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DEVELOPMENT OF A QUALITY OF LIFEAPPROACH:ISSUES ACROSS THE LIFESPAN
Roy I. BROWN
Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation , 2012,
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Quality of life as an approach to intellectual and developmental disabilities has developed considerable over the past 30 years and now is having major impacts on the research, the delivery of services and the setting of policy in the field of intellectual and developmental disabilities.AIM: This article introduces and describes the development of quality of life, its major concepts and principles and links them to research, practice and policy.DISCUSSION: Quality of life is seen as a sensitizing concept and one that can bring further cohesion to research and practice and provide a framework for policy. Quality of life is, as a developmental process or approach, bringing together previous ideas such as normalization and pulling together a number of principles, which are relevant to those working in this field.CONCLUSIONS: The ideas and the areas described are linked, and it is argued that a full understanding of the research concepts and their practical implications are necessary, if the policy is to become the driver of practice over the life span, while including intervention and support along with the education of personnel.
Superior oblique sheath syndrome
Roy I
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1962,
Abstract:
Hypoxia and oxidative stress in breast cancer: Oxidative stress - its effects on the growth, metastatic potential and response to therapy of breast cancer
Nicholas S Brown, Roy Bicknell
Breast Cancer Research , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/bcr315
Abstract: Oxygen radicals are continuously generated within mammalian cells, this being a consequence of the use of oxygen in aerobic respiration. Superoxide is generated within the mitochondria and is sequentially reduced to hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. These species damage DNA, producing the mutations that initiate tumours and sustain progression [1]. Epidemiological studies suggest that a diet that is rich in antioxidants may help to prevent the development of breast carcinoma; this evidence contributed to recent UK Government advice that individuals should consume at least five portions of fruit or vegetables each day. The UK Department of Health has now translated this recommendation into initiatives such as the National School Fruit Scheme and the Five-a-day Community Projects (www.doh.gov.uk). The role of ROS in breast carcinoma may not be limited to early mutagenic events, however. Carcinoma cells are frequently under persistent oxidative stress. Human tumour cell lines in vitro produce ROS at a far greater rate than do non-transformed cell lines [2], and markers of constitutive oxidative stress have been detected in samples from in vivo breast carcinomas [3,4]. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, one of the major oxidatively modified DNA base products, is almost 10 times more prevalent in invasive ductal breast carcinoma cells than in normal control samples from the same patient [3]. It appears unlikely that such a high level of oxidatively modified DNA is exclusively due to the mutagens that initiated the tumour. Persistent oxidative stress within carcinoma cells may instead be responsible for the accumulation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine.Oxygen radicals are not only generated in the mitochondria. Neutrophils and macrophages produce ROS via a plasma membrane bound nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form (NADPH)-oxidase. The radicals are generated for cell killing and bactericidal activities. The NADPH-oxidase is not exclusive to these cells,
Vacuum Arc Ion Sources
I. Brown
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.5170/CERN-2013-007.311
Abstract: The vacuum arc ion source has evolved into a more or less standard laboratory tool for the production of high-current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. Applications include primarily ion implantation for material surface modification research, and good performance has been obtained for the injection of high-current beams of heavy-metal ions, in particular uranium, into particle accelerators. As the use of the source has grown, so also have the operational characteristics been improved in a variety of different ways. Here we review the principles, design, and performance of vacuum arc ion sources.
Hypovitaminosis A associated with Helminth infestations
Roy I,Ahmed E
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1981,
Abstract:
Consequences of Neglect: Analysis of the Sub-Saharan African Snake Antivenom Market and the Global Context
Nicholas I. Brown
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001670
Abstract: Background The worldwide neglect of immunotherapeutic products for the treatment of snakebite has resulted in a critical paucity of effective, safe and affordable therapy in many Third World countries, particularly in Africa. Snakebite ranks high among the most neglected global health problems, with thousands of untreated victims dying or becoming permanently maimed in developing countries each year because of a lack of antivenom—a treatment that is widely available in most developed countries. This paper analyses the current status of antivenom production for sub-Saharan African countries and provides a snapshot of the global situation. Methods A global survey of snake antivenom products was undertaken in 2007, involving 46 current and former antivenom manufacturers. Companies producing antivenom for use in sub-Saharan Africa were re-surveyed in 2010 and 2011. Results The amount of antivenom manufactured for sub-Saharan Africa increased between 2007 and 2010/11, however output and procurement remained far below that required to treat the estimated 300,000–500,000 snakebite victims each year. Variable potency and inappropriate marketing of some antivenoms mean that the number of effective treatments available may be as low as 2.5% of projected needs. Five companies currently market antivenom for sale in Africa; three others have products in the final stages of development; and since 2007 one has ceased production indefinitely. Most current antivenom producers possess a willingness and capacity to raise output. However inconsistent market demand, unpredictable financial investment and inadequate quality control discourage further production and threaten the viability of the antivenom industry. Conclusion Financial stimulus is urgently needed to identify and develop dependable sources of high-grade antivenoms, support current and emerging manufacturers, and capitalise on existing unutilised production capacity. Investing to ensure a consistent and sustainable marketplace for efficacious antivenom products will drive improvements in quality, output and availability, and save thousands of lives each year.
Interpretation, Constraint, and the Prospects of Scientific Realism
Harold I. Brown
Human Affairs , 2009, DOI: 10.2478/v10023-009-0030-z
Abstract: I explore the interaction between theory-based interpretations of scientific evidence and constraints on theories provided by that evidence. Interpretation is often viewed as a source of error and a reason for scepticism about scientific results. But, I argue, while interpretation does generate epistemic risk, it also points to new sources of evidence that can constrain our theories. This is especially clear in the development of instrumentation that increases the range of our interactions with nature. While the design of such instruments and the interpretation of their outputs are deeply dependent on theory-based interpretations, these outputs can still challenge those very theories. At the same time, theory-guided instrumentation provides us access to aspects of nature that we cannot study with our unaided senses. This access allows us to extend the range of evidence that we collect, and thus increases the constraints on our theories. As a result, theory-guided evidence collection has a positive impact on the prospects of scientific realism since these increasing constraints on our theories provide our only reason for thinking that we may be approaching the development of true theories.
A redetermination of the structure of poly[[μ4-(R)-2-ammonio-3-sulfonatopropanoato]aquasodium], originally reported as poly[[μ7-l-cysteato(2−)]disodium]
I. David Brown
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2012, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536812009683
Abstract: The structure originally reported as poly[[μ7-l-cysteato(2 )]disodium], [Na2(C3H5NO5S)]n [Liu (2002). Acta Cryst. E67, m1346–m1347], has been redetermined with one of the sodium atoms replaced with a water molecule and an additional proton attached to the amine group, resulting in the revised formula [Na{CO2CH(CH2SO3)NH3}(H2O)]n. The agreement index, wR, has been reduced from 0.159 to 0.087 and the global instability index from 0.56 vu (valence units) to the acceptable value of 0.11 vu.
AGN-Galaxy Clustering with the Panoramic Deep Fields
M. J. I. Brown
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: The AGN-galaxy cross-correlation function of radio-quiet AGN and radio galaxies has been measured with the Panoramic Deep Fields. Colour selection criteria and photometric redshifts have been used to significantly increase the signal-to-noise of the angular cross-correlation function. Radio-quiet AGN environments are comparable to the environments of early-type galaxies at low redshift. The radio galaxy-galaxy spatial cross-correlation function is very strong though large variations are observed from field-to-field. These variations appear to be caused by large-scale-structure on scales comparable to the 5 degree field-of-view. The distribution and spatial cross-correlation function of radio galaxies and clusters in the Panoramic Deep Fields is consistent with these objects tracing the same structures at z<0.7. No evidence is found for evolution of the AGN-galaxy spatial cross-correlation function across the redshift range observed.
Homotopies and automorphisms of crossed modules of groupoids
R. Brown,I. Icen
Mathematics , 2000,
Abstract: We give a detailed description of the structure of the actor 2-crossed module related to the automorphisms of a crossed module of groupoids. This generalises work of Brown and Gilbert for the case of crossed modules of groups, and part of this is needed for work on 2-dimensional holonomy to be developed elsewhere (see math.DG/0009082).
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