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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6824 matches for " Rosibel; Barrientos-Gutiérrez "
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Evaluación científico-técnica de la Ley General para el Control del Tabaco de México
Barrientos-Gutiérrez,Tonatiuh;
Salud Pública de México , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342010000800024
Abstract: the general law for tobacco control, signed in february 2008, aims to protect the mexican population against the negative effects associated with tobacco consumption and to guarantee the non-smoker's rights to live and relate in 100% smoke-free environments. the law supports the development of smoke-free areas, but it also allows for indoor smoking areas. the present essay examines the law and its rule of procedure, article by article, evaluating its capability to assure the protection of the population against the effects of environmental tobacco smoke. the analysis reveals conceptual and operative important imprecision, but mainly, discusses in detail the reasons why indoor smoking areas represent a health risk for the population. it concludes that the law must be reformed, eliminating the provision of indoor smoking areas, any kind of roof in outdoor smoking areas and establising a minimum distance between these areas and the 100% smoke-free environments.
Autorreporte de exposición a publicidad y promoción de tabaco en una cohorte de fumadores mexicanos
Pérez-Hernández,Rosaura; Thrasher,James F; Rodríguez-Bola?os,Rosibel; Barrientos-Gutiérrez,Inti; Ibá?ez-Hernández,Norma A;
Salud Pública de México , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342012000300002
Abstract: objective: to determine in a population-based sample of smokers the level exposure to tobacco industry marketing through different channels before and after their restriction through the general tobacco control law of 2008. materials and methods: data were analyzed from a cohort of adult smokers from four mexican cities who were surveyed in 2007 and 2008. gee models were estimated for each indicator of advertising and promotion exposure. results: increases were found in report of receiving free samples of tobacco (3.7-8.1%), branded clothing (3.6-6.4%), noticing tobacco industry sponsored events (1.9-4.7%) and noticing ads in bars (21.4-28%). noticing outdoor advertising decreased over this time (54.7 a 47.2%). conclusions: our findings confirm tobacco industry shifting of marketing efforts when advertising and promotion bans are not comprehensive. there is a need to monitor compliance with marketing bans while working to make them comprehensive.
Se busca mercado adolescente: internet y videojuegos, las nuevas estrategias de la industria tabacalera
Barrientos-Gutiérrez,Tonatiuh; Barrientos-Gutiérrez,Inti; Reynales-Shigematsu,Luz Myriam; Thrasher,James F; Lazcano-Ponce,Eduardo;
Salud Pública de México , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342012000300013
Abstract: exposure to tobacco advertisement is associated with smoking initiation among the youth, its elimination is a key objective to effectively curb the tobacco epidemic. historically, the tobacco industry has pioneered the use of new communication technologies to keep and expand their market. nowadays, internet and video games have transcended the entertainment sphere, becoming significant media for massive communication and providing new opportunities for advertisement. the present essay reviews the existing literature on tobacco presence in the internet and video games to define research and policy tasks required to develop effective means for tobacco advertisement regulation and control.
Cumplimiento con la legislación de ambientes libres de humo de tabaco en México
Barrientos-Gutiérrez,Tonatiuh; Reynales-Shigematsu,Luz Myriam; Gimeno,David; Lazcano-Ponce,Eduardo;
Salud Pública de México , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342008000900008
Abstract: this essay tries o develop classification criteria to identify smoke-free spaces using environmental monitoring, direct inspection and worker reports, comparing their agreement and deriving a proposal useful for the epidemiological surveillance of environmental tobacco smoke. environmental nicotine monitoring, direct inspections and worker?s surveys regarding tobacco smoke presence were conducted in ten institutions. for each method, criteria were defined to classify institutions as smoke-free spaces. results were compared to evaluate between-methods agreement. good agreement between environmental monitoring and direct inspections were observed, although they disagreed in 20% of the cases. worker reports were too frequent to discriminate. combining environmental monitoring and inspection would provide the most sensitive classification. cost-effectiveness studies are required to identify the best strategy.
Hacia el consumo informado de tabaco en México: efecto de las advertencias con pictogramas en población fumadora
Thrasher,James F; Pérez-Hernández,Rosaura; Arillo-Santillán,Edna; Barrientos-Gutiérrez,Inti;
Salud Pública de México , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342012000300006
Abstract: objective: evaluate the effect of the first pictorial warning labels on cigarette packs in mexican smokers. materials and methods: a population-based representative cohort of smokers from seven mexican cities was surveyed before (2010) and after (2011) the implementation of pictorial warning labels. to determine the change variables representing the cognitive and behavioral impact of pictorial warnings, bivariate and adjusted generalized estimating equations were estimated. data from the second survey (2011) were analyzed to determine the factors associated with aided recall of specific pictorial warnings, as well as the factors associated with self-report of the impact that these warnings had. results: from 2010 to 2011, significant increases were found in smoker's knowledge about smoking risks, the toxic components of tobacco, and the quitline number for receiving cessation assistance. recall and impact of specific pictorial warnings was generally broad and equally distributed across the smoker population. in comparison with recent ex-smokers interviewed in 2010, more recent ex-smokers in 2011 reported that pack warnings had influenced their decision to quit (rm=2.44, 95% ic 1.27-4.72). conclusion: the first pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages in mexico have had a significant impact on knowledge and behavior.
Validez de constructo, confiabilidad y punto de corte de la Prueba de Síntomas Subjetivos de Fatiga en trabajadores mexicanos
Barrientos-Gutiérrez,Tonatiuh; Martínez-Alcántara,Susana; Méndez-Ramírez,Ignacio;
Salud Pública de México , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342004000600006
Abstract: objective: to evaluate the construct validity and the internal reliability of the subjective symptoms of fatigue test (ssft), as well as to establish its best cutoff point. material and methods: the ssft was developed in japan to measure fatigue in a population of workers; the test includes 30 items in three spheres. construct validity was explored through differences among groups, using a population of 1399 workers from eight industries studied in mexico city in 1999. we used the theorell and karasek's control-demand model as our nomological network, from which we derived two work hypotheses. workers were divided into nine groups according to their level of control-demand; fatigue differences were assessed using analysis of covariance. the internal reliability level was tested with cronbach's alpha. the cutoff point was obtained by means of the expected linear relation between the labor demands and fatigue. results: the distribution of ssft values was similar to the expected values, increasing proportionally with increasing demands or with decreasing control. the differences between groups were statistically significant. cronbach's alpha was 0.89, while the value per sphere was always above 0.70. the cut-off points most closely correlated were 6 and 7 affirmative answers. conclusions: the observed score obtained in the distinct groups was as expected, in agreement with the study hypotheses. the internal reliability of the test was adequate. the proposed cutoff point for the general population was seven affirmative responses.
Impacto de las advertencias con pictogramas en las cajetillas de cigarrillos en México: resultados de una encuesta en fumadores de Guadalajara
Thrasher,James F; Pérez-Hernández,Rosaura; Arillo-Santillán,Edna; Barrientos-Gutiérrez,Inti;
Salud Pública de México , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342012000300007
Abstract: objetive: evaluate the impact of the first pictorial health warning labels (hwls) on cigarette packs in mexico. materials and methods: cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 1 765 adult smokers from guadalajara, mexico, 2010. logistic regression models were estimated to determine the association between recall of having purchased a pack with a pictorial hwl and psychosocial variables indicating their impact. results: 58% reported having purchased a pack with one of the pictorial hwls, and these were considered the exposed population. exposed smokers reported a greater frequency of thinking about smoking-related risks (34 vs. 25% p=0.003), and thinking about quitting smoking (23 vs. 14% p=0.001). exposure to pictorial hwls was also associated with a greater acceptability of hwls as a means of communicating with smokers (93 vs. 87% p<0.001), as was the perception that the government communicates well about tobacco-related health risks (68 vs. 55% p<0.001). conclusion: pictorial hwls have made smokers think more about these risks and about quitting smoking. this policy should continue to be exploited as a cost-effective educational intervention.
Exposición al humo de tabaco en hogares de la Ciudad de México: análisis de nicotina ambiental y en cabello de ni?os y mujeres
Barrientos-Gutiérrez,Tonatiuh; Reynales-Shigematsu,Luz Myriam; ávila-Tang,Erika; Wipfli,Heather; Lazcano-Ponce,Eduardo;
Salud Pública de México , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342007000800012
Abstract: objective: in mexico no evaluation of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in homes or habitants has been conducted. the objective of this study is to quantify environmental nicotine in mexico city homes, simultaneously evaluating nicotine levels in children and women. material and methods: in july 2005 a convenience sample of 41 homes was selected, 20% without smokers, 80% with smokers. nicotine passive monitors were allocated in homes for one week, obtaining samples of hair from inhabitant non-smoking women and children. samples were taken to the johns hopkins university where nicotine was extracted and analyzed using gas chromatography. a survey of opinions and behaviors related to environmental tobacco smoke was conducted. results: environmental nicotine concentrations had a median of 0.08 μg/m3 (iqr 0.01-0.64), in children?s hair 0.05 ng/mg (iqr 0.05-0.29), and in women?s hair 0.05 ng/mg (iqr 0.05-0.19). environmental nicotine concentrations and in children?s hair were highly correlated (rs=0.49), and increased with the number of smokers at home. the majority of adults surveyed showed support towards measures of environmental tobacco smoke control. conclusions: homes are important spaces of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. particularly high levels of exposure were observed in children?s hair, attributable to the presence of environmental nicotine at home. integral preventive activities to eliminate active smoking and to avoid tobacco consumption at home are required.
Exposición a humo de tabaco ajeno en lugares públicos de la Ciudad de México, Guadalajara y Monterrey
Reynales-Shigematsu,Luz Myriam; Ortega-Ceballos,Paola Adanari; Gimeno,David; Barrientos-Gutiérrez,Tonatiuh;
Salud Pública de México , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342010000800012
Abstract: objective. to quantify environmental tobacco smoke exposure in public places in mexico to promote policies of 100% smoke-free environments. materials and methods. in hospitals, schools and public offices of monterrey, guadalajara and mexico city 20% of inner areas were monitored. median nicotine concentrations were estimated by city, type of public space and type of inner area. results. median concentration in areas where nicotine was detected was 0.06 μg/m3 (p25=0.03, p75=0.12 μg/m3). higher concentrations were found in mexico city and in public offices. nicotine was not detected in 75% of monitored areas. conclusions. monitoring environmental nicotine is a useful tool to evaluate compliance of public places with the smoke-free environments legislation, and could constitute an important source of information to strengthen implementation efforts.
Exposición involuntaria al humo de tabaco en lugares públicos de la Ciudad de México
Barrientos-Gutiérrez,Tonatiuh; Valdés-Salgado,Raydel; Reynales-Shigematsu,Luz Myriam; Navas-Acien,Ana; Lazcano-Ponce,Eduardo;
Salud Pública de México , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342007000800010
Abstract: objective: mexican legislation considers many public places as smoke-free spaces. however, no environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment studies exist to evaluate compliance with governmental regulations and to identify opportunities for tobacco control. the main objective of this study is to quantify airborne nicotine concentrations in public places in mexico city. material and methods: during march 2004, nicotine passive monitors were allocated in a hospital, two schools, a public office building, an airport, seven restaurants, and three bars following a common protocol applied in other latin american countries. monitors were analyzed at the johns hopkins university, extracting the nicotine and quantifying it using nitrogen selective gas chromatography. median concentrations of environmental nicotine were estimated by type of place and smoking restriction. results: airborne nicotine was detected in all public places. the highest concentrations were observed in bars (6.01 μg/m3), restaurants (0.69 μg/m3), airport (0.21 μg/m3), and public offices (0.10 μg/m3). nicotine exposure concentrations are similar to those previously observed in other capital cities of latin america. conclusions: nicotine levels in the airport and public offices reflect the lack of compliance with mandatory non-smoking official regulations in mexico. high nicotine concentrations in bars and restaurants provide evidence for the need to advance smoke-free legislative action in these public and work places.
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