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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 132435 matches for " Ruo-Yu Liu "
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Spin Evolution of Millisecond Magnetars with Hyperaccreting Fallback Disks: Implications for Early Afterglows of Gamma-Ray Bursts
Z. G. Dai,Ruo-Yu Liu
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/759/1/58
Abstract: The shallow decay phase or plateau phase of early afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), discovered by Swift, is currently understood as being due to energy injection to a relativistic blast wave. One natural scenario for energy injection invokes a millisecond magnetar as the central engine of GRBs, because the conventional model of a pulsar predicts a nearly constant magnetic-dipole-radiation luminosity within the spin-down timescale. However, we note that significant brightening occurs in some early afterglows, which apparently conflicts with the above scenario. Here we propose a new model to explain this significant brightening phenomena by considering a hyperaccreting fallback disk around a newborn millisecond magnetar. We show that for typical values of the model parameters, sufficient angular momentum of the accreted matter is transferred to the magnetar and spins it up. It is this spin-up that leads to a dramatic increase of the magnetic dipole radiation luminosity with time and thus significant brightening of an early afterglow. Based on this model, we carry out numerical calculations and fit well early afterglows of 12 GRBs assuming sufficiently strong fallback accretion. If the accretion is very weak, our model turns out to be the conventional energy-injection scenario of a pulsar. Therefore, our model can provide a unified explanation for the shallow decay phase, plateaus, and significant brightening of early afterglows.
Spectrum and Composition of Ultra-high Energy Cosmic Rays from Semi-relativistic Hypernovae
Ruo-Yu Liu,Xiang-Yu Wang
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/746/1/40
Abstract: It has been suggested that hypernova remnants, with a substantial amount of energy in semi-relativistic ejecta, can accelerate intermediate mass or heavy nuclei to ultra-high energies and provide sufficient amount of energy in cosmic rays to account for the observed flux. We here calculate the expected energy spectrum and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from such semi-relativistic hypernovae. With a chemical composition equal to that of the hypernova ejecta and a flat or hard spectrum for cosmic rays at the sources, the spectrum and composition of the propagated cosmic rays observed at the Earth can be compatible with the measurements by the Pierre Auger Observatory.
On the origin of >10 GeV photons in gamma-ray burst afterglows
Xiang-Yu Wang,Ruo-Yu Liu,Martin Lemoine
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/771/2/L33
Abstract: Fermi/LAT has detected long-lasting high-energy photons (>100 MeV) from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), with the highest energy photons reaching about 100 GeV. One proposed scenario is that they are produced by high-energy electrons accelerated in GRB forward shocks via synchrotron radiation. We study the maximum synchrotron photon energy in this scenario, considering the properties of the microturbluence magnetic fields behind the shock, as revealed by recent Particle-in-Cell simulations and theoretical analyses of relativistic collisionless shocks. Due to the small-scale nature of the micro-turbulent magnetic field, the Bohm acceleration approximation breaks down at such high energies. This effect leads to a typical maximum synchrotron photon of a few GeV at 100 s after the burst and this maximum synchrotron photon energy decreases quickly with time. We show that the fast decrease of the maximum synchrotron photon energy leads to a fast decay of the synchrotron flux. The 10-100 GeV photons detected after the prompt phase can not be produced by the synchrotron mechanism. They could originate from the synchrotron self-Compton emission of the early afterglow if the circum-burst density is sufficiently large, or from the external inverse-Compton process in the presence of central X-ray emission, such as X-ray flares and prompt high-latitude X-ray emission.
Modeling the broadband emission of Fermi/LAT GRB 090902B
Ruo-Yu Liu,Xiang-Yu Wang
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/730/1/1
Abstract: GRB 090902B, detected by Fermi Large Array Telescope (Fermi/LAT), shows extend high-energy emission (>100 MeV) up to 10^3 s after the burst, which decays with time in a power-law as t^{-1.5}. It has been also observed by several follow-up low-energy instruments, including an early optical detection around 5000 s after the burst. The optical emission at early time decays faster than t^{-1.6}, which has been suspected to originate from the reverse shock. We here explore the models that can possibly explain the the broadband afterglow emission of GRB 090902B. We find that the reverse shock model for the early optical emission would overpredict the radio afterglow flux that is inconsistent with observations. A partially radiative blast wave model, which though is able to produce a sufficiently steep decay slope, can not explain the broadband data of GRB 090902B. The two-component jet model, which consists of a narrow and bright jet component in the core and a surrounding wider and less energetic jet component, is shown to be able to explain the broadband afterglow data, including the LAT high-energy data after ~50 s and low-energy (radio, optical and X-ray) afterglow data. The early-time high-energy emission detected by LAT before ~50 s is likely due to internal origin as that of the sub-MeV emission. The highest energy (33 GeV) photon of GRB090902B detected at 80 s can be marginally accommodated within the forward shock emission under the optimistic condition that electrons are accelerated by the Bohm diffusive shock.
Constraining the Emissivity of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays in the Distant Universe with the Diffuse Gamma-ray Emission
Xiang-Yu Wang,Ruo-Yu Liu,Felix Aharonian
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/736/2/112
Abstract: Ultra-high cosmic rays (UHECRs) with energies >10^19 eV emitted at cosmological distances will be attenuated by cosmic microwave and infrared background radiation through photohadronic processes. Lower energy extra-galactic cosmic rays (~10^18-10^19 eV) can only travel a linear distance smaller than ~Gpc in a Hubble time due to the diffusion if the extra-galactic magnetic fields are as strong as nano Gauss. These prevent us from directly observing most of the UHECRs in the universe, and thus the observed UHECR intensity reflects only the emissivity in the nearby universe within hundreds of Mpc. However, UHECRs in the distant universe, through interactions with the cosmic background photons, produce UHE electrons and gamma-rays that in turn initiate electromagnetic cascades on cosmic background photons. This secondary cascade radiation forms part of the extragalactic diffuse GeV-TeV gamma-ray radiation and, unlike the original UHECRs, is observable. Motivated by new measurements of extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background radiation by Fermi/LAT, we obtained upper limits placed on the UHECR emissivity in the distant universe by requiring that the cascade radiation they produce not exceed the observed levels. By comparison with the gamma-ray emissivity of candidate UHECR sources (such as GRBs and AGNs) at high-redshifts, we find that the obtained upper limit for a flat proton spectrum is ~10^1.5 times larger than the gamma-ray emissivity in GRBs and ~10 times smaller than the gamma-ray emissivity in BL Lac objects. In the case of iron nuclei composition, the derived upper limit of the UHECR emissivity is a factor of 3-5 times higher. Robust upper limit on the cosmogenic neutrino flux is further obtained, which is marginally reachable by the Icecube detector and the next-generation detector JEM-EUSO.
Diffuse PeV neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts
Ruo-Yu Liu,Xiang-Yu Wang
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/766/2/73
Abstract: The IceCube collaboration recently reported the potential detection of two cascade neutrino events in the energy range 1-10 PeV. We study the possibility that these PeV neutrinos are produced by gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), paying special attention to the contribution by untriggered GRBs that elude detection due to their low photon flux. Based on the luminosity function, rate distribution with redshift and spectral properties of GRBs, we generate, using Monte-Carlo simulation, a GRB sample that reproduce the observed fluence distribution of Fermi/GBM GRBs and an accompanying sample of untriggered GRBs simultaneously. The neutrino flux of every individual GRBs is calculated in the standard internal shock scenario, so that the accumulative flux of the whole samples can be obtained. We find that the neutrino flux in PeV energies produced by untriggered GRBs is about 2 times higher than that produced by the triggered ones. Considering the existing IceCube limit on the neutrino flux of triggered GRBs, we find that the total flux of triggered and untriggered GRBs can reach at most a level of ~10^-9 GeV cm^-2 s^-1 sr^-1, which is insufficient to account for the reported two PeV neutrinos. Possible contributions to diffuse neutrinos by low-luminosity GRBs and the earliest population of GRBs are also discussed.
Probing the tidal disruption flares of massive black holes with high-energy neutrinos
Xiang-Yu Wang,Ruo-Yu Liu,Zi-Gao Dai,K. S. Cheng
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.84.081301
Abstract: The recently discovered high-energy transient Swift J164449.3+573451 (Sw J1644+57) is thought to arise from the tidal disruption of a passing star by a dormant massive black hole. Modeling of the broadband emission suggests the presence of a powerful relativistic jet, which contributes dominantly to the observed X-ray emission. Here we suggest that protons can be accelerated to ultra-high energies by internal shocks occurring in the jets, but their flux is insufficient to account for the observed flux of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. High energy protons can produce ~0.1-10 PeV neutrinos through photomeson interactions with X-ray photons. The large X-ray fluence (7x10^-4 erg cm^-2) and high photopion efficiency, together with the insignificant cooling of secondary mesons, result in bright neutrino emission expected from Sw J1644+57 if the jet composition is matter-dominated. One to several neutrinos may be detected by a Km^3-scale detector from one tidal disruption event similar to Sw J1644+57, thereby providing a powerful probe of the composition of the jets.
Diffuse PeV neutrinos from EeV cosmic ray sources: semi-relativistic hypernova remnants in star-forming galaxies
Ruo-Yu Liu,Xiang-Yu Wang,Susumu Inoue,Roland Crocker,Felix Aharonian
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.89.083004
Abstract: We argue that the excess of sub-PeV/PeV neutrinos recently reported by IceCube could plausibly originate through pion-production processes in the same sources responsible for cosmic rays (CRs) with energy above the second knee around $10^{18}\,$eV. The pion production efficiency for escaping CRs that produce PeV neutrinos is required to be $\gtrsim 0.1$ in such sources. On the basis of current data, we identify semi-relativistic hypernova remants as possible sources that satisfy the requirements. By virtue of their fast ejecta, such objects can accelerate protons to EeV energies, which in turn can interact with the dense surrounding medium during propagation in their host galaxies to produce sufficient high-energy neutrinos via proton--proton ($pp$) collisions. Their accompanying gamma ray flux can remain below the diffuse isotropic gamma ray background observed by the {\it Fermi} Large Area Telescope (LAT). In order to test this scenario and discriminate from alternatives, the density of target protons/nuclei and the residence time of CRs in the interacting region are crucial uncertainties that need to be clarified. As long as the neutrinos and EeV CRs originate from the same source class, detection of $\gtrsim 10\,$PeV neutrinos may be expected within 5-10 years' operation of IceCube. Together with further observations in the PeV range, the neutrinos can help in revealing the currently unknown sources of EeV CRs.
Nearby low-luminosity GRBs as the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays revisited
Ruo-Yu Liu,Xiang-Yu Wang,Zi-Gao Dai
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19590.x
Abstract: Low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with luminosity . 10^49erg/s probably consititute a distinct population from the classic high-luminosity GRBs. They are the most luminous objects detected so far within ~ 100 Mpc, the horizon distance of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), so they are considered to be candidate sources of UHECRs. It was recently argued that the energy production rate in UHECRs is much larger than that in gamma-ray photons of long GRBs measured by the Fermi satellite, which, if true, would challenge the view that GRBs can be the sources of UHECRs. We here suggest that many of the low luminosity GRBs, due to their low luminosity, can not trigger the current GRB detectors and hence their contribution to the local gamma-ray energy production rate is missing. We find that the real local energy production rate by low-luminosity GRBs, taking into account the missing part, which constitutes a dominant fraction of the total amount, could be sufficient to account for the flux of UHECRs. Due to the low-luminosity, only intermediate-mass or heavy nuclei can be accelerated to ~ 10^20 eV. We discuss the acceleration and survival of these UHE nuclei in low-luminosity GRBs, especially in those missing low-luminosity GRBs. At last, the accompanying diffuse neutrino flux from the whole low-luminosity GRB population is calculated.
Star-forming galaxies as the origin of the IceCube PeV neutrinos
Xiao-Chuan Chang,Ruo-Yu Liu,Xiang-Yu Wang
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/805/2/95
Abstract: Star-forming galaxies, due to their high star-formation rates and hence large number of supernova remnants therein, are huge reservoirs of cosmic rays (CRs). These CRs collide with gases in the galaxies and produce high-energy neutrinos through $pp$ collisions. In this paper, we calculate the neutrino production efficiency in star-forming galaxies by considering realistic galaxy properties, such as the gas density and galactic wind in star-forming galaxies. To calculate the accumulated neutrino flux, we use the infrared luminosity function of star-forming galaxies obtained by {\em Herschel} PEP/HerMES survey recently. The intensity of CRs producing PeV neutrinos in star-forming galaxies is normalized with the observed CR flux at EeV ({1\,EeV=$10^{18}\,$eV}), assuming that supernova remnants or hypernova remnants in star-forming galaxies can accelerate protons to EeV energies. Our calculations show that the accumulated neutrino emission produced by CRs in star-forming galaxies can account for the flux and spectrum of the sub-PeV/PeV neutrinos under reasonable assumptions on the CR confinement time in these galaxies.
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