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A cross-sectional study of factors associated with dog ownership in Tanzania
Darryn L Knobel, M Karen Laurenson, Rudovick R Kazwala, Lisa A Boden, Sarah Cleaveland
BMC Veterinary Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-4-5
Abstract: Fourteen percent (202) of 1,471 households surveyed were identified as dog-owning, with an average of 2.4 dogs per dog-owning household. The percentage of dog-owning households was highest in inland rural areas (24%) and lowest in coastal urban communities (7%). The overall human:dog ratio was 14:1. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that households which owned cattle, sheep or goats were much more likely to own dogs than households with no livestock. Muslim households were less likely to own dogs than Christian households, although this effect of religion was not seen among livestock-owning households. Households were more likely to own a dog if the head of the household was male; if they owned a cat; or if they owned poultry. Dog ownership was also broadly associated with larger, wealthier households.The human:dog ratios in Tanzania are similar to those reported elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, although cultural and geographic variation is evident. Estimation of the number of owned dogs, and identification of household predictors of dog ownership, will enable targeted planning of rabies control efforts.Domestic dogs are ubiquitously associated with human populations in nearly all parts of the world. Reasons for keeping or tolerating dogs vary across societies and may involve aspects of security, companionship, transport, food acquisition or religious beliefs [1]. Whilst broad cultural patterns in human-dog relationships can be defined [2-4], within these trends there remains considerable variation between individual social units (e.g. families or households) in attitudes towards and associations with dogs [5-8]. Understanding the demographics and predictors of dog ownership at a household level may be of importance in fields such as public health [9-11] or social psychology [12-16], or of commercial interest in the provision and marketing of veterinary services and products [17].Although many societies derive benefits from their associations with dogs, dog
Domestic dog demographic structure and dynamics relevant to rabies control planning in urban areas in Africa: the case of Iringa, Tanzania
Alena S Gsell, Darryn L Knobel, Rudovick R Kazwala, Penelope Vounatsou, Jakob Zinsstag
BMC Veterinary Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-236
Abstract: The estimated size of the domestic dog population in Iringa was six times larger than official town records assumed, however, the proportion of feral dogs was estimated to account for less than 1% of the whole population. An average of 13% of all households owned dogs which equalled a dog:human ratio of 1:14, or 0.31 dogs per household or 334 dogs km-2. Dog female:male ratio was 1:1.4. The average age of the population was 2.2 years, 52% of all individuals were less than one year old. But mortality within the first year was high (72%). Females became fertile at the age of 10 months and reportedly remained fertile up to the age of 11 years. The average number of litters whelped per fertile female per year was 0.6 with an average of 5.5 pups born per litter. The population growth was estimated at 10% y-1.Such high birth and death rates result in a rapid replacement of anti-rabies immunised individuals with susceptible ones. This loss in herd immunity needs to be taken into account in the design of rabies control programmes. The very small proportion of truly feral dogs in the population implies that vaccination campaigns aimed at the owned dog population are sufficient to control rabies in urban Iringa, and the same may be valid in other, comparable urban settings.Since the 1960s, the reported incidence of canine and human rabies has increased in many countries in southern and eastern Africa [1,2] even though detection rates and reporting systems have deteriorated [3] and effective human post-exposure prophylaxis and dog rabies vaccines have become available commercially [4]. Most human rabies deaths worldwide occur in Africa and Asia, with an estimated 24 500 human deaths per year in Africa, more than 100 times the number of cases officially recorded [5]. In Tanzania, canine rabies has been reported throughout the country and is considered endemic in the Iringa district [6], where 16 persons are reported to have died of rabies at the Iringa Regional Hospital between
The Feasibility of Canine Rabies Elimination in Africa: Dispelling Doubts with Data
Tiziana Lembo ,Katie Hampson,Magai T. Kaare,Eblate Ernest,Darryn Knobel,Rudovick R. Kazwala,Daniel T. Haydon,Sarah Cleaveland
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000626
Abstract: Background Canine rabies causes many thousands of human deaths every year in Africa, and continues to increase throughout much of the continent. Methodology/Principal Findings This paper identifies four common reasons given for the lack of effective canine rabies control in Africa: (a) a low priority given for disease control as a result of lack of awareness of the rabies burden; (b) epidemiological constraints such as uncertainties about the required levels of vaccination coverage and the possibility of sustained cycles of infection in wildlife; (c) operational constraints including accessibility of dogs for vaccination and insufficient knowledge of dog population sizes for planning of vaccination campaigns; and (d) limited resources for implementation of rabies surveillance and control. We address each of these issues in turn, presenting data from field studies and modelling approaches used in Tanzania, including burden of disease evaluations, detailed epidemiological studies, operational data from vaccination campaigns in different demographic and ecological settings, and economic analyses of the cost-effectiveness of dog vaccination for human rabies prevention. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there are no insurmountable problems to canine rabies control in most of Africa; that elimination of canine rabies is epidemiologically and practically feasible through mass vaccination of domestic dogs; and that domestic dog vaccination provides a cost-effective approach to the prevention and elimination of human rabies deaths.
A “One Health” Approach to Address Emerging Zoonoses: The HALI Project in Tanzania
Jonna A. K. Mazet ,Deana L. Clifford,Peter B. Coppolillo,Anil B. Deolalikar,Jon D. Erickson,Rudovick R. Kazwala
PLOS Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000190
Quantifying Risk Factors for Human Brucellosis in Rural Northern Tanzania
Kunda John,Julie Fitzpatrick,Nigel French,Rudovick Kazwala,Dominic Kambarage,Godfrey S. Mfinanga,Alastair MacMillan,Sarah Cleaveland
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009968
Abstract: Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. Human brucellosis is a severely debilitating disease that requires prolonged treatment with a combination of antibiotics. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequel, and results in considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A study was conducted in Northern Tanzania to determine the risk factors for transmission of brucellosis to humans in Tanzania.
Pouched Rats’ Detection of Tuberculosis in Human Sputum: Comparison to Culturing and Polymerase Chain Reaction
Amanda Mahoney,Bart J. Weetjens,Christophe Cox,Negussie Beyene,Klaus Reither,George Makingi,Maureen Jubitana,Rudovick Kazwala,Godfrey S. Mfinanga,Amos Kahwa,Amy Durgin,Alan Poling
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/716989
Abstract: Setting. Tanzania. Objective. To compare microscopy as conducted in direct observation of treatment, short course centers to pouched rats as detectors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Design. Ten pouched rats were trained to detect tuberculosis in sputum using operant conditioning techniques. The rats evaluated 910 samples previously evaluated by smear microscopy. All samples were also evaluated through culturing and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was performed on culture growths to classify the bacteria. Results. The patientwise sensitivity of microscopy was 58.0%, and the patient-wise specificity was 97.3%. Used as a group of 10 with a cutoff (defined as the number of rat indications to classify a sample as positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis) of 1, the rats increased new case detection by 46.8% relative to microscopy alone. The average samplewise sensitivity of the individual rats was 68.4% (range 61.1–73.8%), and the mean specificity was 87.3% (range 84.7–90.3%). Conclusion. These results suggest that pouched rats are a valuable adjunct to, and may be a viable substitute for, sputum smear microscopy as a tuberculosis diagnostic in resource-poor countries. 1. Introduction A major hurdle in combating tuberculosis (TB) is diagnosing the disease in resource-poor countries.Sputum smear microscopy, the technique typically used, is relatively slow and characteristically has high specificity but low sensitivity [1, 2]; therefore, the international medical community has prioritized developing a quick, accurate, and affordable alternative diagnostic. In an attempt to develop one, researchers recently have investigated the use of scent-detecting pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) as a TB diagnostic.An initial proof of principle investigation [3] revealed that pouched rats trained through operant conditioning procedures could detect TB in human sputum, and three subsequent studies, involving a total of over 20,000 patients, showed that using the rats in second-line screening of sputum samples initially screened by smear microscopy at direct observation of treatment—short course (DOTS) centers in Tanzania increased new case detections by 31.4% [4], 44% [5], and 42.8% [6]. These results are promising, but the accuracy of Cricetomys in detecting TB has not been extensively evaluated relative to an established reference standard. Culturing is considered the “gold standard” for TB detection [2], and Weetjens et al. [3] reported the results of a study in which two rats, Mandela and Kingston, evaluated 817 sputum samples also evaluated by culturing, which
Mycobacteria in Terrestrial Small Mammals on Cattle Farms in Tanzania
Lies Durnez,Abdul Katakweba,Harrison Sadiki,Charles R. Katholi,Rudovick R. Kazwala,Robert R. Machang'u,Fran?oise Portaels,Herwig Leirs
Veterinary Medicine International , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/495074
Abstract: The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms were divided into “reacting” and “nonreacting” farms, based on tuberculin tests, and more mycobacteria were present in insectivores collected in reacting farms as compared to nonreacting farms. More mycobacteria were also present in insectivores as compared to rodents. All mycobacteria detected by culture and PCR in the small mammals were atypical mycobacteria. Analysis of the presence of mycobacteria in relation to the reactor status of the cattle farms does not exclude transmission between small mammals and cattle but indicates that transmission to cattle from another source of infection is more likely. However, because of the high prevalence of mycobacteria in some small mammal species, these infected animals can pose a risk to humans, especially in areas with a high HIV-prevalence as is the case in Tanzania. 1. Introduction The genus Mycobacterium comprises more than 140 named species recognized currently [1], of which several are pathogenic; most of them are environmental mycobacteria that may cause opportunistic infections. The pathogenic species are responsible for some important diseases in humans and animals in the developed world as well as in developing countries, namely, tuberculosis (TB), leprosy, and Buruli ulcer [2]. Susceptibility to mycobacterial infections can be higher in patients with underlying conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV-AIDS), sarcoidosis, silicosis, or emphysema. With the rising number of HIV-AIDS patients in Africa, TB and in some extent other mycobacterial diseases, caused by, for example, M. avium complex, are an important cause of morbidity and mortality [3]. Mycobacterial diseases in cattle such as bovine tuberculosis (BTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and atypical mycobacterioses (e.g., paratuberculosis caused by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis) can also have serious implications on public health and on economy [4–6]. Therefore, the control of BTB and atypical mycobacterioses is important. In countries with a wildlife reservoir of M. bovis, BTB in cattle is more difficult to control. In the UK, New Zealand, the United States, and Africa, a number of animals have been found to be infected with and act as a reservoir for M. bovis, namely, the European badger (Meles meles),
The Global One Health Paradigm: Challenges and Opportunities for Tackling Infectious Diseases at the Human, Animal, and Environment Interface in Low-Resource Settings
Wondwossen A. Gebreyes ,Jean Dupouy-Camet,Melanie J. Newport,Celso J. B. Oliveira,Larry S. Schlesinger,Yehia M. Saif,Samuel Kariuki,Linda J. Saif,William Saville,Thomas Wittum,Armando Hoet,Sylvain Quessy,Rudovick Kazwala,Berhe Tekola,Thomas Shryock,Michael Bisesi,Prapas Patchanee,Sumalee Boonmar,Lonnie J. King
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003257
Abstract: Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight advances in key zoonotic disease areas and the One Health capacity needs.
Knowledge of causes, clinical features and diagnosis of common zoonoses among medical practitioners in Tanzania
Kunda John, Rudovic Kazwala, Godfrey S Mfinanga
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-8-162
Abstract: The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. Semi-structured open-ended questionnaire was administered to medical practitioners to establish the knowledge of anthrax, rabies, brucellosis, trypanosomiasis, echinococcosis and bovine tuberculosis in selected health facilities within urban and rural settings in Tanzania between April and May 2005. Frequency data were analyzed using likelihood ratio chi-square in Minitab version 14 to compare practitioners' knowledge of transmission, clinical features and diagnosis of the zoonoses in the two settings. For each analysis, likelihood ratio chi-square p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Fisher's exact test was used where expected results were less than five.Medical practitioners in rural health facilities had poor knowledge of transmission of sleeping sickness and clinical features of anthrax and rabies in humans compared to their urban counterparts. In both areas the practitioners had poor knowledge of how echinococcosis is transmitted to humans, clinical features of echinococcosis in humans, and diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in humans.Knowledge of medical practitioners of zoonotic diseases could be a contributing factor to their under-diagnosis and under-reporting in Tanzania. Refresher courses on zoonotic diseases should be conducted particularly to practitioners in rural areas. More emphasis should be put on zoonotic diseases in teaching curricula of medical practitioners' training institutions in Tanzania to improve the diagnosis, reporting and control of zoonotic diseases. Veterinary and medical collaboration should be strengthened to enable more effective control of zoonotic diseases in Tanzania.A total of 61% (n = 868) of all human diseases and 75% of emerging human pathogens are zoonotic [1]. Besides the fact that many emerging human diseases are zoonotic [2-5], its only now that they have been demonstrated by quantitative analysis as risk factors for disease emergence [1]. Both dom
Health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania
John Kunda, Julie Fitzpatrick, Rudovic Kazwala, Nigel P French, Gabriel Shirima, Alastair MacMillan, Dominic Kambarage, Mark Bronsvoort, Sarah Cleaveland
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-315
Abstract: This was designed as a longitudinal study. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from patients who reported to selected hospitals in rural northern Tanzania between June 2002 and April 2003. All patients with conditions suspicious of brucellosis on the basis of preliminary clinical examination and history were enrolled into the study as brucellosis suspects. Blood samples were taken and tested for brucellosis using the Rose-Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and other agglutination tests available at the health facilities and the competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) test at the Veterinary Laboratory Agencies (VLA) in the UK. All suspects who tested positive with the c-ELISA test were regarded as brucellosis cases. A follow-up of 49 cases was made to collect data on health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases.The majority of cases 87.7% gave a history of going to hospital as the first point of care, 10.2% purchased drugs from a nearby drug shop before going to hospital and 2% went to a local traditional healer first. Brucellosis cases delayed going to hospital with a median delay time of 90 days, and with 20% of the cases presenting to hospitals more than a year after the onset of symptoms. Distance to the hospital, keeping animals and knowledge of brucellosis were significantly associated with patient delay to present to hospital.More efforts need to be put on improving the accessibility of health facilities to the rural poor people who succumb to most of the diseases including zoonoses. Health education on brucellosis in Tanzania should also stress the importance of early presentation to hospitals for prompt treatment.Brucellosis is caused by gram-negative bacilli, of the genus Brucella (Brucella abortus, B. suis, B. melitensis and B. canis) [1]. The most common clinical features of brucellosis include fever, fatigue, headache, sweating, joint pain, loss of appetite, muscular pain, lumber pain, weight loss, hepatomegally, splenomegally and arthritis.
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