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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 160357 matches for " Rui-Wu Wang "
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Resource Elasticity of Offspring Survival and the Optimal Evolution of Sex Ratios
Rui-Wu Wang, Ya-Qiang Wang, Jun-Zhou He, Yao-Tang Li
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053904
Abstract: The fitness of any organisms includes the survival and reproductive rate of adults and the survival of their offspring. Environmental selection pressures might not affect these two aspects of an organism equally. Assuming that an organism first allocates its limited resources to maintain its survival under environmental selection pressure, our model, based on the evolutionarily stable strategy theory, surprisingly shows that the sex ratio is greatly affected by the environmental pressure intensity and by the reproductive resource elasticity of offspring survival. Moreover, the concept of the resource elasticity of offspring survival intrinsically integrates the ecological concepts of K selection and r selection. The model shows that in a species with reproductive strategy K, increased environmental selection pressure will reduce resource allocation to the male function. By contrast, in a species with reproductive strategy r, harsher environmental selection pressure will increase allocation to the male function. The elasticity of offspring survival might vary not only across species, but also across many other factors affecting the same species (e.g., age structure, spatial heterogeneity), which explains sex ratio differences across species or age structures and spatial heterogeneity in the same species.
Effect of acupuncture serum on intracellular Ca2+ concentration in cultured neurons
LI Rui-Wu
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2004,
Abstract: Objective: To study the humoral factor of acupuncture in improving functional activities of the organism. Methods: Neurons of the cerebral cortex from the new born rats were taken to be cultured in a strictly controlled medium. Seven to ten days later, fluorescein-molecular probe Fluo-3AM was used for staining intracellular Ca2+. Ca2+concentration and its changes after application of acupuncture serum were measured by using a laser confocal microscope. Normal serum and acupuncture serum were derived from the normal control rats and the rats undergoing electro-acupuncture of "Baihui (GV 20)", "Zusanli (ST 36)", "Quchi (LI 11)" and "Sanyinjiao (SP 6)" for 2 weeks. Results: After application of normal serum, the intracellular Ca2+concentration increased strikingly immediately at the beginning, and gradually got stable afterwards. When acupuncture serum was added to the culture fluid, Ca2+concentration lowered significantly. Conclusion: These results suggest that bioactive substances in serum collected from rats undergoing acupuncture can affect the intracellular Ca2+ concentration of the cerebral neurons, and the humoral factor may participate in the effect of acupuncture in regulating functional activities of the organism.
Ovipositing Pattern of the Fig Wasps and Its Effect on the Offspring Sex Ratio

SUN Bao-fa,WANG Rui-wu,HU Zhong,

动物学研究 , 2009,
Abstract: In this study, we experimentally examined the ovipositing sequence of the pollinator Ceratosolen fuscicep, non-pollinating wasp Platyneura mayri of Ficus racemosa and non-pollinating wasp Acophila sp.1 and Wakerella benjamini of Ficus benjamina in Xishuangbanna from Apr. 2006 to Jun. 2007. For the pollinating fig wasps, we injected ether into the receptive fruits with different time intervals after introducing the fig wasps, killing the fig wasps; for the non-pollinating fig wasps, we manually controlled ovipositing time length through organdy bags. After the treated fruits developed to be mature stage, we collected the adult wasps, and then analyzed and compared the offspring sex ratio under different ovipositing time length. The data showed that fig wasp C. fuscicep, P. mayri and Acophila sp.1 firstly oviposit their male offspring. The male offspring was much higher than female, if the mother wasps only oviposited one hour, whist the female offspring will be increased with the increase of oviposting time of mother wasps and the female offspring will be much higher than male offspring when the mother wasps could sufficiently oviposit their offspring in these three fig wasps. These results partly explain that the female offspring sex ratio decrease with increase of number of foundresses. However, the ovipositing sequence of Wakerella benjamini randomly oviposit their eggs and the sex ratio is about 1:1. Our results here imply that the ovipositing sequence and ovipositing time length of mother wasps might be of the most important factors determining the offspring sex ratio of fig wasps.
Interference Competition and High Temperatures Reduce the Virulence of Fig Wasps and Stabilize a Fig-Wasp Mutualism
Rui-Wu Wang,Jo Ridley,Bao-Fa Sun,Qi Zheng,Derek W. Dunn,James Cook,Lei Shi,Ya-Ping Zhang,Douglas W. Yu
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007802
Abstract: Fig trees are pollinated by fig wasps, which also oviposit in female flowers. The wasp larvae gall and eat developing seeds. Although fig trees benefit from allowing wasps to oviposit, because the wasp offspring disperse pollen, figs must prevent wasps from ovipositing in all flowers, or seed production would cease, and the mutualism would go extinct. In Ficus racemosa, we find that syconia (‘figs’) that have few foundresses (ovipositing wasps) are underexploited in the summer (few seeds, few galls, many empty ovules) and are overexploited in the winter (few seeds, many galls, few empty ovules). Conversely, syconia with many foundresses produce intermediate numbers of galls and seeds, regardless of season. We use experiments to explain these patterns, and thus, to explain how this mutualism is maintained. In the hot summer, wasps suffer short lifespans and therefore fail to oviposit in many flowers. In contrast, cooler temperatures in the winter permit longer wasp lifespans, which in turn allows most flowers to be exploited by the wasps. However, even in winter, only in syconia that happen to have few foundresses are most flowers turned into galls. In syconia with higher numbers of foundresses, interference competition reduces foundress lifespans, which reduces the proportion of flowers that are galled. We further show that syconia encourage the entry of multiple foundresses by delaying ostiole closure. Taken together, these factors allow fig trees to reduce galling in the wasp-benign winter and boost galling (and pollination) in the wasp-stressing summer. Interference competition has been shown to reduce virulence in pathogenic bacteria. Our results show that interference also maintains cooperation in a classic, cooperative symbiosis, thus linking theories of virulence and mutualism. More generally, our results reveal how frequency-dependent population regulation can occur in the fig-wasp mutualism, and how a host species can ‘set the rules of the game’ to ensure mutualistic behavior in its symbionts.
Relation between two non-pollinating wasps oviposition and the fruit abscission on Ficus racemosa

SUN Bao-Fa,WANG Rui-Wu,HU Zhong,LI Yao-Tang,

生态学报 , 2009,
Abstract: In the fig-fig wasp obligate mutualism, parasitic wasps Platyneura testacea and Platyneura mayri coexist with pollinating wasps. Theses non-pollinating wasps only use the seeds of figs or compete with pollinating wasp for floral resources, bring no any benefits to figs. The parasitism of these non-pollinating wasps may result in the disruption of the cooperation between figs and fig wasps. The fruit abscission mechanism of plant is generally considered as one of the key factors maintaining system stability. However, our quantitative experiment and field observations of fig-fig wasp system showed that the figs did not abscise fruits oviposited by Platyneura mayri, but abscised fruits over-ovipisited by P.testacea. The observation showed that tree oviposited by more P. testacea will have higher proportion of abscission. The over-ovipositing of P.testacea is the main reason for selective abscission of syconium. Our results indicate that the plant can only abscise fruits oviposited by parasitic wasps before pollinating wasps in fig-fig wasp mutualism, but do not abscise the fruits parasitized by wasps ovipositing simultaneous or later than pollinating wasps, implying that abscission can not sufficiently maintain the fig-fig wasp mutualism.
Evolutionary Dynamics of the Pgk1 Gene in the Polyploid Genus Kengyilia (Triticeae: Poaceae) and Its Diploid Relatives
Xing Fan, Li-Na Sha, Jian Zeng, Hou-Yang Kang, Hai-Qin Zhang, Xiao-Li Wang, Li Zhang, Rui-Wu Yang, Chun-Bang Ding, You-Liang Zheng, Yong-Hong Zhou
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031122
Abstract: The level and pattern of nucleotide variation in duplicate gene provide important information on the evolutionary history of polyploids and divergent process between homoeologous loci within lineages. Kengyilia is a group of allohexaploid species with the StYP genomic constitutions in the wheat tribe. To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of the Pgk1 gene in Kengyilia and its diploid relatives, three copies of Pgk1 homoeologues were isolated from all sampled hexaploid Kengyilia species and analyzed with the Pgk1 sequences from 47 diploid taxa representing 18 basic genomes in Triticeae. Sequence diversity patterns and genealogical analysis suggested that (1) Kengyilia species from the Central Asia and the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau have independent origins with geographically differentiated P genome donors and diverged levels of nucleotide diversity at Pgk1 locus; (2) a relatively long-time sweep event has allowed the Pgk1 gene within Agropyron to adapt to cold climate triggered by the recent uplifts of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau; (3) sweep event and population expansion might result in the difference in the dN/dS value of the Pgk1 gene in allopatric Agropyron populations, and this difference may be genetically transmitted to Kengyilia lineages via independent polyploidization events; (4) an 83 bp MITE element insertion has shaped the Pgk1 loci in the P genome lineage with different geographical regions; (5) the St and P genomes in Kengyilia were donated by Pseudoroegneria and Agropyron, respectively, and the Y genome is closely related to the Xp genome of Peridictyon sanctum. The interplay of evolutionary forces involving diverged natural selection, population expansion, and transposable events in geographically differentiated P genome donors could attribute to geographical differentiation of Kengyilia species via independent origins.
Diet of Non-pollinating Wasps and Their Impact on the Stability of Fig-pollinator Wasp Mutualism

YANG Cheng-yun,WANG Rui-Wu,ZHAO Gui-Fang,YANG Da-Rong,

动物学研究 , 2005,
Abstract: Ficus (Moraceae) and their species-specific pollinator wasps (Agaonidae) form a remarkable plant-insect obligate mutualism, and non-pollinators are the exploiters of the mutualism. The negative impact of exploiters on the reciprocal mutualists might disrupt the reciprocal mutualism in the process of evolution, but how the exploiters could coexist with the reciprocal mutualsits is not still clear. In this study, the diet of the five species of non-pollinators and relationship among fig wasps were analyzed on Ficus racemosa L. in Xishuangbanna from Dec. 2003 to Apr. 2004. In a controlled experiment pollinators and each species of non-pollinators oviposited and counts of wasps and seeds in mature figs were conducted. The results indicated that only Platyneura testacea Motschulsky and Platyneura mayri Rasplus are gall-makers, which can induce the ovaries into galls; Apocrypta sp., Apocrypta westwoodi Grandi and Platyneura agraensis Joseph are the parasitoids. The gall-makers and the parasitoids of pollinators have negative impacts on pollinators, but the impacts are not significant because of the influence of the ants and parasitoids of gall-makers. Additionally, the experiment excluding non-pollinators oviposition showed that the number of offspring of pollinators and seeds were not significantly different with the natural fruits. Moreover, the analysis on the natural population structure of fig wasps revealed that the pollinators are the dominant species. So in the natural condition, the abundance of gall-makers and parasitoids of pollinators are below the level needed to exclude pollinators, and thus they have a relatively weak impact on the stability of fig-pollinator mutualism and can coexist with the mutualism.
Evolutionary History of Triticum petropavlovskyi Udacz. et Migusch. Inferred from the Sequences of the 3-Phosphoglycerate Kinase Gene
Qian Chen, Hou-Yang Kang, Xing Fan, Yi Wang, Li-Na Sha, Hai-Qin Zhang, Mei-Yu Zhong, Li-Li Xu, Jian Zeng, Rui-Wu Yang, Li Zhang, Chun-Bang Ding, Yong-Hong Zhou
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071139
Abstract: Single- and low-copy genes are less likely to be subject to concerted evolution. Thus, they are appropriate tools to study the origin and evolution of polyploidy plant taxa. The plastid 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene (Pgk-1) sequences from 44 accessions of Triticum and Aegilops, representing diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid wheats, were used to estimate the origin of Triticum petropavlovskyi. Our phylogenetic analysis was carried out on exon+intron, exon and intron sequences, using maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference and haplotype networking. We found the D genome sequences of Pgk-1 genes from T. petropavlovskyi are similar to the D genome orthologs in T. aestivum, while their relationship with Ae. tauschii is more distant. The A genome sequences of T. petropavlovskyi group with those of T. polonicum, but its Pgk-1 B genome sequences to some extent diverge from those of other species of Triticum. Our data do not support for the origin of T. petropavlovskyi either as an independent allopolyploidization event between Ae. tauschii and T. polonicum, or as a monomendelian mutation in T. aestivum. We suggest that T. petropavlovskyi originated via spontaneous introgression from T. polonicum into T. aestivum. The dating of this introgression indicates an age of 0.78 million years; a further mutation event concerning the B genome occurred 0.69 million years ago.
Genetic diversity and phylogeny in Hystrix (Poaceae, Triticeae) and related genera inferred from Giemsa C-banded karyotypes
Zhang, Hai-Qin;Yang, Rui-Wu;Zhang, Li;Ding, Chun-Bang;Zeng, Jian;Zhou, Yong-Hong;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572009005000053
Abstract: the phylogenetic relationships of 15 taxa from hystrix and the related genera leymus (nsxm), elymus (sth), pseudoroegneria (st), hordeum (h), psathyrostachys (ns), and thinopyrum (e) were examined by using the giemsa c-banded karyotype. the hy. patula c-banding pattern was similar to those of elymus species, whereas c-banding patterns of the other hystrix species were similar to those of leymus species. the results suggest high genetic diversity within hystrix, and support treating hy. patula as e. hystrix l., and transferring hy. coreana, hy. duthiei ssp. duthiei and hy. duthiei ssp. longearistata to the genus leymus. on comparing c-banding patterns of elymus species with their diploid ancestors (pseudoroegneria and hordeum), there are indications that certain chromosomal re-arrangements had previously occurred in the st and h genomes. furthermore, a comparison of the c-banding patterns of the hystrix and leymus species with the potential diploid progenitors (psathyrostachys and thinopyrum) suggests that hy. coreana and some leymus species are closely related to the ns genome of psathyrostachys, whereas hy. duthiei ssp. duthiei, hy. duthiei ssp. longearistata and some of the leymus species have a close relationship with the e genome. the results suggest a multiple origin of the polyploid genera hystrix and leymus.
FISH analysis of 45S rDNA and 5S rDNA genes in Triticum polonicum L. and T. turgidum L. cv. Ailanmai
波兰小麦和矮兰麦45S rDNA和5S rDNA基因位点FISH分析

LIAO Jin-Qiu,YANG Rui-Wu,ZHOU Yong-Hong,Tsujimoto Hisashi,

遗传 , 2007,
Abstract: Using the method of double color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we had analyzed Triticum polonicum L. and T. turgidum L.cv. Ailanmai with the probes of 45S rDNA and 5S rDNA. The results indicated that there were highly consistent in T. polonicum L. High and T. turgidum L. cv. Ailanmai, both having four 45S rDNA loci and six 5S rDNA loci. In T. polonicum L. Dwarf, there were also four 45S rDNA loci, the same as that in T. polonicum L. High and T. turgidum L. cv. Ailanmai, but there were eight 5S rDNA loci. At the same time, we discussed the reason of interspecific and intraspecific variation of the two types of rDNA in locus number and location between T. polonicum L. and T. turgidum L. cv. Ailanmai.
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