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Walnut Trim down Lipid Profile and BMI in Obese Male in Different Ethnic Groups of Quetta Population, Pakistan  [PDF]
Rehana Mushtaq, Rubina Mushtaq, Sobia Khwaja, Zahida Tasawar Khan
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.410139

A total of 64 male obese subjects were randomized to observe the effect of 40 g of walnut in daily breakfast on lipid profile and Body Mass Index (BMI), total Cholesterol (CHO), Triglyceride (TG) High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in obese male subjects of various ethnics i.e. Baloch (B), Pathan (P), Hazara (H) and Punjabi (PU) residing in Quetta region of Balochistan for this purpose four weeks controlled study was designed. A batch of 32 obese male subjects 8 from each ethnic group as a control and another batch of 32 obese males 8 from each ethnic group as treated were selected. Twelve hour fasting blood samples a day after stoppage of walnut were taken from obese control and obese treated subjects. Daily walnut consumption in obese male subjects evidently demonstrated reduced BMI in all ethnic groups. Walnut supplementation in obese exhibited significant reduction in cholesterol level in Baloch (P < 0.001) and Punjabi (P < 0.01) males. There was profound and statistically significant [B (P < 0.05), P (P < 0.05), H (P < 0.01) and PU (P < 0.05)] elevation in HDL-C in all male ethnic groups. In male sub-population LDL-C was significantly [P (P < 0.01), H (P < 0.001) and PU (P < 0.05)] reduced in these groups. In these subjects walnut supplementation showed pronounced reduction [B (P < 0.001), P (P < 0.05), H (P < 0.001) and PU (P < 0.001)] in triglyceride levels. The constructive influence of walnut on lipid profile suggests that walnut rich diet may have advantageous effects beyond changes in plasma lipid level.

Study of Serum Cholesterol Level in Adult Obese Population of Karachi, Pakistan  [PDF]
Rubina Mushtaq, Rehana Mushtaq, Ambreen Akram, Sobia Khwaja, Shabbir Ahmed
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases (OJEMD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojemd.2014.411024

Background: The present study was planned to investigate the level of cholesterol in obese/non-obese (normal) individuals according to their body mass index (BMI) and age in different population residing in Karachi. Aim: Comparison of serum cholesterol values of obese with normal subjects and comparison of BMI of obese and normal individuals. Methods: Selection of obese subjects was according to the WHO (1998) criteria. A total of 40 subjects 18 - 55 years of age participated in the study, among which 30 subjects (Mean Age = 29.47 ± 1.99) were obese (Mean BMI = 35.41 ± 0.878) and 10 were controls with Mean age = 21.00 ± 0.547 and BMI = 19.96 ± 0.432. An overnight fasting blood sample was obtained and serum total Cholesterol (T-CH) level was estimated. Results: Obese persons having Mean T-CH = 202.6 ± 14.3 and controls having Mean T-CH = 173.3 ± 14.0. The data were further divided into males and females. Obese females were 11 with their BMI 31.836 ± 0.21, mean age ranged at 28.73 ± 4.04 and T-CH 191.8 ± 21.8, while that of control females were 6 in number with their BMI ranged at 19.183 ± 0.507, age 21.000 ± 0.894 and Cholester 148.7 ± 16.0 in controls. Total numbers of obese males were 19 with their BMI ranged at 37.49 ± 1.14, age ranged at 29.89 ± 2.19 and cholesterol level ranged at 208.89 ± 19.1. Control males were 4 in number with their BMI ranged at 21.125 ± 0.075, age 21.250 ± 0.479 and their T-CH 128.7 ± 8.72. Conclusion: The results of current study have reflected that BMI and total cholesterol concentration are higher in obese subjects.

Effect of TRH and TSH on Circulatory Glucose and Fatty Acids Responses in Hypoinsulenemic Male Dwarf Goats  [PDF]
Rubina Mushtaq, Rehana Mushtaq, Abdul Majeed Cheema, Sobia Khwaja
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2014.513113
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus or hypoinsulinemia was induced successfully in the male dwarf goats aged be-tween 2 - 3 years with 2 consecutive administrations of streptozotocin. A comparable group of intact control goats was also maintained. In ruminants including goats unlike non-ruminants, insulin generally displays ineffectiveness or resistance in their biochemical setup to facilitate gluco-neogenesis, the only source of glucose in these animals. In present study almost in the absence of insulin through induced hypoinsulinemia the effects of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) (30 μg/kg body weight) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (2.5 μg/kg body weight) on circulatory glucose and different fatty acid fractions were studied in insulin resistant ruminant model. Fatty acid fractions were estimated by gas chromatography. Both TRH and TSH administration lowered glycemia in insulin deficient goats compared to the controls but significantly with TSH dose only. In intact goats the detectable circulating long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) fractions of lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid were undetected except linoleic acid in the hypoinsulinemic state, however were found restored following TRH and TSH administrations and some of LCFAs; stearic (6417%), oleic (1676%) and linoleic acid (1225%) increased exceptionally with TSH dose. In Intact goats however the hormones variedly increased the fractions. The volatile fatty acid fractions (VFAs) of formic, acetic, propionic, iso-butyric, n-butyric, iso-valeric, n-valeric, iso-caproic, n-caproic and heptanoic acid were detected in the goats. The most VFAs fractions markedly increased in hypoinsulinemic goats compared to the control goats following TRH and TSH infusion. These results have indicated that endogenously stimulated thyroid hormones with TRH and TSH in insulin deficient state inhibit the mechanisms of utilizing the fatty acids in glucose production. Therefore the study reveals thyroid hormones inhibitory effects on gluconeogenesis in insulin resistance and hyperglycemia.
Effect of Walnut on Lipid Profile in Obese Female in Different Ethnic Groups of Quetta, Pakistan
Rehana Mushtaq,Mushtaq Rubina,Zahida Khan Tasawar
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: Four week controlled study was designed to observe the effect of 40 g of walnut in daily breakfast on Body Mass Index (BMI), total Cholesterol (CHO), Triglyceride (TG) High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in obese female subjects of various ethnics, i.e. Baloch (B), Pathan (P), Hazara (H) and Punjabi (PU) residing in Quetta region of Balochistan. A batch of 32 obese female subjects, 8 from each ethnic group as a control and another batch of 32 obese females 8 from each ethnic group as treated were selected. Twelve hour fasting blood samples a day after stoppage of walnut were taken from obese control and obese treated subjects. Daily walnut consumption demonstrated considerable drop in body weight in all ethnic groups residing in Quetta locality. Marked and statically significant reduction in total cholesterol was noticed in all ethnic groups i.e. 3.6% (p<0.05), 5.4% (p<0.001), 5.8% (p<0.01) and 7% (p<0.001) in B, P, H and PU groups respectively. Baloch subjects showed significant reduction of 7.8% in TG (p<0.001), similarly significant lowered TG was also observed in PU group. A significant increase (p<0.001), (p<0.05) in HDL cholesterol had been observed in B and P group respectively in walnut consuming subjects. In walnut consuming female subjects significant reduction (p<0.05), (p<0.01), (p<0.01) in LDL cholesterol levels was noted in B, P and PU subjects respectively. The positive influence of walnut on lipid profile suggests that walnut rich diet may have beneficial effects beyond changes in plasma lipid level.
Supplementation of Whole Grain on Body Weight and Lipid Profile in Obese Females of Various Ethnic Groups in Balochistan, Pakistan
Rehana Mushtaq,Rubina Mushtaq,Zahida Tasawar Khan
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: The effects of supplemented whole grain consumption for 4 weeks on Body Mass Index (BMI), total Cholesterol (CHO), Triglyceride (TG), High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL) and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL) in obese female subjects of 4 major ethnic groups in Quetta, i.e., Pathan (P), Baloch (B), Hazara (H) and Punjabi (PU) were studied. Two groups each of 32 obese female subjects and comprising 8 subjects from each ethnic group were chosen from the volunteers on the selection criteria according to World Health Organization (1998). The subjects of the group taken as control used the conventionally available carbohydrates in meals and another batch referred as treated subjects consumed 50g cereals in breakfast and whole grain chapattis in lunch and dinner for 4 weeks. Twelve hours fasting blood sample was taken from control and whole grain treated obese subjects a day after the completion of experiment duration. Lower BMI had been observed in the subjects of all the ethnic groups compared to their respective control, however, significantly (p<0.01) only in PU group. Significantly lower concentration of total cholesterol in fiber consuming subjects of B (p<0.01) and PU (p<0.05) ethnic groups was demonstrated compare to their respective controls. Similarly Triglycerides (TG) concentrations were lesser in all ethnic groups but not significant statistically. Trend of greater concentration of HDL cholesterol and lower LDL cholesterol in the fiber taking subjects in all the ethnic groups was only significant (p<0.05) compare to their controls in P and PU groups, respectively.
Monitoring of biochemical effects of organochlorine pesticides on human health  [PDF]
Sobia Khwaja, Rubina Mushtaq, Masarrat Yousuf, Muhammad Attaullah, Fozia Tabbassum, Rabiya Faiz, Rehana Mushtaq
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.58182

The present study was designed to analyze organochlorine pesticide residues in the blood samples of the residents of Karachi. Biochemical and hematological parameters were tested thoroughly for changes as a result of organochlorine residues. In the blood samples which were drawn from both genders, organochlorine compounds like α-endosulfan (1.565 mg/kg) and β-endosulfan (1.233 mg/kg) were found in higher quantities and were the most frequently detected compounds. Average concentrations of the detected compounds (mg/kg) were: HCH (0.819); Cyclodienes (2.839); Diphenylaliphatics (0.240). An evident finding was the alteration in enzyme activity in higher residue samples. Levels of GPT, GOT, ALP, Choline-esterase and γ-GT were tested in all samples and observed major shifts in the upper and lower limits in high residue samples as compared with the normal values. Analysis of the blood parameters were carried out thoroughly and checked the levels of TLC, RBC, Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC, Platelets and differential leucocytes (Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Eosinophils and Monocytes) but found no distinct changes and hence no convincing relation was observed. Results of the present investigation of OCs in different blood sera indicated that bioconcentration and biomagnification of these chemicals were common phenomena in the population of Karachi city and this may be accountable for a variety of diseases and health hazards.

Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) in nursing primiparous and multiparous women  [PDF]
Sobia Khwaja, Rubina Mushtaq, Rehana Mushtaq, Masarrat J. Yousuf, Fozia Tabbassum
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.411132

Impact of PCBs was studied as a major source of physiological effects even very low concentration of PCBs transferred to the infants by mother’s milk. Milk samples were collected from primipara and multipara women. A significant variation pattern was observed in the level of PCB congeners, as PCBs are lipophilic in nature, another possibility arises that great deals of residues are passed on to infants through mother’s milk. A technique was developed to find out polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in breast milk. PCBs were extracted by Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion (MSPD) and analyzed by Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detector. The precision (RSD < 10%, n = 125), recovery (85% to 110%) and limit of quantification (between 0.50 and 3.00 μg·L-1), the chi square analysis at p ≤ 0.05 has shown that the PCB level was higher in multipara as compared to primipara. The analysis of the thirty samples revealed PCB levels above 6.85 μg·L-1 in breast milk samples by analyses of a mixture of PCB congeners. All PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 123 (+149), 118, 114, 153, 105, 138 (+163), 167, 156 (+171), 157, 180, 170, 189) were found at high level in primiparous and multiparous. Thus, a high correlation between the contamination of breast milk and environmental pollution of PCBs was observed.

Biological Association and Expressions of NOS3 & SOD2 in Non-Diabetic Senile Cataractogenesis  [PDF]
Shamim Mushtaq, Meraj Zehra, Ayesha Khan, Mehwish Ahmed, Rubina Ghani, Nikhat Ahmed
Advances in Enzyme Research (AER) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aer.2016.43009
Abstract: Aim: To evaluate the functional relationship between the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes in the pathogenesis of human senile cataract lenses of non-diabetic patients. Methods: Total solubilized proteins from human cataract lens were compared with normal lens (control) by 2-Dimenstional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Proteins with different abundances were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Western blot analysis was used to verify the changes in expression of NOS3 and SOD2. A further functional association of NOS3 with SOD2 and other proteins was seen by STRING 8.3 databases. Results: In the 2-DE maps, the cataract and normal lens proteins migrated in the region of pH 3 - 10 with a relative molecular weight of 20 - 130 kDa. Approximately two protein spots with differential intensity were detected as NOS3 and SOD2 using MALDI-TOF-MS. Western blot analysis showed high expression of NOS3 in cataract and SOD2 in normal lens samples. String interaction network revealed strong interactions between NOS3 and SOD2 at high confidence score, which is helpful in characterization of functional abnormalities that may be a causative factor in the pathogenesis of cataract. Conclusion: This study will offer new avenues for mechanistic evaluation and future prevention of cataractogensis. However, large scale studies will be required to evaluate the effect of this interaction on the clinical outcome in human cataract.
Unusual Case of Idiopathic Membranous Later Developing Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma  [PDF]
Rubina Naqvi
Open Journal of Nephrology (OJNeph) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojneph.2014.43016
Abstract: A 30-year-old male presented to nephrology services as a case of nephrotic syndrome and membranous nephropathy was found on renal biopsy. He was treated for this pathology with steroid and cytotoxic drugs and remained in remission for 3 years and then presented with non Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Effect of Kinetic Parameters on I-129 Activity from Fuel to Coolant in PWRs  [PDF]
Rubina Nasir
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology (WJNST) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2017.74022
Abstract: Effect of kinetic model parameters on fission product (I-129) activity from fuel to coolant in PWRs has been studied in this work. First a computational model was developed for fission product release into primary coolant using ORIGEN-2 as subroutine. The model is based on set of differential equations of kinetic model which includes fuel-to-gap release model, gap-to-coolant leakage model, and Booths diffusion model. A Matlab based computer program FPAPC (Fission Product Activity in Primary Coolant) was developed. Variations of I-129 activity in Primary Heat Transport System were computed and computed values of i-129 were found in good agreement and deviations were within 2% - 3% of already published data values. Finally, the effects of coolant purification rate, diffusion constant and gas escape rate on I-129 activity were studied and results indicated that the coolant purification rate is the most sensitive parameter for fission product activity in primary circuit. For changes of 5% in steps from 10% to +10% in the coolant purification rate constant (Β), the activity variation after 200 days of reactor operation was 23.1% for the change.
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