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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 403624 matches for " Ross M "
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The Relationship between Impaired Methylnicotinate Response and Oxidative Stress in Schizophrenia  [PDF]
Brian M. Ross, Iain Glen
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2014.42018
Abstract:

MNA response applied methylnicotinate (MNA) results in an arachidonic acid and cyclooxygenase-dependent vasodilatatory response which is diminished in patients with schizophrenia. This observation has been suggested to form the basis of a diagnostic test for the illness although the potential utility of such a procedure is diminished since the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study we sought to discover if reduced MNA response in schizophrenia is related to increased oxidative stress i.e. whether or not the two measures are negatively correlated with each other. MNA response was assessed visually in 17 patients with schizophrenia and 16 healthy controls and compared to the extent of oxidative stress in each participant assessed by quantifying the lipid peroxidation product ethane in breath. Serum vitamin E, a lipid soluble antioxidant, concentrations was also assessed. While MNA response was correlated with breath ethane concentrations, the expected relationship between the two measures was not observed. Instead a positive relationship between them suggests that some patients with schizophrenia have impaired fatty acid utilization leading to both diminished lipid peroxidation and cyclo-oygenation. This was not related to vitamin E concentrations, however, suggesting that lipid soluble anti-oxidant availability did not underlie our findings. Our data shed further light on the mechanism of impaired MNA response in schizophrenia and support the notion that this occurs consequent to a change in lipid metabolism.

Radical Resection of Adult Low Grade Oligodendroglioma without Adjuvant Therapy: Results of a Prospective Treatment Protocol—Surgical Treatment of Low-Grade Oligodendroglioma  [PDF]
Donald A. Ross, Lynda Yang, Oren Sagher, Amy M. Ross
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.22030
Abstract: The goal of this work was to demonstrate prospectively that maximal surgical resection of low grade oligodendrogliomas without adjuvant therapy does not reduce life expectancy over that of historical controls. All patients with surgically accessible grade II oligodendrogliomas underwent maximal resection using stereotactic guidance and/or cortical mapping and were followed with serial MRI scans without adjuvant therapy until either progression or spread into brain regions deemed not surgically resectable. Nineteen patients were treated between 1993 and 2006. Ten patients required reoperation an average of 55 months after their first surgery. Nine patients progressed to anaplastic tumors an average of 42 months after their first surgery: six patients died from their tumors an average of 73 months after diagnosis, two are still alive 76 and 18 months after progression, and one was lost to follow up. Ten patients are alive and progression-free an average of 116 months after diagnosis, one of whom was lost to follow up at 106 months from diagnosis. Four patients are alive and event-free an average of 125 months after diagnosis. All are male and three had tumors in the superior frontal gyrus. The event-free survival, progression-free survival, and overall survival of our patients are not worse than those of patients treated with postoperative adjuvant therapy. Withholding adjuvant therapy at diagnosis appears to be safe. It will be important to establish the molecular differences between the patients who did very well and those who progressed so that adjuvant therapy could be offered to the latter.
Lobar Distribution of Low Grade Oligodendroglioma: Distribution, Molecular Characteristics, and Survival Based upon Location  [PDF]
Donald A. Ross, Shao Tao, Sakir Gultekin, Amy M. Ross
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.513126
Abstract:

Grade II oligodendrogliomas are rare and slow growing tumors, making long-term follow up difficult, but necessary for better understanding. In this retrospective study a review of all grade II oligodendrogliomas encountered in the last 20 years at one institution, was undertaken to determine if specific tumor location and immunohistochemical analysis had any impact on recurrence rate, progression free survival, or life expectancy. Eighty-nine grade II oligodendroglioms cases were reviewed (38 females and 51 males; mean age was 40.3 ± 13.8 years). Tumor location was: frontal lobe (44, 49.4%) and superior frontal gyrus (30, 33.7%). 1p19q data were available in 49 patients. Twenty-nine cases were co-deleted (59.2%). There was no significant difference in the incidence of 1p19q co-deletion between superior frontal gyrus tumors vs. other frontal tumors or extra-frontal tumors (p= 0.45). Follow up of at least 3 months after diagnosis was available in 79 patients (mean follow up: 93.2 months). In recurrence analysis, recurrence by 1p19q status and recurrence by location revealed no significant differences. In analysis of progression, progression by 1p19q status and progression by location revealed no significant differences. An analysis of deaths for the sample, deaths by 1p19q status and deaths by location revealed no significant differences. There was a higher death rate among patients >50 years of age, however this, too, was not significant.There did not appear to be any advantage in recurrence rate, progression free survival, or life expectancy for tumors located in the frontal lobe or superior frontal gyrus. 1p19q co-deletion did not appear to confer an advantage as measured by time to recurrence, time to progression, or overall survival. Other than age, eloquent location, Karnofsky status, and overall tumor size as reported by others, tumor location and 1p19q status in low grade oligodendrogliomas are not currently predictive of survival.

Increased breath ethane and pentane concentrations in currently unmedicated patients with schizophrenia  [PDF]
Brian M. Ross, Sandeep Shah, Malcolm Peet
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2011.11001
Abstract: Schizophrenia is a common and debilitating mental illness. The disorder is thought to be developmental in origin, with oxidative stress being implicated as possible pathophysiological mechanism. Breath alkanes provide a non-invasive means to assess oxidative stress, with ethane levels reportedly increased in medicated patients with schizophrenia. It is possible, however, that the psychotropic medications used to treat the disorder result in elevated breath ethane levels. We have therefore measured the concentration of ethane and pentane, markers of oxidative stress, in the breath of currently unmedicated patients with schizophrenia. Alveolar breath samples were collected, applied to thermal desorption tubes, and analyzed using a combination of two-stage thermal de-sorption, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Compared to healthy controls ethane and pentane levels were found to be elevated in patients with schizophrenia, while levels of butane were normal. Our data support the notion that oxidative stress is increased in schizophrenia and that this is unlikely to be a consequence of antipsychotic medications. In addition, breath alkane analysis may represent a rapid and non-invasive means to monitor oxidative stress occurring in schizophrenia.
Sub-parts per billion detection of trace volatile chemicals in human breath using Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry
Brian M Ross
BMC Research Notes , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-1-41
Abstract: Standard gases were prepared by adding known quantities of compounds present at zero or very low levels in breath (xylene and toluene) to either humidified bottled air or actual human breath. These were then analysed by SIFT-MS to calculate the limits of detection for each compound under conditions which mimic a single breath exhalation. For xylene and toluene the limits of detection was approximately 0.5 PPBV per 10 seconds of analysis time. Results gained using this level of sensitivity suggested the presence of low levels of the compounds indole and methylindole in human alveolar and static oral air, although further studies are necessary to confirm these findings.Recent advances in SIFT-MS have increased the techniques sensitivity for breath analysis into the sub PPBV range enabling the real time quantification of low level trace gases in human breath.The measurement of volatile gases in breath for the purpose of the diagnosis, screening and monitoring of disease is an attractive proposition due to the inherently non-invasive nature of such methodology [1]. For example, the volatile biomarker nitric oxide has been successfully developed for the monitoring of airway inflammation while other putative markers for a conditions including cancer have been identified [2]. To be adopted clinically the methods used for the detection and quantification of breath biomarkers likely need to be rapid, simple to use, reproducible and able to detect the presence of disease early in its course. The latter feature can reduce mortality, morbidity, patient distress and decrease associated costs for the healthcare system [3]. As such more sensitive detection methods may offer the advantage that volatile biomarkers can be detected and acted upon at earlier stages in the disease process.A technique which shows promise for diagnostic breath analysis is Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS). SIFT-MS is suited to this role due to its linear response, reproducible absoloute c
The Emerging Role of Eicosapentaenoic Acid as an Important Psychoactive Natural Product: Some Answers but a Lot more Questions
Brian M. Ross
Lipid Insights , 2012,
Abstract: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids play important roles in both the structure and communication processes of cells. Dietary deficiences of these fatty acids have been implicated in cardiac dysfunction, cancer and mood disorders. In the latter, clinical trials have strongly suggested that not all types of omega-3 PUFA are equally efficacious. In particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) appears to be the most useful in ameliorating the symptoms of major depressive disorder. The mechanism by which omega-3 PUFA have these effects, and why EPA is apparently more effective in this role than the much more abundant brain lipid docosahexaenoic acid, is unclear. The available data do suggest various biologically plausible mechanisms all of which are amenable to study using straightforward experimental approaches. To progress further, a better understanding of how EPA and other omega-3 PUFA effect neurophysiological and neurosignalling processes is required.
The Emerging Role of Eicosapentaenoic Acid as an Important Psychoactive Natural Product: Some Answers but a Lot more Questions
Brian M. Ross
Lipid Insights , 2008,
Abstract: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids play important roles in both the structure and communication processes of cells. Dietary deficiences of these fatty acids have been implicated in cardiac dysfunction, cancer and mood disorders. In the latter, clinical trials have strongly suggested that not all types of omega-3 PUFA are equally efficacious. In particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) appears to be the most useful in ameliorating the symptoms of major depressive disorder. The mechanism by which omega-3 PUFA have these effects, and why EPA is apparently more effective in this role than the much more abundant brain lipid docosahexaenoic acid, is unclear. The available data do suggest various biologically plausible mechanisms all of which are amenable to study using straightforward experimental approaches. To progress further, a better understanding of how EPA and other omega-3 PUFA effect neurophysiological and neurosignalling processes is required.
The Emerging Role of Eicosapentaenoic Acid as an Important Psychoactive Natural Product: Some Answers but a Lot more Questions
Brian M. Ross
Lipid Insights , 2008,
Abstract:
A new way of describing meiosis that uses fractal dimension to predict metaphase I
Ross Cynthia M.
International Journal of Biological Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: Meiosis, the reductive nuclear division, is a continuum, but for purposes of communication, is described in stages. In sexually-reproducing organisms, including the dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium americanum, prophase I of meiosis is prolonged (8 months for female A. americanum). Conversely, metaphase I, where chromosome pairs line up along a dividing cell's "equator", is relatively brief, difficult to predict, but critical regarding the random distribution of the paternal and maternal chromosomes in sexual organisms. However, descriptions of meiosis as either a continuum or stages are limited to qualitative observations. A quantification of meiosis can provide mathematical descriptors and allow for the prediction of when chromosomes reach the equator; this will not only be useful to researchers of cell division, but also to those requiring a large sample of metaphase I materials. Here, the probability-density function was used to calculate the fractal dimension of A. americanum nuclei undergoing early meiosis, and it predicted the onset of metaphase I by 2 days.
Cable Modems and Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Lines (ASDL)
Peter M. Ross
School of Doctoral Studies Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Technologies changes all the time. Those who works on computers knows that all too well. Before they get a computer paid off, it is already out of date. Well it is the same way with the internet. The most common way to get on the internet is dial-up-networking, and we all know how slow that can be sometimes, and how aggravating it can be when we get cut off. But that is quickly changing. Two of the recent technologies in connecting to the internet are cable modems and ASDL lines. Will these two new technologies help with the problems we are now having with the Internet, and is it worth the extra money? Read the rest of the essay, and you decide. Below I have summarized both types, expained the comparisons and differences of the two, discussed the limitations of both technologies, and finally the solutions to those limitations.
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