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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 321 matches for " Ruggiero Francavilla "
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Regurgitation in healthy and non healthy infants
Flavia Indrio, Giuseppe Riezzo, Francesco Raimondi, Luciano Cavallo, Ruggiero Francavilla
Italian Journal of Pediatrics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1824-7288-35-39
Abstract: Regurgitation is defined as the passage of refluxed gastric content into the oral pharynx whilst vomiting is defined as expulsion of the refluxed gastric content from the mouth. The frequency of regurgitation may vary largely in relation to age and younger infants up to first month of age are more frequently affected by regurgitation. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is the backward flow of stomach contents up into the esophagus or the mouth. It happens to everyone. In babies, a small amount of GER is normal and almost always goes away by the time a child is 18 months old. The consensus statements that comprise the definition of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the pediatric population were developed through a rigorous process [1]. Consensus items of particular note were: (i) GERD is present when reflux of gastric contents causes troublesome symptoms and/or complications, but this definition is complicated by unreliable reporting of symptoms in children under the age of approximately 8 years; (ii) histology has limited use in establishing or excluding a diagnosis of GERD; its primary role is to exclude other conditions; (iii) Barrett's esophagus should be defined as esophageal metaplasia that is intestinal metaplasia positive or negative; and (iv) extraesophageal conditions may be associated with GERD, but for most of these conditions causality remains to be established. The prevalence and natural history of gastroesophageal reflux in infants have been poorly documented. In a recent pediatric prospective survey, the 12% of Italian infants satisfied the Rome II criteria for infant regurgitation. Eighty-eight percent of the infants who had completed two-years follow-up period had improved at the age of 12 months. Only one apart 210 infants turned out to have GERD [2].Diagnostic investigation of infants who regurgitate, but gain weight satisfactorily and do not exhibit other signs or symptoms is not indicated in clinical practice. The North American Society for P
Maturation of gastric electrical activity, gastric emptying and intestinal permeability in preterm newborns during the first month of life
Giuseppe Riezzo, Flavia Indrio, Francesco Raimondi, Osvaldo Montagna, Gennaro Salvia, Bisceglia Massimo, Lorenzo Polimeno, Luciano Cavallo, Ruggiero Francavilla
Italian Journal of Pediatrics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1824-7288-35-6
Abstract: Eighteen preterm newborns (median 34 wks, range 2 wks) completed the study. They underwent the recording of gastric electrical activity by means of cutaneous electrogastrography, the ultrasound examination of gastric emptying, and the lactulose-to-mannitol ratio from permeability-absorption test on days 3, 7, 15, and 30 after birth.Gastric electrical activity and emptying showed only slight changes between day 3 and day 7. On the contrary, an evident maturation in permeability, expressed as L/Mratio, was evident over time (Friedman Repeated Measures Analysis, p = 0.004).In preterm healthy newborns of 34 weeks gestational age, electrical and motor activity are completely developed at birth whilst the intestinal epithelial barrier clearly improves during the first week of life.Feeding intolerance is a recurrent problem in the clinical care of preterm infants and occur mainly in the first week of life, suggesting the presence of a maturation pattern of gastrointestinal tract [1]. It is known that functional maturation of the gastrointestinal tract is quite different over time with respect to its anatomical development [2-4]. Adequate levels of some digestive enzymes are reached only at the end of gestation and lactase activity at 34 weeks gestation is only 30% of the level of full-term newborns [3]. To date there is little data available about the development of the motility function and of the mucosal barrier in newborns during early days of life.Gastrointestinal motility can be recorded as a measure of gastric electrical activity, of the wall movements, and of gastric emptying time. A reliable method for recording gastric motility is cutaneous electrogastrography (EGG) [5-7]; electrogastrographic studies in newborns have demonstrated the absence of normal slow waves at birth and a maturation process modulated by enteral feedings [8-11]. Gastric emptying (GE) can be assessed by ultrasonography which is considered a non-invasive technique particularly suitable for youn
Management of cholelithiasis in Italian children: A national multicenter study
Claudia Della Corte, Diego Falchetti, Gabriella Nebbia, Marisa Calacoci, Maria Pastore, Ruggiero Francavilla, Matilde Marcellini, Pietro Vajro, Raffaele Iorio
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: AIM: To evaluate the management of Italian children with cholelithiasis observed at Pediatric and Surgical Departments linked to Italian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition.METHODS: One-hundred-eighty children (90 males, median age at diagnosis 7.3 years; range, 0-18 years) with echographic evidence of cholelithiasis were enrolled in the study; the data were collected by an anonymous questionnaire sent to participating centers.RESULTS: One hundred seventeen patients were treated with ursodeoxycholic acid; in 8 children dissolution of gallstones was observed, but the cholelithiasis recurred in 3 of them. Sixty-five percent of symptomatic children treated became asymptomatic. Sixty-four patients were treated with cholecystectomy and in only 2 cases a postoperative complication was reported. Thirty-four children received no treatment and were followed with clinical and echographic controls; in no case the development of complications was reported.CONCLUSION: The therapeutic strategies were extremely heterogeneous. Ursodeoxycholic acid was ineffective in dissolution of gallstones but it had a positive effect on the symptoms. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was confirmed to be an efficacy and safe treatment for pediatric gallstones.
Celiac Disease and Overweight in Children: An Update
Antonella Diamanti,Teresa Capriati,Maria Sole Basso,Fabio Panetta,Vincenzo Maria Di Ciommo Laurora,Francesca Bellucci,Fernanda Cristofori,Ruggiero Francavilla
Nutrients , 2014, DOI: 10.3390/nu6010207
Abstract: The clinical presentation of celiac disease in children is very variable and differs with age. The prevalence of atypical presentations of celiac disease has increased over the past 2 decades. Several studies in adults and children with celiac disease indicate that obesity/overweight at disease onset is not unusual. In addition, there is a trend towards the development of overweight/obesity in celiac patients who strictly comply with a gluten-free diet. However, the pathogenesis and clinical implications of the coexistence of classic malabsorption (e.g., celiac disease) and overweight/obesity remain unclear. This review investigated the causes and main clinical factors associated with overweight/obesity at the diagnosis of celiac disease and clarified whether gluten withdrawal affects the current trends of the nutritional status of celiac disease patients.
Las reformas del derecho de familia en India: el matrimonio de ni os entre derecho hindú tradicional e intervención estatal
Domenico Francavilla
Revista de Derecho Privado , 2012,
Abstract: El artículo analiza la evolución del derecho de India en relación con el matrimonio de ni os, considerando algunos aspectos del derecho tradicional hindú, los caracteres de la intervención colonial y las reformas jurídicas posteriores a la independencia. El trabajo resalta la interacción entre las diferentes fuentes de las que emerge el derecho hindú y los conflictos que se presentan entre derecho oficial y no oficial, para, con base en ello, explicar la manera como la modernización del derecho hindú ha encontrado diferentes resistencias que se han traducido en una peculiar separación entre disciplina privatista y penalista del matrimonio de ni os, siendo este sancionado penalmente pero considerado válido hasta el Child Marriage Prohibition Act de 2006, cuya eficacia en el contexto indio aún sigue siendo problemática.
Measurements of inclusive jet and dijet cross sections at the Large Hadron Collider
Paolo Francavilla
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: This review discusses the measurements of the inclusive jet and dijet cross section performed by the experimental collaborations at the LHC during what is now being called LHC Run 1 (2009 - 2013). It summarises some of the experimental challenges and the techniques used in the measurements of jets cross sections during the LHC Run 1.
Duodenal and faecal microbiota of celiac children: molecular, phenotype and metabolome characterization
Raffaella Di Cagno, Maria De Angelis, Ilaria De Pasquale, Maurice Ndagijimana, Pamela Vernocchi, Patrizia Ricciuti, Francesca Gagliardi, Luca Laghi, Carmine Crecchio, Maria Guerzoni, Marco Gobbetti, Ruggiero Francavilla
BMC Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-11-219
Abstract: This study aimed at investigating the microbiota and metabolome of 19 celiac disease children under gluten-free diet (treated celiac disease, T-CD) and 15 non-celiac children (HC). PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses by universal and group-specific primers were carried out in duodenal biopsies and faecal samples. Based on the number of PCR-DGGE bands, the diversity of Eubacteria was the higher in duodenal biopsies of T-CD than HC children. Bifidobacteria were only found in faecal samples. With a few exceptions, PCR-DGGE profiles of faecal samples for Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria differed between T-CD and HC. As shown by culture-dependent methods, the levels of Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Bifidobacteria were confirmed to be significantly higher (P = 0.028; P = 0.019; and P = 0.023, respectively) in fecal samples of HC than in T-CD children. On the contrary, cell counts (CFU/ml) of presumptive Bacteroides, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shighella and Klebsiella were significantly higher (P = 0.014) in T-CD compared to HC children. Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus plantarum were the species most diffusely identified. This latter species was also found in all duodenal biopsies of T-CD and HC children. Other bacterial species were identified only in T-CD or HC faecal samples. As shown by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR analysis, the percentage of strains identified as lactobacilli significantly (P = 0.011) differed between T-CD (ca. 26.5%) and HC (ca. 34.6%) groups. The metabolome of T-CD and HC children was studied using faecal and urine samples which were analyzed by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry-solid-phase microextraction and 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. As shown by Canonical Discriminant Analysis of Principal Coordinates, the levels of volatile organic compounds and free amino acids in faecal and/or urine samples were markedly affected by CD.As shown by the parallel microbiology and metabolome approach, the gluten-f
Fecal Microbiota and Metabolome of Children with Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified
Maria De Angelis, Maria Piccolo, Lucia Vannini, Sonya Siragusa, Andrea De Giacomo, Diana Isabella Serrazzanetti, Fernanda Cristofori, Maria Elisabetta Guerzoni, Marco Gobbetti, Ruggiero Francavilla
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076993
Abstract: This study aimed at investigating the fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) and autism (AD) in comparison to healthy children (HC). Bacterial tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) of the 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA analyses were carried out to determine total bacteria (16S rDNA) and metabolically active bacteria (16S rRNA), respectively. The main bacterial phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria and Verrucomicrobia) significantly (P<0.05) changed among the three groups of children. As estimated by rarefaction, Chao and Shannon diversity index, the highest microbial diversity was found in AD children. Based on 16S-rRNA and culture-dependent data, Faecalibacterium and Ruminococcus were present at the highest level in fecal samples of PDD-NOS and HC children. Caloramator, Sarcina and Clostridium genera were the highest in AD children. Compared to HC, the composition of Lachnospiraceae family also differed in PDD-NOS and, especially, AD children. Except for Eubacterium siraeum, the lowest level of Eubacteriaceae was found on fecal samples of AD children. The level of Bacteroidetes genera and some Alistipes and Akkermansia species were almost the highest in PDD-NOS or AD children as well as almost all the identified Sutterellaceae and Enterobacteriaceae were the highest in AD. Compared to HC children, Bifidobacterium species decreased in AD. As shown by Canonical Discriminant Analysis of Principal Coordinates, the levels of free amino acids and volatile organic compounds of fecal samples were markedly affected in PDD-NOS and, especially, AD children. If the gut microbiota differences among AD and PDD-NOS and HC children are one of the concomitant causes or the consequence of autism, they may have implications regarding specific diagnostic test, and/or for treatment and prevention.
Oats in the Diet of Children with Celiac Disease: Preliminary Results of a Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Multicenter Italian Study
Simona Gatti,Nicole Caporelli,Tiziana Galeazzi,Ruggiero Francavilla,Maria Barbato,Paola Roggero,Basilio Malamisura,Giuseppe Iacono,Andrea Budelli,Rosaria Gesuita,Carlo Catassi,Elena Lionetti
Nutrients , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/nu5114653
Abstract: A gluten-free diet (GFD) is currently the only available treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD). Several clinical trials have demonstrated that most celiac patients can tolerate a medium-high quantity of oats without any negative clinical effects; however, the inclusion of oats in GFD is still a matter of debate. In this study, Italian children with CD were enrolled in a 15-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Participants were randomized in two groups following either A-B treatment (6 months of diet “A”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “B”), or B-A treatment (6 months of diet “B”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “A”). A and B diets included gluten-free (GF) products (flour, pasta, biscuits, cakes and crisp toasts) with either purified oats or placebo. Clinical data (Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rate Scale [GSRS] score) and intestinal permeability tests (IPT), were measured through the study period. Although the study is still blinded, no significant differences were found in GSRS score or the urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio between the two groups after 6 months of treatment. These preliminary results suggest that the addition of non-contaminated oats from selected varieties in the treatment of children with CD does not determine changes in intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms.
Organised Behaviour and Organised Identity  [PDF]
Vincenzo Ruggiero
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2010.11003
Abstract: There is growing body of literature which offers reviews of the concepts of organised crime and political vio- lence, while documenting the official efforts to address such concepts jointly and treat them as a single issue. It would be intriguing to investigate how members of organised criminal groups and violent political groups re- spectively react to such official efforts. In my own memory, when the ‘mafiosi’ happened to share a prison in- stitution with members of the Red Brigades, they would steer away from those idealist Communists who got nothing out of killing. The former, when overcoming the disgust they felt in the presence of those who in their eyes adopted an incomprehensible political stance, and perhaps even a despicable sexual lifestyle, would simply suggest: “don’t make revolution, make money, you cretin!”. The latter, in their turn, would deal with the former as one deals with yet a different version of the economic and political power against which they fought. Echoes of this are found in an example coming from Greece itself, where the Courts have attempted to term ‘common’ rather than ‘political’ the offences attributed to the Revolutionary Organisation November 17. The fact that or- ganised crime is guided by material motivations and terrorism by political ones may be seen as irrelevant by of- ficial agencies pursuing the objective of degrading the ‘enemy’ whoever that might be. Therefore, the ceremo- nies of degradation, including the choice of an ad hoc vocabulary, may well serve the task, as the mad, the drug user and the terrorist constitute an undistinguishable mob in the face of which quibbling differences may just obstruct the criminal justice process. The purpose of this paper is to try and clarify a number of issues that we encounter when dealing with organised crime and political violence respectively.
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