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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 737 matches for " Roslyn Boyd "
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A systematic review of the psychometric properties of Quality of Life measures for school aged children with cerebral palsy
Stacey Carlon, Nora Shields, Katherine Yong, Rose Gilmore, Leanne Sakzewski, Roslyn Boyd
BMC Pediatrics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-10-81
Abstract: Relevant outcome measures were identified by searching 8 electronic databases, supplemented by citation tracking. Two independent reviewers completed data extraction and analysis of the measures using a modified version of the CanChild Outcome Measures Rating Form.From the 776 papers identified 5 outcome measures met the inclusion criteria: the Care and Comfort Hypertonicity Questionnaire (C&CHQ), the Caregiver Priorities and Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities (CPCHILD), CP QOL-Child, DISABKIDS and PedsQL 3.0 CP Module. There was evidence of construct validity for all five measures. Content validity was reported for all measures except PedsQL 3.0. The CPCHILD and CP QOL-Child were the only outcome measures to have reported data on concurrent validity. All measures, with the exception of one (C&CHQ) provided evidence of internal reliability. The CPCHILD and the CP-QOL-Child had evidence of test-retest reliability and DISABKIDS had evidence of inter-rater reliability. There were no published data on the responsiveness of these outcome measures.The CPCHILD and the CP QOL-Child demonstrated the strongest psychometric properties and clinical utility. Further work is needed, for all measures, on data for sensitivity to change.Cerebral Palsy (CP) defines a group of conditions, arising from an injury to the developing brain and occurs in 2.0 children per 1000 live births [1]. In addition to the disturbances of movement and posture including spasticity, muscle weakness and reduced coordination, common impairments of children with CP include disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition, communication, behaviour, epilepsy, and secondary musculoskeletal problems [2]. Reduced activity levels and participation restrictions due to these impairments may lead to a reduced quality of life (QOL), compared to their typically developing peers [3-5]. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of th
Fitness and Physical Activity in Children and Youth with Disabilities
Maria A. Fragala-Pinkham,Margaret E. O'Neil,Kristie F. Bjornson,Roslyn N. Boyd
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/162648
Abstract:
Fitness and Physical Activity in Children and Youth with Disabilities
Maria A. Fragala-Pinkham,Margaret E. O'Neil,Kristie F. Bjornson,Roslyn N. Boyd
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/162648
Abstract:
A Systematic Review of the Clinimetric Properties of Habitual Physical Activity Measures in Young Children with a Motor Disability
Stina Oftedal,Kristie L. Bell,Louise E. Mitchell,Peter S. W. Davies,Robert S. Ware,Roslyn N. Boyd
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/976425
Abstract: Aim. To identify and systematically review the clinimetric properties of habitual physical activity (HPA) measures in young children with a motor disability. Method. Five databases were searched for measures of HPA including: children aged <6.0 years with a neuromuscular disorder, physical activity defined as “bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles causing caloric expenditure”, reported HPA as duration, frequency, intensity, mode or energy expenditure, and evaluated clinimetric properties. The quality of papers was assessed using the COSMIN-checklist. A targeted search of identified measures found additional studies of typically developing young children (TDC). Results. Seven papers assessing four activity monitors met inclusion criteria. Four studies were of good methodological quality. The Minimod had good ability to measure continuous walking but the demonstrated poor ability to measure steps during free-living activities. The Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity and Ambulatory Monitoring Pod showed poor ability to measure activity during both continuous walking and free-living activities. The StepWatch showed good ability to measure steps during continuous walking in TDC. Interpretation. Studies assessing the clinimetric properties of measures of HPA in this population are urgently needed to allow assessment of the relationship between HPA and health outcomes in this group.
A prospective, longitudinal study of growth, nutrition and sedentary behaviour in young children with cerebral palsy
Kristie L Bell, Roslyn N Boyd, Sean M Tweedy, Kelly A Weir, Richard D Stevenson, Peter SW Davies
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-179
Abstract: This prospective, longitudinal, population-based study aims to recruit a total of 240 young children with cerebral palsy born in Queensland, Australia between 1st September 2006 and 31st December 2009 (80 from each birth year). Data collection will occur at three time points for each child: 17 - 25 months corrected age, 36 ± 1 months and 60 ± 1 months. Outcomes to be assessed include linear growth, body weight, body composition, dietary intake, oral motor function and feeding ability, time spent sedentary, participation, medical resource use and quality of life.This protocol describes a study that will provide the first longitudinal description of the relationship between functional attainment and modifiable lifestyle factors (dietary intake and habitual time spent sedentary) and their impact on the growth, body composition and nutritional status of young children with cerebral palsy across all levels of functional ability.Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood occurring in 1 in 500 children [1]. It is a group of permanent disorders of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing foetal or infant brain [2]. Damage to the structure of the brain is static and permanent; however, the consequent symptoms are variable and may change over time [2]. In addition to disordered movement or posture, children may have a range of associated disabilities, including intellectual disability, hearing and visual deficits, nutrition, feeding and swallowing problems, respiratory infections and epilepsy [1]. Cerebral palsy has substantial life long effects on daily function and quality of life (QOL) for children and their families with an estimated economic cost of over AUD $115,000 per person per annum [3].Poor growth and nutritional status are commonly reported in children with CP [4,5]. Conversely, there is evidence to suggest that certain children with
A Systematic Review of the Clinimetric Properties of Habitual Physical Activity Measures in Young Children with a Motor Disability
Stina Oftedal,Kristie L. Bell,Louise E. Mitchell,Peter S. W. Davies,Robert S. Ware,Roslyn N. Boyd
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/976425
Abstract: Aim. To identify and systematically review the clinimetric properties of habitual physical activity (HPA) measures in young children with a motor disability. Method. Five databases were searched for measures of HPA including: children aged <6.0 years with a neuromuscular disorder, physical activity defined as “bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles causing caloric expenditure”, reported HPA as duration, frequency, intensity, mode or energy expenditure, and evaluated clinimetric properties. The quality of papers was assessed using the COSMIN-checklist. A targeted search of identified measures found additional studies of typically developing young children (TDC). Results. Seven papers assessing four activity monitors met inclusion criteria. Four studies were of good methodological quality. The Minimod had good ability to measure continuous walking but the demonstrated poor ability to measure steps during free-living activities. The Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity and Ambulatory Monitoring Pod showed poor ability to measure activity during both continuous walking and free-living activities. The StepWatch showed good ability to measure steps during continuous walking in TDC. Interpretation. Studies assessing the clinimetric properties of measures of HPA in this population are urgently needed to allow assessment of the relationship between HPA and health outcomes in this group. 1. Introduction Habitual physical activity (HPA) is an established determinant of health in children and is required for healthy development, including the growth of bone and muscle mass, improved balance and motor skills, maintaining a healthy weight and improved psychological wellbeing [1, 2]. Limited evidence suggests young children with motor disorders are less physically active than their typically developing peers [3]. Consequently they may be at risk of suboptimal growth and development in addition to the development of secondary conditions such as chronic pain, fatigue, and low bone density which can lead to diminished bone health [4, 5]. Australian physical activity guidelines state children aged from one to five years should be physically active for three hours throughout the day and should not be sedentary, restrained, or kept inactive, for more than one hour at a time, with the exception of sleeping [2]. Studies investigating the link between HPA and health outcomes for children with motor impairments have not been conducted. These studies are urgently needed to (i) determine the HPA patterns and intensities of children with motor disabilities,
Singleness, Marriage, and the Construction of Heterosexual Masculinities: Australian Men Teaching English in Japan
Roslyn Appleby
PORTAL : Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies , 2013,
Abstract: This article reports on a study of Australian men and their accounts of living and working in Japan as English language teachers. In this site, recent research has explored Japanese discourses of desire for the West, Western men, and English language learning. These patterns of desire have afforded white Western men a privileged personal and professional status in Japan, and enabled access to employment opportunities as teachers of English language. At the same time, white Western men working as English language teachers face the challenge of negotiating competing discourses that threaten their social status. In particular, their employment in a lowly-regarded profession and a reputation for sexual promiscuity potentially position Western male language teachers as the ‘white trash’ of Asia. My analysis of interview data focuses on the ways in which the men negotiate these discourses, and construct ‘respectable’ Western heterosexual masculinities by mobilising a binary distinction between singleness and marriage. Marriage to a Japanese spouse is presented as a bulwark against alignment with problematic discourses that threaten the status of white masculinity: it is associated with fidelity and maturity, and with integration into Japanese social, linguistic and professional communities. However, the articulation of marital status also reinforces a marginalised position for teachers who do not conform to heteronormative expectations.
‘A Bit of a Grope’: Gender, Sex and Racial Boundaries in Transitional East Timor
Roslyn Appleby
PORTAL : Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies , 2010,
Abstract: This paper considers the gender positioning of white Australian women working on aid projects in East Timor during the military and aid intervention of 2000-2002. Drawing on interviews with women employed in English language teaching programs, I compare the positions women adopted in relation to their engagement with men in the foreign intervention/occupation community and with men in the local Timorese community. From the women’s perspective, the intervention was constructed as patriarchal regime that carried the gendered legacy of an earlier colonial era. This context provided a challenging domain for women development workers, as they juggled often conflicting discourses of gender equality and cultural sensitivity in their relations with men in the community of foreign occupiers, and with local Timorese men. The women’s self positioning in relation to these two groups varied markedly: while they readily rejected the behaviour and attitudes of foreign men as sexist and patriarchal, their response to Timorese men was more complex and ambivalent, demonstrating an awareness of their own inappropriacy as foreign intruders in this space.
A Comprehensive Subcellular Proteomic Survey of Salmonella Grown under Phagosome-Mimicking versus Standard Laboratory Conditions
Roslyn N. Brown,James A. Sanford,Jea H. Park,Brooke L. Deatherage,Boyd L. Champion,Richard D. Smith,Fred Heffron,Joshua N. Adkins
International Journal of Proteomics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/123076
Abstract: Towards developing a systems-level pathobiological understanding of Salmonella enterica, we performed a subcellular proteomic analysis of this pathogen grown under standard laboratory and phagosome-mimicking conditions in vitro. Analysis of proteins from cytoplasmic, inner membrane, periplasmic, and outer membrane fractions yielded coverage of 25% of the theoretical proteome. Confident subcellular location could be assigned to over 1000 proteins, with good agreement between experimentally observed location and predicted/known protein properties. Comparison of protein location under the different environmental conditions provided insight into dynamic protein localization and possible moonlighting (multiple function) activities. Notable examples of dynamic localization were the response regulators of two-component regulatory systems (e.g., ArcB and PhoQ). The DNA-binding protein Dps that is generally regarded as cytoplasmic was significantly enriched in the outer membrane for all growth conditions examined, suggestive of moonlighting activities. These observations imply the existence of unknown transport mechanisms and novel functions for a subset of Salmonella proteins. Overall, this work provides a catalog of experimentally verified subcellular protein locations for Salmonella and a framework for further investigations using computational modeling. 1. Introduction The pursuit of a systems-level understanding of bacterial physiology requires not only knowledge about the identity, function, and relative abundance of proteins, but also insight into the subcellular localization of these proteins. Subcellular protein localization is linked to protein function, potential protein-protein interactions, and to interactions between a cell and its exterior environment. The observation of proteins in unexpected cellular compartments gives clues about the presence of possible alternate functions. Hence, there is a growing appreciation for the presence of bacterial “moonlighting proteins,” that is, those proteins that have a secondary function depending on subcellular location [1–3]. Experimentally verified localization also provides a foundation for describing proteins that are “hypothetical,” uncharacterized, or that contain domains of unknown function. Furthermore, with the increasing use of systems biology approaches, including genome-scale models of metabolism [4] and regulation to study microbial functions, experimentally founded protein localization on a global scale is necessary to produce more accurate model constraints. Subcellular proteomics has emerged as
Evaluation of the effects of botulinum toxin A injections when used to improve ease of care and comfort in children with cerebral palsy whom are non-ambulant: a double blind randomized controlled trial
Megan Thorley, Samantha Donaghey, Priya Edwards, Lisa Copeland, Megan Kentish, Kim McLennan, Jayne Lindsley, Laura Gascoigne-Pees, Leanne Sakzewski, Roslyn N Boyd
BMC Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-120
Abstract: This study is a double blind randomized controlled trial. Forty participants will be recruited. In cycle I, participants will be randomized to either a treatment group who will receive BoNT-A injections into selected upper and/or lower limb muscles, or a control group who will undergo sham injections. Both groups will receive occupational therapy and /or physiotherapy following injections. Groups will be assessed at baseline then compared at 4 and 16 weeks following injections or sham control. Parents, treating clinicians and assessors will be masked to group allocation. In cycle II, all participants will undergo intramuscular BoNT-A injections to selected upper and/or lower limb muscles, followed by therapy.The primary outcome measure will be change in parent ratings in identified areas of concern for their child’s care and comfort, using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Secondary measures will include the Care and Comfort Hypertonicity Scale (ease of care), the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life Questionnaire (CP QoL–Child) (quality of life), the Caregiver Priorities and Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities Questionnaire (CPCHILD?) (health status) and the Paediatric Pain Profile (PPP) (pain). Adverse events will be carefully monitored by a clinician masked to group allocation.This paper outlines the theoretical basis, study hypotheses and outcome measures for a trial of BoNT-A injections and therapy for children with non-ambulant CP.Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry:N12609000360213Cerebral palsy (CP) is “a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain”. [1] p.9 Classification systems have been developed to indicate the severity of functional limitations in CP. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), developed by Palisano and colleagues in 1997, has bec
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