at late times, while the third type of coupling does not admit a suitable matter era.
Leadership and Faith in a School Tragedy: A School Principal’s Perspective  [PDF]
Ruth Tarrant
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.55051
Abstract:

On April 15, 2008, six students (aged 16 years) and one teacher (aged 29 years) from a New Zealand school lost their lives in a river canyoning tragedy. The present study investigated the school principal’s perspective of how he led his school through the tragedy, and the role of faith in the school’s coping. The school principal was interviewed two years after the event. The school’s Christian foundation was the fundamental source of strength and guidance for the principal, as well as for students, staff, teachers, and families in the immediate aftermath of the tragedy and in the two years following (i.e., to the time of the present study), the Christian culture of the school guiding decision-making. Support from outside the school (e.g. critical incident support; teaching support from other schools; social support from community agencies and civic leaders) also played an important role in assisting the school through the tragedy, particularly in the immediate aftermath of the event. Further studies are required that allow the voices of children, families and school staff to be heard regarding leadership strategies that impact on them through a disaster.

Study of Configural Reasoning and Written Discourse in Geometric Exercises of Proving  [PDF]
Ruth Cueva
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.42007
Abstract:

This article presents a study of configural reasoning and written discourse developed by students of the National Polytechnic School of Ecuador when performing geometrical exercises of proving.

Equilibrium in Classical Confucian “Economy”  [PDF]
Shirley Chan
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.22015
Abstract: In a modern economy, “equilibrium” means that supply and demand is equal. It is at this point that the allocation of goods and services is at its most efficient, this being because the amount of goods and the amount of goods in demand are equally balanced. The market equilibrium therefore is determined by supply and demand. This paper looks at the concept of “equilibrium” in some of the early Confucian texts and its possible implications in economic activities. In the Confucian context equilibrium, or what can be termed as the ultimate equilibrium, is to be understood in a broader sense where balances and harmony at different levels (e.g. individual and society) need to be sought in order to achieve a model of sustainable development. The ultimate equilibrium may provide an alternative approach to social welfare and economic prosperity creating universal harmony and better living for humans. In Confucian ideology, governing for the welfare of the people is not merely a question of increasing personal income and wealth; it requires implementation on a priority basis, taking into consideration the formation of an orderly society based on the enforcement of moral and ethical standards with the existence of a benevolent government which appropriates things according to the principles of harmony and order to achieve what can be termed as the “great equilibrium”—equilibrium that is not simply defined by balanced economic forces as in modern economic theory; but rather is used to suggest an ideal state of harmony in self fulfilment and socio-political order through incentives and by appropriate means.
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