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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461896 matches for " Rudzani A. Makhado "
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Determinants of soil respiration in a semi-arid savanna ecosystem, Kruger National Park, South Africa
Rudzani A. Makhado,Robert J. Scholes
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v53i1.1041
Abstract: Soil respiration, which is a combination of root respiration and microbial respiration, represents one of the main carbon fluxes in savannas. However, it is remarkable how little is known about these components – regarding either process-level mechanisms or quantitative estimates, especially in savanna ecosystems. Given the extensive area of savannas worldwide, this limits our ability to understand and predict the critical changes in the global carbon budget that underlie the phenomenon of global climate change. From May 2000 to April 2001, bi-weekly soil respiration measurements from two savanna types were made in 14 sampling collars (diameter = 100 mm), using a PP Systems EGM-2 respirometer. Results indicated that there was a difference in the rate of respiration between the more clayey Acacia and sandier Combretum savanna soils (p = 0.028). The mean (± s.d.) soil respiration in the Acacia savanna was 0.540 g/m2/h ± 0.419 g/m2/h, whilst it was 0.484 g/m2/h ± 0.383 g/m2/h in the Combretum savanna. We also found that soil respiration was sensitive to soil moisture and soil temperature. The rate of soil respiration at both sites rose to a maximum when soil temperature was at 28 °C and declined at higher temperatures, despite different temperature sensitivities. Soil respiration increased approximately linearly with an increase of soil moisture. In both savanna sites soil is subject to a combination of high temperature and water stress, which controls the fluxes of soil carbon dioxide. We found that the two sites differed significantly in their soil moisture characteristics (p < 0.0001) but not with regard to temperature (p = 0.141), which implies that soil moisture is the main factor responsible for the differences in respiration between Acacia and Combretum savannas. Conservation implications: It is argued for many protected areas that they perform a climate change buffering function. Knowing the soil respiration rate and determining its controlling factors contribute to improved understanding of whether protected areas will be net sources or sinks of carbon in the future. How to cite this article: Makhado, R.A. & Scholes, R.J., 2011, ‘Determinants of soil respiration in a semi-arid savanna ecosystem, Kruger National Park, South Africa’, Koedoe 53(1), Art. #1041, 8 pages. doi:10.4102/koedoe.v53i1.1041
Disaster risk assessment at Roburnia Plantation, Mpumalanga, South Africa
Rudzani A. Makhado,Amani T. Saidi
Jàmbá : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies , 2013, DOI: 10.4102/jamba.v5i1.64
Abstract: This study reports about disaster risk assessment undertaken at Roburnia Plantation, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were followed to collect data. A total of eight experienced foresters and fire fighters were purposively sampled for interview at Roburnia Plantation. A questionnaire survey was also used to collect the data. Risk levels were quantified using the risks equations of Wisner et al. (2004) and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR 2002). Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, single factor) was also applied. This study found that Roburnia Plantation is highly exposed to fire risks. The mean (± s.d.) output from the Wisner risk equation shows that fire is the highest risk at 7.7 ± 0.3, followed by harsh weather conditions at 5.6 ± 0.4 and least by tree diseases, pests and pathogens at 2.3 ± 0.2. Similarly, the mean (± s.d.) output from the UNISDR risk equation also shows that fire is the highest risk at 2.9 ± 0.2, followed by harsh weather conditions at 2.2 ± 0.3 and least by tree diseases, pests and pathogens at 1.3 ± 0.2. There was no significant deference in the risk analysis outputs (p = 0.13). This study also found that the number of fire incidents were low during summer, but increased during winter and spring. This variation is mainly due to a converse relationship with rainfall, because the availability of rain moistens the area as well as the fuel. When the area and fuel is moist, fire incidents are reduced, but they increase with a decrease in fuel moisture.
Challenges of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) on the African continent
Rudzani A. Makhado,Amani T. Saidi,Brian K. Mantlana,Mujasi D. Mwayafu
South African Journal of Science , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/sajs.v107i9/10.615
Young adults (20--35 years)
DA Makhado
Continuing Medical Education , 2004,
Abstract: No
Factors Associated with Increased Mortality in a Predominantly HIV-Infected Population with Stevens Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis
Lauren Knight, Rudzani Muloiwa, Sipho Dlamini, Rannakoe J. Lehloenya
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093543
Abstract: Introduction Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are life-threatening drug reactions with a higher incidence in HIV-infected persons. SJS/TEN are associated with skin and mucosal failure, predisposing to systemic bacterial infection (BSI), a major cause of death. There are limited data on risk factors associated with BSI and and mortality in HIV-infected people with SJS/TEN. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of patients admitted to a university hospital with SJS/TEN over a 3 year period. We evaluated their underlying illnesses, eliciting drugs, predictive value of bacterial skin cultures and other factors associated with mortality and BSI in a predominantly HIV-infected population by comparing characteristics of the patients who demised and those who survived. Results We admitted 86 cases during the study period and 67/86(78%) were HIV-infected. Tuberculosis was the commonest co-morbidity, diagnosed in 12/86(14%) cases. Skin cultures correlated with BSI by the same organism in 7/64(11%) cases and 6/7 were Gram-negative. Two of the 8 cases of Gram-negative BSI had an associated Gram-negative skin culture, although not always the same organism. All 8 fatalities had >30% epidermal detachment, 7 were HIV-infected, 6 died of BSI and 6 had tuberculosis. Conclusions Having >30% epidermal detachment in SJS/TEN carries an increased risk of BSI and mortality. Tuberculosis and BSI are associated with higher risk of death in SJS/TEN. Our data suggests there may be an association between Gram-negative BSI and Gram-negative skin infection.
A Space Oddity: Geographic and Specific Modulation of Migration in Eudyptes Penguins
Jean-Baptiste Thiebot, Yves Cherel, Robert J. M. Crawford, Azwianewi B. Makhado, Philip N. Trathan, David Pinaud, Charles-André Bost
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071429
Abstract: Post-breeding migration in land-based marine animals is thought to offset seasonal deterioration in foraging or other important environmental conditions at the breeding site. However the inter-breeding distribution of such animals may reflect not only their optimal habitat, but more subtle influences on an individual’s migration path, including such factors as the intrinsic influence of each locality’s paleoenvironment, thereby influencing animals’ wintering distribution. In this study we investigated the influence of the regional marine environment on the migration patterns of a poorly known, but important seabird group. We studied the inter-breeding migration patterns in three species of Eudyptes penguins (E. chrysolophus, E. filholi and E. moseleyi), the main marine prey consumers amongst the World’s seabirds. Using ultra-miniaturized logging devices (light-based geolocators) and satellite tags, we tracked 87 migrating individuals originating from 4 sites in the southern Indian Ocean (Marion, Crozet, Kerguelen and Amsterdam Islands) and modelled their wintering habitat using the MADIFA niche modelling technique. For each site, sympatric species followed a similar compass bearing during migration with consistent species-specific latitudinal shifts. Within each species, individuals breeding on different islands showed contrasting migration patterns but similar winter habitat preferences driven by sea-surface temperatures. Our results show that inter-breeding migration patterns in sibling penguin species depend primarily on the site of origin and secondly on the species. Such site-specific migration bearings, together with similar wintering habitat used by parapatrics, support the hypothesis that migration behaviour is affected by the intrinsic characteristics of each site. The paleo-oceanographic conditions (primarily, sea-surface temperatures) when the populations first colonized each of these sites may have been an important determinant of subsequent migration patterns. Based on previous chronological schemes of taxonomic radiation and geographical expansion of the genus Eudyptes, we propose a simple scenario to depict the chronological onset of contrasting migration patterns within this penguin group.
The Spread of Infectious Disease on Network Using Neutrosophic Algebraic Structure  [PDF]
A. Zubairu, A. A. Ibrahim
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2017.72009
Abstract: Network theory and its associated techniques has tremendous impact in various discipline and research, from computer, engineering, architecture, humanities, social science to system biology. However in recent years epidemiology can be said to utilizes these potentials of network theory more than any other discipline. Graph which has been considered as the processor in network theory has a close relationship with epidemiology that dated as far back as early 1900 [1]. This is because the earliest models of infectious disease transfer were in a form of compartment which defines a graph even though adequate knowledge of mathematical computation and mechanistic behavior is scarce. This paper introduces a new type of disease propagation on network utilizing the potentials of neutrosophic algebraic group structures and graph theory.
A Comparative Investigation of Lead Sulfate and Lead Oxide Sulfate Study of Morphology and Thermal Decomposition  [PDF]
S. A. A. Sajadi
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2011.22024
Abstract: The compound lead oxide sulfate PbSO4.PbO was prepared in our laboratory. The Thermal behavior of PbSO4 was studied using techniques of Thermogravimetry under air atmosphere from 25 to 1200°C. The identity of both compounds was confirmed by XRD technique. Results obtained using both techniques support same decomposition stages for this compound. The electron microscopic investigations are made by SEM and TEM. The compound is characterized by XRD and the purity was determined by analytical Methods. Also a series of thermogravimetric analysis is made and the ideal condition is determined to convert this compound to pure lead oxide.
Metal ion-binding properties of L-glutamic acid and L-aspartic acid, a comparative investigation  [PDF]
S. A. A. Sajadi
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.22013
Abstract: A comparative research has been developed for acidity and stability constants of M(Glu)1, M(Asp)2 and M(Ttr)3 complexes, which have been determined by potentiometric pH titration. Depending on metal ion-binding properties, vital differences in building complex were observed. The present study indicates that in M(Ttr) com-plexes, metal ions are arranged to the carboxyl groups, but in M(Glu) and M(Asp), some metal ions are able to build chelate over amine groups. The results mentioned-above demonstrate that for some M(Glu) and M(Asp) complexes, the stability constants are also largely determined by the affinity of metal ions for amine group. This leads to a kind of selectivity of metal ions, and transfers them through building complexes accompanied with glutamate and aspartate. For heavy metal ions, this building complex helps the absorption and filtration of the blood plasma, and consequently, the excursion of heavy metal ions takes place. This is an important method in micro-dialysis. In this study the different as-pects of stabilization of metal ion complexes regarding to Irving-Williams sequence have been investigated.
Determining the Basaltic Sequence Using Seismic Reflection and Resistivity Methods  [PDF]
A. Alanezi, A. Qadrouh
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2013.32B004

This study was carried out in Harat Rahat (south of Almadinah Almonwarah) using seismic reflection and resistivity methods. The main objectives of this study are to determine the extent of the basaltic layer and to define the subsurface faults and fractures that could affect and control the groundwater movement in the study area. A 2D seismic profile was acquired and the result shows that the subsurface in the study area has a major fault. We obtained a well match when the seismic result was compared with drilled wells. As a complementary tool, the resistivity method was applied in order to detect the groundwater level. The results of the resistivity method showed that six distinct layers have been identified. The interpretation of these six layers show that the first three layers, the fourth layer, the fifth layer and the bottom of the section indicated various subsurface structures and lithologies; various basaltic layers, fractured basalt, weathered basement and fresh basaltic layers, respectively. It is obvious that the eventual success of geophysical surveys depend on the combination with other subsurface data sources in order to produce accurate maps.

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