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Evaluating the Validity and Reliability of PDQ-II and Comparison with DDST-II for Two Step Developmental Screening
Soheila Shahshahani,Firoozeh Sajedi,Roshanak Vameghi,Anooshirvan Kazemnejad
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics , 2011,
Abstract: Objective:This research was designed to identify the validity and reliability of the Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire 2 (PDQ-II) in Tehran in comparison with the Denver Developmental Screening Test-II (DDST-II). Methods: After translation and back translation, the final Persian version of test was verified by three pediatricians and also by reviewing relevant literature for content validity. The test was performed on 237 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old, recruited by convenient sampling, from four health care clinics in Tehran city. They were also evaluated by DDST II simultaneously. Interrater methods and Cronbachs α were used to determine reliability of the test. The Kappa agreement coefficient between PDQ and DDST II was determined. The data was analyzed by SPSS software. Findings:All of the questions in PDQ had satisfactory content validity. The total Cronbachs α coefficient of 0-9 months, 9-24 months, 2-4 years and 4-6 years questionnaires were 0.951, 0.926, 0.950 and 0.876, respectively. The Kappa measure of agreement for interrater tests was 0.89. The estimated agreement coefficient between PDQ and DDST II was 0.383. Based on two different categorizing possibilities for questionable scores, that is, "Delayed" or "Normal", sensitivity and specificity of PDQ was determined to be 35.7-63% and 75.8-92.2%, respectively. Conclusion:PDQ has a good content validity and reliability and moderate sensitivity and specificity in comparison with the DDST-II, but by considering their relatively weak agreement coefficient, using it along with DDST-II for a two-stage developmental screening process, remains doubtful.
A Survey of the Tardive Dyskinesia Induced by Antipsychotic Drugs in Patients with Schizophrenia
Sahel. Hemmati,Ali Nazeri Astaneh,Farin Solemani,Roshanak Vameghi
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry , 2010,
Abstract: "nObjective: Tardive Dyskinesia (TD), is one of the important problems of the patients with schizophrenia. The emergence of these side effects depends on so many factors such as the patients' age and the duration of antipsychotic treatment. By discovering new drugs (Atypical), there has been an outstanding decrease in the emergence of these side effects. The present study investigates the symptoms of TD in the Patients with schizophrenia who were under treatments for more than 6 months. "nMethod: The sample of this study was 200 Patients with schizophrenia of four wards in Razi hospital (two acute and two chronic wards) who were hospitalized in the winter of 2006 and were qualified for this study. The subjects were 101 males and 99 females who were younger than 60 and had received antipsychotic drugs for at least 6 months. After psychiatric interview and filling the demographic questionnaire by the patients, the required information about the drugs and the intensity of the symptoms was acquired. Then clinical and physical examinations of tardive dyskinesia were done. Next, the tardive dyskinesia disorders' check list (AIMS) was used. Findings of this cross-sectional, descriptive study were analyzed by SPSS. "nResults: There was a high ratio of 95% between TD and the age factor (P=0.05). There was no relationship between symptoms frequency and duration of treatment (P=0.68). Facial muscles and oral zones were mostly involved in T.D disorder (72%). "nConclusion: No significant difference was observed between nine fold symptoms of T.D in patients who were using traditional drugs and those who were using the new ones (typical and atypical). Findings showed that in the intensity of the symptoms, gender does not play a major role.
Validity and Reliability Determination of Denver Developmental Screening Test-II in 0-6 Year-Olds in Tehran
Soheila Shahshahani,Roshanak Vameghi,Nadia Azari,Firoozeh Sajedi
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics , 2010,
Abstract: Objective:This research was designed to identify the validity and reliability of the Persian version of Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST-II) in Iranian children, in order to provide an appropriate developmental screening tool for Iranian child health workers. Methods:At first a precise translation of test was done by three specialists in English literature and then it was revised by three pediatricians familiar with developmental domains. Then, DDST-II was performed on 221 children ranging from 0 to 6 years, in four Child Health Clinics, in north, south, east and west regions of Tehran city. In order to determine the agreement coefficient, these children were also evaluated by Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) test. Because ASQ is designed to use for 4-60 month- old children, children who were out of this rang were evaluated by developmental pediatricians. Available sampling was used. Obtained data was analyzed by SPSS software. Findings:Developmental disorders were observed in 34% of children who were examined by DDST-II, and in 12% of children who were examined by ASQ test. The estimated consistency coefficient between DDST-II and ASQ was 0.21, which is weak, and between DDST-II and the physicians examination was 0.44. The content validity of DDST-II was verified by reviewing books and journals, and by specialists; opinions. All of the questions in DDST-II had appropriate content validity, and there was no need to change them. Test-retest and Inter-rater methods were used in order to determine reliability of the test, by Cronbachs α and Kauder-Richardson coefficients. Kauder-Richardson coefficient for different developmental domains was between 61% and 74%, which is good. Cronbachs α coefficient and Kappa measure of agreement for test-retest were 92% and 87% and for Inter-rater 90% and 76%, respectively. Conclusion:Persian version of DDST-II has a good validity and reliability, and can be used as a screening tool for developmental screening of children in Tehran city.
Needs assessment of rehabilitation specialists for training in child development (0-8 years old)
Roshanak Vameghi,Firoozeh Sajedi,Masoud Gharib,Enayatollah Bakhshi
Pajouhan Scientific Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Introduction: This study intends to determine the needs assessment of rehabilitation specialists for training in child development (0-8 years old).Material and Methods: This study is a cross -sectional, descriptive- analytic. At the first, a questionnaire was made for the assessment of the knowledge and skills of the specialists that work in the rehabilitation team of the children with developmental disorders (occupational therapy, speech therapy, physiotherapy, technical orthopedics, preschool children education, audiometry, social working and psychology of children with special needs). The content and face validity and reliability of the questionnaire were determined. Then 400 rehabilitation specialists fill in the questionnaires. After data collection and analysis, the needs of these specialists were determined.Results: The Cronbach's Alpha of questionnaire was 0.93, which was good. One hundred and four persons (43.2%) knew the most necessity to skill increasing in normal children development indexes as the first priority. Sixty-four persons (26.1%) knew the most necessity in primary prevention methods from developmental disorders as the second priority and 66 persons (27.2%) knew the methods of early detection and intervention in developmental disorders as the third priority. One hundred and twenty five persons (45.1%) knew the most necessity to knowledge increasing in normal children development indexes as the first priority. Seventy- six persons (27.4%) knew the most necessity to the methods of early detection and intervention in developmental disorders as the second priority and 74 persons (26.2%) knew the primary prevention methods from developmental disorders as the third priority.Conclusion: It is necessary to plan and perform training of the different rehabilitation specialists for increasing the knowledge and skills in children development themes that they have sensed as the most necessities.
RISK FACTOR PROFILES OF ADVERSE NEUROMOTOR OUTCOME IN INFANTS
Farin Soleimani MD,Anoshirvan Kazemnejad PhD,Roshanak Vameghi MD,MPH
Iranian Journal of Child Neurology , 2010,
Abstract: ObjectiveAssessment of risk predictors for adverse neurodevelopmental outcome at 1 year of age in term and near-term infants.Material & MethodsThis case-control study was a representative sample of infants from different health-care centers of north and east of Tehran. The association betweenrisk factors and delayed motor development (developmental quotient below 70 indicating a significant delay) was analyzed using correlating risk factors;including the perinatal and neonatal data to the developmental status. The case group consisted of 143 infants whose DQ score was less than 70 and thecontrol group consisted of 140 infants who had a DQ score of more than 70.ResultsNeonatal seizures, Apgar score less than 3 after 5 minutes of birth (OR = 2.87 [95% CI; 1.68, 4.92]), low birth weight (OR = 5.86 [95% CI; 3.07, 11.18]), pretermdelivery (OR =6.17 [95% CI; 3.04, 12.52]), Premature rupture of membranes (PROM)>24 hours (OR = 6.18[95% CI; 2.07, 18.51]) and hyperbilirubinemialeading to phototherapy or exchange transfusion (OR =3.75 [95% CI; 2.12, 6.65]) were associated with an increased risk for neuromotor delay on developmentalexamination at 1 year.ConclusionThis study identified distinct risk factors for an adverse outcome in infants. In this environment, perinatal risk predictors are most important.
Comparison of Spline with Kriging in an Epidemiological Problem
Roshanak Alimohammadi
Statistics , 2007,
Abstract: There are various methods to analyze different kinds of data sets. Spatial data is defined when data is dependent on each other based on their respective locations. Spline and Kriging are two methods for interpolating and predicting spatial data. Under certain conditions, these methods are equivalent, but in practice they show different behaviors. Amount of data can be observed only at some positions that are chosen as positions of sample points, therefore, prediction of data values in other positions is important. In this paper, the link between Spline and Kriging methods is described, then for an epidemiological two dimensional real data set, data is observed in geological longitude and in latitude dimensions, and behavior of these methods are investigated. Comparison of these performances show that for this data set, Kriging method has a better performance than Spline method.
An Improved Method for Seismic Site Characterization with Emphasis on Liquefaction Phenomena  [PDF]
Abbas Abbaszadeh Shahri, Roshanak Rajablou, Abdolvahed Ghaderi
Open Journal of Earthquake Research (OJER) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojer.2012.12002
Abstract: Iran is an active seismic region and frequent earthquakes and because of the active faults, often leads to severe casual-ties caused by structural destruction. Earthquake damage is commonly controlled by three interacting factors, source and path characteristics, local geological and geotechnical conditions and type of the structures. Obviously, all of this would require analysis and presentation of a large amount of geological, seismological and geotechnical data. In this paper, nonlinear geotechnical seismic hazard analysis considering the local site effects was executed and the soil lique-faction potential analysis has been evaluated for the Nemat Abad earth dam in Hamedan province of Iran because of its important socioeconomic interest and its location. Liquefaction susceptibility mapping is carried out using a decisional flow chart for evaluation of earthquake-induced effects, based on available data such as geological, groundwater depth, seismotectonic, sedimentary features, in situ, field and laboratory geotechnical parameters. A series model tests were conducted and then on base of the achieved data the idealized soil profile constructed. A C# GUI computer code “NLGSS_Shahri” was Generate, developed and then employed to evaluate the variation of shear modulus and damping ratio with shear strain amplitude to assess their effects on site response. To verify and validate the methodology, the obtained results of the generated code were compared to several known applicable procedures. It showed that computed output of this code has good and suitable agreement with other known applicable procedures.
The Effect of Intravascular Injection of Ghrelin on the Mean Plasma Concentrations of Insulin and ACTH in Immature Camels Fed with Diets Containing Different Levels of their Energy Requirements
Roshanak Rashedi,Homauon Khazali
Physiology and Pharmacology , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction: Ghrelin is a peptide hormone secreted from the stomach with both endocrine and paracrine effects. Ghrelin and its mRNA as well as growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor mRNAs are expressed in the pancreas and islet cells and regulate insulin release. Also the immounoreactivity of ghrelin is proved to be high in the hypothalamus and parts of the brain responsible for the regulation of the HPA axis. However, the effect of ghrelin on insulin and ACTH secretion before puberty in semi ruminant animals has never been examined. Therefore the purpose of the following research was to determine the effect of ghrelin on insulin and ACTH secretion before puberty in camels. Methods: In this investigation, 12 camels were randomly divided into two groups. Animals in each group were fed with either 50% or 100% energy content in diet for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks camels received 8 μg ghrelin/Kg body weight into their jugular vein for 4 days. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein 20 minutes after injection of ghrelin. Blood plasma was assayed for plasma insulin and ACTH concentrations by a RIA method. Results: Injection of ghrelin in 50% and 100% dietary energy intake significantly decreased the mean plasma concentrations of insulin and increased ACTH secretion in prepubertal camels. Conclusion: The results of these experiments showed that ghrelin’s reducing effect on insulin secretion and its increasing effect on ACTH in prepubertal camels in starvation condition depends on the presence of glucose in their bodies.
Economic failure in the Middle East
Hossein Askari,Roshanak Taghavi
PSL Quarterly Review , 2006,
Abstract: Article originally published in the volume 59 issue 236 of Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review (also known as BNL Quarterly Review).
The principle foundations of an Islamic economy
Hossein Askari,Roshanak Taghavi
PSL Quarterly Review , 2005,
Abstract: Article originally published in the volume 58 issue 235 of Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review (also known as BNL Quarterly Review).
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