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Measles transmission in health care waiting rooms: implications for public health response
Kirsty Hope,Rowena Boyd,Stephen Conaty,Patrick Maywood
Western Pacific Surveillance and Response , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Seventeen cases of locally acquired measles occurred in South Western Sydney and Sydney local health districts between July and October 2011. Three of the cases were known to have at least one dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Seven cases were infected within a health care setting waiting room by five index cases. Current national protocols require follow-up of all susceptible contacts in the same waiting room for any length of time for up to two hours after the index case has left.Methods: Cases were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Information included: demographics, illness and activities during the exposure and infectious periods. Health care settings provided arrival and discharge times, maps of floor layouts and location of patients during stay.Results: All health care setting transmission occurred in cases who were present at the same time as their index cases, with cross-over time ranging from 20 to 254 minutes. No index case was isolated. Index cases were between day four and six of illness when transmission occurred. None of the five index cases and one of seven secondary cases had received at least one dose of MMR vaccine. Of the seven secondary cases, two were one year of age, one was 17 years old and four were between 30 and 39 years old.Conclusion: As Australia moves towards measles elimination, follow-up of cases is important; however, with limited public health resources a targeted response is vital. In this small but well-documented series of secondary cases acquired in a health care setting, all were infected following direct, proximate contact of at least 20 minutes. Changes to the national guidelines may be warranted, ensuring that limited resources are focused on following up contacts at greatest risk of disease.
Japanese Government Policy and the Reality of the Lives of the zanry? fujin
Rowena Ward
PORTAL : Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies , 2006,
Abstract: This paper examines the Japanese government’s changing response to the return of the zanry? fujin to Japan and the gap between the Japanese Government’s assumption that the zanry? fujin had chosen to remain in China and the reality of their lives. The zanry? fujin are women aged 13 years and over at the time of the Russian invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945 who, for whatever reason, did not undergo repatriation at the end of the war. Due to their age, the zanry? fujin were for a long time subjected to separate government policies in relation to visiting or migrating Japan to the zanry? koji – children who had not yet turned 13 at the time of the invasion. This paper analyses the narratives of the lives of three zanry? fujin in the aftermath of the Russian invasion and shows how many zanry? fujin did not initially have a choice over whether to return to Japan or not.
Combustion of biomass as a global carbon sink
Rowena Ball
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: This note is intended to highlight the important role of black carbon produced from biomass burning in the global carbon cycle, and encourage further research in this area. Consideration of the fundamental physical chemistry of cellulose thermal decomposition suggests that suppression of biomass burning or biasing burning practices to produce soot-free flames must inevitably transfer more carbon to the atmosphere. A simple order-of-magnitude quantitative analysis indicates that black carbon may be a significant carbon reservoir that persists over geological time scales.
Oscillatory thermal instability - the Bhopal disaster and liquid bombs
Rowena Ball
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: Thermal runaway reactions were involved in the Bhopal disaster of 1984, in which methyl isocyanate was vented from a storage tank of the liquid, and occur in liquid peroxide explosions, yet to date there have been few investigations into the mechanism of thermal runaway in such liquid thermoreactive systems. Consequently protocols for storing thermally unstable liquids and deactivating liquid bombs may be suboptimal. In this work the hydrolysis of methyl isocyanate and the thermal decomposition of triacetone triperoxide were simulated using a gradientless, continuous-flow reactor paradigm. This approximation enabled stability analyses on the steady state solutions of the dynamical mass and enthalpy equations. The results indicate that thermal runaway in both systems is due to the onset of a large amplitude, hard thermal oscillation initiated at a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. This type of thermal misbehaviour cannot be predicted using classical ignition theory, and may be typical of liquid thermoreactive systems. The mechanism of oscillatory thermal instability on the nanoscale is elucidated.
The geometry of bifurcation surfaces in parameter space. I. A walk through the pitchfork
Rowena Ball
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: The classical pitchfork of singularity theory is a twice-degenerate bifurcation that typically occurs in dynamical system models exhibiting Z_2 symmetry. Non-classical pitchfork singularities also occur in many non-symmetric systems, where the total bifurcation environment is usually more complex. In this paper three-dimensional manifolds of critical points, or limit-point shells, are introduced by examining several bifurcation problems that contain a pitchfork as an organizing centre. Comparison of these surfaces shows that notionally equivalent problems can have significant positional differences in their bifurcation behaviour. As a consequence, the parameter range of jump, hysteresis, or phase transition phenomena in dynamical models (and the physical systems they purport to represent) is determined by other singularities that shape the limit-point shell.
Assessing the Biomass Potential of Major Industrial Tree Plantation Species for Green Energy Production  [PDF]
Roger T. Sarmiento, Rowena P. Varela
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2015.55049
Abstract: Energy requirements in both urban and rural areas are increasing giving added stress to the power generators and energy sources, thus blackouts are becoming common scenarios. Renewable energy from tree biomass is being eyed to provide solution to insufficient energy supply. A component of the green energy generation project is to assess the biomass potential of major industrial tree plantation species in the region at various ages, to determine the sustainability of a biomass-based green energy generation. Actual field measurements of biomass in selected plantations were conducted. In the field inventory, a plot measuring 10 × 50 meters was laid out randomly on the sampling site. For all trees inside the plot, the basal diameter and diameter at breast height for ages 1 to 2 years old and 3 to 5 years old, respectively were recorded. The results revealed that the biomass of major industrial tree species in Year 1 followed the order: Mangium (Acacia mangium) > Ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) > Falcata (Paraserianthes falcataria) > Bagras (Eucalyptus deglupta). However, as the trees mature, the biomass generation changed with Falcata overtaking Mangium. The order then was: Falcata (Paraserianthes falcataria) > Mangium (Acacia mangium) > Ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) > Bagras (Eucalyptus deglupta). Of the major industrial tree species, Falcata (Paraserianthes falcataria) and Mangium (Acacia mangium) are noted to have the biggest potential in supplying the biomass requirement of the green energy plant.
The Propensity of a Science-Based Discipline towards Surface Learning Compared to the Arts—A Fresh Look at Two Cultures  [PDF]
Warren Lake, William Boyd, Wendy Boyd
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.616175
Abstract: The propensity of science students towards surface and deep learning approaches was investigated to determine whether they were more likely to be encouraged toward a surface rather than deep approach to learning: more specifically do undergraduate environmental science students favour a surface approach to a greater extent than students in other disciplines such as the arts. Examining whether a discipline favours towards students adopting a particular approach to learning, this study surveyed over 500 undergraduate students across seven discipline areas at one university to examine patterns of learning approaches. Analysis of scores reflected tendencies towards surface and deep approaches: motivations and strategies indicated that environmental science students do not adopt a significantly different overall approach compared to students in all other disciplines, apart from a greater tendency towards a surface approach on the main scale and surface strategy subscale compared, specifically, to arts and social science. The findings appear to indicate that both the Schools of Arts & Social Science and Environment, Science & Engineering, while multi-disciplinary in nature, may still show apparent remnants of “two cultures”.
Improving Antibiotic Activity against Wound Pathogens with Manuka Honey In Vitro
Rowena Jenkins, Rose Cooper
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045600
Abstract: Following the discovery of synergistic action between oxacillin and manuka honey against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, this study was undertaken to search for further synergistic combinations of antibiotics and honey that might have potential in treating wounds. Fifteen antibiotics were tested with and without sublethal concentrations of manuka honey against each of MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using disc diffusion, broth dilution, E strip, chequerboard titration and growth curves. Five novel antibiotic and manuka honey combinations were found that improved antibacterial effectiveness in vitro and these offer a new avenue of future topical treatments for wound infections caused by these two important pathogens.
RESEARCH: Saving the Philippine Hotspots- Are we succeedoing? A Social Science view from the ground
Rowena Reyes-Boquiren
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 2002,
Abstract: The state of biodiversity in the country requires immediate and coordinated response from local communities, the government, and the private sector. Biodiversity loss since the last decade continues today despite the increasing inflow of foreign-assisted investments in conservation initiatives. A number of these efforts provide lessons learned the hard way: the need for strategic partnerships among various stakeholders, no matter how serious their resource conflicts may be; for LGUs to take a stronger position in the control and management of their resource base in the light of Philippine society's political culture and poverty; for policy harmonization among government offices whose programs and administrative directives compete for scarce resource areas; for trans-disciplinal, holistic strategies and methodologies to be creatively thought out in order to address complex problems in resource use arrangements; for the primary local communities, including the cultural communities with their unique contribution to cultural and biological diversity, to be given rightful consideration in any conservation effort. These lessons are presented in greater detail in the paper to demonstrate that, indeed, there is hope in conserving Philippine biodiversity. The paper is a summary of the 18-month nationally-coordinated: Philippine Biodiversity Conservation Priority- Setting Program spearheaded by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). The program brought together 300 individuals and institutions from both the public and private sector.
Set families and Foulkes modules
Rowena Paget,Mark Wildon
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: We construct a new family of homomorphisms from Specht modules into Foulkes modules for the symmetric group. These homomorphisms are used to give a combinatorial description of the minimal partitions (in the dominance order) which label irreducible characters appearing as summands of the characters of Foulkes modules. The homomorphisms are defined using certain families of subsets of the natural numbers. These families are of independent interest; we prove a number of combinatorial results concerning them.
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