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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 152335 matches for " Ross H. Crozier "
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Caste and Reproduction in Ants: Not All Mated Egg-Layers are “Queens”
Christian Peeters,Ross H. Crozier
Psyche , 1988, DOI: 10.1155/1988/52368
Abstract:
Meta-population structure in a coral reef fish demonstrated by genetic data on patterns of migration, extinction and re-colonisation
Line K Bay, M Julian Caley, Ross H Crozier
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-248
Abstract: Acanthochromis polyacanthus displayed strong genetic structure among regions (ΦST = 0.81, P < 0.0001) that supported an equilibrium isolation-by-distance model (r = 0.77, P = 0.001). Significant structuring across the continental shelf was only evident in the northern region (ΦST = 0.31, P < 0.001) and no evidence of isolation-by-distance was found within any region. Pairwise ΦST values indicated overall strong but variable genetic structure (mean ΦST among reefs within regions = 0.28, 0.38, 0.41), and asymmetric migration rates among reefs with low genetic structure. Genetic differentiation among younger reefs was greater than among older reefs supporting a meta-population propagule-pool colonisation model. Variation in genetic diversities, demographic expansion and population growth estimates indicated more frequent genetic bottlenecks/founder effects and subsequent population expansion in the central and southern regions compared to the northern one.Our findings provide genetic evidence for meta-population dynamics in a direct developing coral reef fish and we reject the equilibrium island and isolation-by distance models at local spatial scales. Instead, strong non-equilibrium genetic structure appears to be generated by genetic bottlenecks/founder effects associated with population reductions/extinctions and asymmetric migration/(re)-colonisation of such populations. These meta-population dynamics varied across the geographical range examined with edge populations exhibiting lower genetic diversities and higher rates of population expansion than more central populations. Therefore, coral reef species may experience local population reductions/extinctions that promote overall meta-population genetic differentiation.Coral reefs are important ecosystems in ecological, evolutionary and socio-economic contexts but are under increasing threat from anthropogenic impacts [1,2]. The most effective conservation tool available to coral reef managers so far has been the us
Phylogenetic biodiversity assessment based on systematic nomenclature
Ross H Crozier,Lisa J Dunnett,Paul-Michael Agapow
Evolutionary Bioinformatics , 2005,
Abstract: Biodiversity assessment demands objective measures, because ultimately conservation decisions must prioritize the use of limited resources for preserving taxa. The most general framework for the objective assessment of conservation worth are those that assess evolutionary distinctiveness, e.g. Genetic (Crozier 1992) and Phylogenetic Diversity (Faith 1992), and Evolutionary History (Nee & May 1997). These measures all attempt to assess the conservation worth of any scheme based on how much of the encompassing phylogeny of organisms is preserved. However, their general applicability is limited by the small proportion of taxa that have been reliably placed in a phylogeny. Given that phylogenizaton of many interesting taxa or important is unlikely to occur soon, we present a framework for using taxonomy as a reasonable surrogate for phylogeny. Combining this framework with exhaustive searches for combinations of sites containing maximal diversity, we provide a proof-of-concept for assessing conservation schemes for systematized but un-phylogenised taxa spread over a series of sites. This is illustrated with data from four studies, on North Queensland flightless insects (Yeates et al. 2002), ants from a Florida Transect (Lubertazzi & Tschinkel 2003), New England bog ants (Gotelli & Ellison 2002) and a simulated distribution of the known New Zealand Lepidosauria (Daugherty et al. 1994). The results support this approach, indicating that species, genus and site numbers predict evolutionary history, to a degree depending on the size of the data set.
Phylogenetic biodiversity assessment based on systematic nomenclature
Ross H Crozier,Lisa J Dunnett,Paul-Michael Agapow
Evolutionary Bioinformatics , 2006,
Abstract: Biodiversity assessment demands objective measures, because ultimately conservation decisions must prioritize the use of limited resources for preserving taxa. The most general framework for the objective assessment of conservation worth are those that assess evolutionary distinctiveness, e.g. Genetic (Crozier 1992) and Phylogenetic Diversity (Faith 1992), and Evolutionary History (Nee & May 1997). These measures all attempt to assess the conservation worth of any scheme based on how much of the encompassing phylogeny of organisms is preserved. However, their general applicability is limited by the small proportion of taxa that have been reliably placed in a phylogeny. Given that phylogenizaton of many interesting taxa or important is unlikely to occur soon, we present a framework for using taxonomy as a reasonable surrogate for phylogeny. Combining this framework with exhaustive searches for combinations of sites containing maximal diversity, we provide a proof-of-concept for assessing conservation schemes for systematized but un-phylogenised taxa spread over a series of sites. This is illustrated with data from four studies, on North Queensland flightless insects (Yeates et al. 2002), ants from a Florida Transect (Lubertazzi & Tschinkel 2003), New England bog ants (Gotelli & Ellison 2002) and a simulated distribution of the known New Zealand Lepidosauria (Daugherty et al. 1994). The results support this approach, indicating that species, genus and site numbers predict evolutionary history, to a degree depending on the size of the data set.
From transcriptome to biological function: environmental stress in an ectothermic vertebrate, the coral reef fish Pomacentrus moluccensis
Karin S Kassahn, Ross H Crozier, Alister C Ward, Glenn Stone, M Julian Caley
BMC Genomics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-8-358
Abstract: We identified a series of gene functions that were involved in all stress responses examined here, suggesting some common effects of stress on biological function. These common responses were achieved by the regulation of largely independent sets of genes; the responses of individual genes varied greatly across different stress types. In response to heat exposure over five days, a total of 324 gene loci were differentially expressed. Many heat-responsive genes had functions associated with protein turnover, metabolism, and the response to oxidative stress. We were also able to identify groups of co-regulated genes, the genes within which shared similar functions.This is the first environmental genomic study to measure gene regulation in response to different environmental stressors in a natural population of a warm-adapted ectothermic vertebrate. We have shown that different types of environmental stress induce expression changes in genes with similar gene functions, but that the responses of individual genes vary between stress types. The functions of heat-responsive genes suggest that prolonged heat exposure leads to oxidative stress and protein damage, a challenge of the immune system, and the re-allocation of energy sources. This study hence offers insight into the effects of environmental stress on biological function and sheds light on the expected sensitivity of coral reef fishes to elevated temperatures in the future.Microarray technology provides a powerful tool for investigating gene regulation and its significance for biological function. However, our understanding of such relationships during environmental stress remains fragmentary, especially in vertebrates. In particular, the commonality, or otherwise, of the responses of vertebrates to different environmental stresses remain poorly understood. Recently, some understanding of responses to individual stresses, in particular those related to thermal stress in teleost fishes, has been gained. In these sp
A Role for Parasites in Stabilising the Fig-Pollinator Mutualism
Derek W. Dunn,Simon T. Segar,Jo Ridley,Ruth Chan,Ross H. Crozier,Douglas W. Yu,James M. Cook
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060059
Abstract: Mutualisms are interspecific interactions in which both players benefit. Explaining their maintenance is problematic, because cheaters should outcompete cooperative conspecifics, leading to mutualism instability. Monoecious figs (Ficus) are pollinated by host-specific wasps (Agaonidae), whose larvae gall ovules in their “fruits” (syconia). Female pollinating wasps oviposit directly into Ficus ovules from inside the receptive syconium. Across Ficus species, there is a widely documented segregation of pollinator galls in inner ovules and seeds in outer ovules. This pattern suggests that wasps avoid, or are prevented from ovipositing into, outer ovules, and this results in mutualism stability. However, the mechanisms preventing wasps from exploiting outer ovules remain unknown. We report that in Ficus rubiginosa, offspring in outer ovules are vulnerable to attack by parasitic wasps that oviposit from outside the syconium. Parasitism risk decreases towards the centre of the syconium, where inner ovules provide enemy-free space for pollinator offspring. We suggest that the resulting gradient in offspring viability is likely to contribute to selection on pollinators to avoid outer ovules, and by forcing wasps to focus on a subset of ovules, reduces their galling rates. This previously unidentified mechanism may therefore contribute to mutualism persistence independent of additional factors that invoke plant defences against pollinator oviposition, or physiological constraints on pollinators that prevent oviposition in all available ovules.
A DNA and morphology based phylogenetic framework of the ant genus Lasius with hypotheses for the evolution of social parasitism and fungiculture
Munetoshi Maruyama, Florian M Steiner, Christian Stauffer, Toshiharu Akino, Ross H Crozier, Birgit C Schlick-Steiner
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-237
Abstract: We recovered two well supported major lineages. One includes Acanthomyops, Austrolasius, Chthonolasius, and Lasius pallitarsis, which we confirm to represent a seventh subgenus, the other clade contains Dendrolasius, and Lasius sensu stricto. The subgenus Cautolasius, displaying neither social parasitism nor fungiculture, probably belongs to the second clade, but its phylogenetic position is not resolved at the cutoff values of node support we apply. Possible causes for previous problems with reconstructing the Lasius phylogeny include use of other reconstruction techniques, possibly more prone to instabilities in some instances, and the inclusion of phylogenetically distorting characters.By establishing an updated phylogenetic framework, our study provides the basis for a later formal taxonomic revision of subgenera and for studying the evolution of various ecologically and sociobiologically relevant traits of Lasius, although there is need for future studies to include nuclear genes and additional samples from the Nearctic. Both social parasitism and fungiculture evolved twice in Lasius, once in each major lineage, which opens up new opportunities for comparative analyses. The repeated evolution of social parasitism has been established for other groups of ants, though not for temporary social parasitism as found in Lasius. For fungiculture, the independent emergence twice in a monophyletic group marks a novel scenario in ants. We present alternative hypotheses for the evolution of both traits, with one of each involving loss of the trait. Though less likely for both traits than later evolution without reversal, we consider reversal as sufficiently plausible to merit independent testing.Ants of the Northern-hemispheric, temperate genus Lasius (Formicinae) are scientifically significant, in terms of relative abundance and ecological impact [1,2]. Because of the diversity of their signal and defense chemistry, Lasius ants are organisms widely used in chemical ecolog
A Role for Parasites in Stabilising the Fig-Pollinator Mutualism
Derek W Dunn,Simon T Segar,Jo Ridley,Ruth Chan,Ross H Crozier,Douglas W Yu,James M Cook
PLOS Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060059
Abstract: Mutualisms are interspecific interactions in which both players benefit. Explaining their maintenance is problematic, because cheaters should outcompete cooperative conspecifics, leading to mutualism instability. Monoecious figs (Ficus) are pollinated by host-specific wasps (Agaonidae), whose larvae gall ovules in their “fruits” (syconia). Female pollinating wasps oviposit directly into Ficus ovules from inside the receptive syconium. Across Ficus species, there is a widely documented segregation of pollinator galls in inner ovules and seeds in outer ovules. This pattern suggests that wasps avoid, or are prevented from ovipositing into, outer ovules, and this results in mutualism stability. However, the mechanisms preventing wasps from exploiting outer ovules remain unknown. We report that in Ficus rubiginosa, offspring in outer ovules are vulnerable to attack by parasitic wasps that oviposit from outside the syconium. Parasitism risk decreases towards the centre of the syconium, where inner ovules provide enemy-free space for pollinator offspring. We suggest that the resulting gradient in offspring viability is likely to contribute to selection on pollinators to avoid outer ovules, and by forcing wasps to focus on a subset of ovules, reduces their galling rates. This previously unidentified mechanism may therefore contribute to mutualism persistence independent of additional factors that invoke plant defences against pollinator oviposition, or physiological constraints on pollinators that prevent oviposition in all available ovules.
The Chromosomes of Three Australian Dacetine Ant Species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
R. H. Crozier
Psyche , 1968, DOI: 10.1155/1968/41712
Abstract:
Chromosome Number Polymorphism inthe Sawfly Janus Integer (Hymenoptera, Cephidae)
R. H. Crozier,E. F. Taschenberg
Psyche , 1972, DOI: 10.1155/1972/27907
Abstract:
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