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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2382 matches for " Ruchika Shaurya Prakash "
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Aging Brain from a Network Science Perspective: Something to Be Positive About?
Michelle W. Voss, Chelsea N. Wong, Pauline L. Baniqued, Jonathan H. Burdette, Kirk I. Erickson, Ruchika Shaurya Prakash, Edward McAuley, Paul J. Laurienti, Arthur F. Kramer
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078345
Abstract: To better understand age differences in brain function and behavior, the current study applied network science to model functional interactions between brain regions. We observed a shift in network topology whereby for older adults subcortical and cerebellar structures overlapping with the Salience network had more connectivity to the rest of the brain, coupled with fragmentation of large-scale cortical networks such as the Default and Fronto-Parietal networks. Additionally, greater integration of the dorsal medial thalamus and red nucleus in the Salience network was associated with greater satisfaction with life for older adults, which is consistent with theoretical predictions of age-related increases in emotion regulation that are thought to help maintain well-being and life satisfaction in late adulthood. In regard to cognitive abilities, greater ventral medial prefrontal cortex coherence with its topological neighbors in the Default Network was associated with faster processing speed. Results suggest that large-scale organizing properties of the brain differ with normal aging, and this perspective may offer novel insight into understanding age-related differences in cognitive function and well-being.
Caudate Nucleus Volume Mediates the Link between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cognitive Flexibility in Older Adults
Timothy D. Verstynen,Brighid Lynch,Destiny L. Miller,Michelle W. Voss,Ruchika Shaurya Prakash,Laura Chaddock,Chandramallika Basak,Amanda Szabo,Erin A. Olson,Thomas R. Wojcicki,Jason Fanning,Neha P. Gothe,Edward McAuley,Arthur F. Kramer,Kirk I. Erickson
Journal of Aging Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/939285
Abstract: The basal ganglia play a central role in regulating the response selection abilities that are critical for mental flexibility. In neocortical areas, higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are associated with increased gray matter volume, and these volumetric differences mediate enhanced cognitive performance in a variety of tasks. Here we examine whether cardiorespiratory fitness correlates with the volume of the subcortical nuclei that make up the basal ganglia and whether this relationship predicts cognitive flexibility in older adults. Structural MRI was used to determine the volume of the basal ganglia nuclei in a group of older, neurologically healthy individuals (mean age 66 years, ?? = 1 7 9 ). Measures of cardiorespiratory fitness ( V O 2 m a x ), cognitive flexibility (task switching), and attentional control (flanker task) were also collected. Higher fitness levels were correlated with higher accuracy rates in the Task Switching paradigm. In addition, the volume of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus positively correlated with Task Switching accuracy. Nested regression modeling revealed that caudate nucleus volume was a significant mediator of the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness, and task switching performance. These findings indicate that higher cardiorespiratory fitness predicts better cognitive flexibility in older adults through greater grey matter volume in the dorsal striatum. 1. Introduction Age-related cognitive decline is an unfortunate, but nearly ubiquitous, characteristic of late life that is preceded by atrophy of several brain regions including the prefrontal cortex, medial temporal lobe, and basal ganglia [1, 2]. Because of the expected increase in the proportion of adults over the age of 65 in the next forty years, it has become a major public health initiative to identify methods to prevent or reverse regional brain atrophy with the hope that this might concurrently improve cognitive performance [3]. Randomized trials of aerobic exercise have proven promising from this regard, with participation in exercise programs leading to greater prefrontal [4] and hippocampal volumes [5]. Nonrandomized longitudinal studies of physical activity [6, 7] and cross-sectional studies of cardiorespiratory fitness [8–10] have shown similar results, with more physical activity and higher fitness levels associated with greater volumes. Unfortunately, few studies have examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness levels in older adult humans are associated with brain areas other than the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus
Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Attentional Control in the Aging Brain
Ruchika Shaurya Prakash,Michelle W. Voss,Kirk I. Erickson,Jason M. Lewis,Laura Chaddock,Edward Malkowski,Heloisa Alves,Jennifer Kim,Amanda Szabo,Siobhan M. White,Thomas R. Wójcicki,Emily L. Klamm,Edward McAuley,Arthur F. Kramer
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2010.00229
Abstract: A growing body of literature provides evidence for the prophylactic influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on cognitive decline in older adults. This study examined the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and recruitment of the neural circuits involved in an attentional control task in a group of healthy older adults. Employing a version of the Stroop task, we examined whether higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with an increase in activation in cortical regions responsible for imposing attentional control along with an up-regulation of activity in sensory brain regions that process task-relevant representations. Higher fitness levels were associated with better behavioral performance and an increase in the recruitment of prefrontal and parietal cortices in the most challenging condition, thus providing evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with an increase in the recruitment of the anterior processing regions. There was a top-down modulation of extrastriate visual areas that process both task-relevant and task-irrelevant attributes relative to the baseline. However, fitness was not associated with differential activation in the posterior processing regions, suggesting that fitness enhances attentional function by primarily influencing the neural circuitry of anterior cortical regions. This study provides novel evidence of a differential association of fitness with anterior and posterior brain regions, shedding further light onto the neural changes accompanying cardiorespiratory fitness.
Mindfulness and the aging brain: A proposed paradigm shift
Ruchika S. Prakash,Alisha Janssen
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2014.00120
Abstract: There has been a proliferation of cognitive training studies investigating the efficacy of various cognitive training paradigms as well as strategies for improving cognitive control in the elderly. While some have found support for the transfer of training, the majority of training studies show modest to no transfer effects. When transfer effects have been observed, the mechanisms contributing to enhanced functioning have been difficult to dissociate. In this review, we provide a theoretical rationale for the study of mindfulness in older adults as a particular type of training program designed to improve cognitive control by capitalizing on older adults’ acquired behavioral orientation toward higher socioemotional goals. Given the synergistic relationship between emotional and cognitive control processes, the paradoxical divergence in older adults’ functional trajectory in these respective domains, and the harmonious interplay of cognitive and emotional control embedded in the practice of mindfulness, we propose mindfulness training as an opportunistic approach to cultivating cognitive benefits in older adults. The study of mindfulness within aging, we argue, capitalizes on a fundamental finding of the socioemotional aging literature, namely the preferential change in motivational goals of older adults from ones involving future-oriented wants and desires to present-focused emotion regulation and gratification.
Effect of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) treatment on restraint stress-induced behavioral and biochemical alteration in mice
Anil Kumar, Ruchika Garg, Atish K Prakash
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-10-18
Abstract: Animals were immobilized for a period of 6 hr. St. John's Wort (50 and 100 mg/kg) was administered 30 minutes before the animals were subjecting to acute immobilized stress. Various behavioral tests parameters for anxiety, locomotor activity and nociceptive threshold were assessed followed by biochemical assessments (malondialdehyde level, glutathione, catalase, nitrite and protein) subsequently.6-hr acute restraint stress caused severe anxiety like behavior, antinociception and impaired locomotor activity as compared to unstressed animals. Biochemical analyses revealed an increase in malondialdehyde, nitrites concentration, depletion of reduced glutathione and catalase activity as compared to unstressed animal brain. Five days St. John's Wort treatment in a dose of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg significantly attenuated restraint stress-induced behavioral (improved locomotor activity, reduced tail flick latency and antianxiety like effect) and oxidative damage as compared to control (restraint stress).Present study highlights the modest activity of St. John's Wort against acute restraint stress induced modification.Stress is a crucial determinant for maintenance of health and disease [1,2]. Stress either due to internal or external stimuli disturbs physiological homeostasis and causes neurobehavioral alteration [3,4]. There are various neuropsychiatric problems such as anxiety, cognitive dysfunction, depression etc, are generally associated with stress. Stress induces changes in emotional behavior, anxiety like state [5] that are associated with oxidative damage i.e. free radical damage [1,2]. Acute restraint stress stimulates numerous cellular cascade that lead to increase ROS production [6,7]. The central nervous system is especially vulnerable to free radical damage because of brain's high oxygen consumption, abundant lipid content and relative paucity of antioxidant enzymes [8]. Immobilization stress has also been reported to induce 2-3 fold higher rise of plasma corti
Alpha-linolenic acid regulates the growth of breast and cervical cancer cell lines through regulation of NO release and induction of lipid peroxidation
Rashmi Deshpande,Prakash Mansara,Snehal Suryavanshi,Ruchika Kaul-Ghanekar
Journal of Molecular Biochemistry , 2013,
Abstract: In the present work, we have analyzed the effect of the essential fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA) on nitric oxide release as well as induction of lipid peroxidation in breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and cervical (SiHa and HeLa) cancer cell lines. ALA-treated cells showed a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability in both breast and cervical cancer cell lines without affecting the viability of non-cancerous transformed HEK 293 cells. Both types of cancer cells treated with ALA demonstrated a significant reduction in nitric oxide (NO) release with a simultaneous increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO). This was followed by a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential as well as activation of caspase 3 leading to apoptosis. Thus, ALA regulated the growth of cancer cell lines through induction of lipid peroxidation and modulation of nitric oxide release resulting in apoptosis.
A Defect Prediction Model for Open Source Software
Ruchika Malhotra
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2012,
A Search for $t\bar{t}$ Resonances in Lepton Plus Jets Events with ATLAS using 14 fb$^{-1}$ of Proton-Proton Collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV
Ruchika Nayyar
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: Some Beyond the Standard Model theories predict new particles that decay predominantly into top-antitop quark pairs. A search for top-antitop quark resonances that decay into the lepton plus jets final state is carried out with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC using 14 fb$^{-1}$ of $\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV proton-proton collisions. The search considers both cases where all of the final state jets are isolated and where some or all of the top quark decay products are merged into a single jet. Mass exclusion limits at a 95% credibility level are set for two benchmark models, one predicting leptophobic topcolor Z' bosons and the other predicting Randall-Sundrum Kaluza-Klein gluons.
Development of a Novel Reusable Real Time Monitoring Glucose Sensor Based on Nanostructured Conducting Polyaniline (NSPANI)  [PDF]
Ruchika Chauhan, Deepshikha Saini, Tinku Basu
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2013.31010
Abstract: A novel mediatorless reusable glucose biosensor with a remarkable shelf life has been fabricated on electrodeposited film of chemically synthesized nanostructured polyaniline (NSPANI) on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass plates using cyclic voltammetry. Glucose oxidase has been covalently immobilized on electrodeposited NSPANI film to fabricate a glucose bioelectrode (GOx/NSPANI-SDS/ITO). The results of linear sweep voltammetry and the high value of heterogeneous rate constant as obtained using Laviron equation indicates that GOx/NSPANI-SDS/ITO bioelectrode can detect glucose in the range of 0.5 to 10.00 mM with high sensitivity of 13.9 μA?mM?1 with a fast response time of 12 seconds. The linear regression analysis of bioelectrode reveals standard deviation and correlation coefficient of 6 μA and 0.994, respectively. The low value of Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) estimated as 0.28 mM using Lineweaver-Burke plot indicates high affinity of glucose oxidase enzyme to glucose and transfer rate. The GOx/NSPANI-SDS/ITO bioelectrode exhibits uniform activity for 12 weeks under refrigerated conditions; however the study is further going on. Attempts have been made to utilize this electrode for estimation of glucose in blood serum and results are found to be within 11% error. The unique features of this novel electrode lie on its reusability, real time monitoring, reproducibility and remarkable shelf life apart from the wide linear range, high sensitivity, low K
An Explanatory Study of the Parameters to Be Measured From EMG Signal
Ruchika,Shalini Dhingra
International Journal of Engineering and Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Electromyography (EMG) is the analytical study of electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. EMG is an example of modern human computer interaction which can be used in the field of medicines and engineering. Through this paper we are going to discuss about standard parameters which can be used to analyse EMG-Surface EMG (SEMG) /surface scanning EMG signals because these parameters reflects the physiological activity of the motor unit. In this paper, we will also discuss the history of EMG, types of EMG, characteristics of EMG signal, muscles involved in movements of hand, parameters which are used to analyse EMG signal, variety of applications where EMG signals can be used. This paper will provide the researchers a good understanding of EMG signal and its analysis. This knowledge will help them to develop more powerful and efficient applications.
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