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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 422285 matches for " Rose M. Z. Gowen "
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Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood from Pregnant Hispanic Women Living in Brownsville, Texas
Ken Sexton,Jennifer J. Salinas,Thomas J. McDonald,Rose M. Z. Gowen,Rebecca P. Miller,Joseph B. McCormick,Susan P. Fisher-Hoch
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8083365
Abstract: Venous blood was drawn from 35 pregnant Hispanic women living in Brownsville, Texas, and matched cord blood was collected at birth. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to measure concentrations of 55 individual PAHs or groups of PAHs. Results indicate that these women and their fetuses were regularly exposed to multiple PAHs at comparatively low concentrations, with levels in cord blood generally exceeding levels in paired maternal blood. While the possibility of related adverse effects on the fetus is uncertain, these exposures in combination with socioeconomically-disadvantaged and environmentally-challenging living conditions raise legitimate public health concerns.
Biomarkers of Maternal and Fetal Exposure to Organochlorine Pesticides Measured in Pregnant Hispanic Women from Brownsville, Texas
Ken Sexton,Jennifer J. Salinas,Thomas J. McDonald,Rose M. Z. Gowen,Rebecca P. Miller,Joseph B. McCormick,Susan P. Fisher-Hoch
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10010237
Abstract: Biomarkers of organochlorine pesticides were measured in both venous and umbilical cord blood from 35 pregnant Hispanic women living in Brownsville, Texas, USA. Gas chromatography with an electron capture detector was used to analyze specimens for 30 individual pesticides or their metabolites. Results indicate that blood concentrations were relatively low for most individual compounds, but that high-end (upper 10th percentile) values for total DDT were comparatively high. Although health effects associated with measured blood concentrations are uncertain, there is concern that fetal exposure to low levels of these OC compounds, either individually or in combination, might contribute to subsequent health problems, including neurodevelopmental effects, cancer, endocrine disruption, obesity and diabetes.
Alluvial Gold Mining Sites as Exposure Pathways for Methyl Mercury Toxicity in Children: A Systematic Review  [PDF]
Rose K. Begani, Alphonse Z. Begani
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.96066
Extensive studies have showed that alluvial gold mining is a predisposing factor for mercury toxicity through occupational exposure. In our systematic review of related literature, we aim to determine if children of alluvial gold miners were at risk of exposure to methyl mercury toxicity through dietary exposure. This was achieved through applying Cochrane PICO methodology for the research question. We selected only the most relevant articles from the thousands of articles that were generated by the Divine Word University (DWU) electronic data base system for our review. Further screening questions were applied based on the CASP method which filtered remaining 105 to only 9 papers for the review. The results from the nine (N = 9) studies analysed showed convincing results of the association between consumption of fish contaminated with methyl mercury and poor growth and development in children whose parents lived near mining sites. We conclude that since mercury is the predominant element used in the extraction of gold in alluvial mining, it is an exposure pathway for methyl mercury toxicity for children through dietary exposure.
Is Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Associated with Occupational Lung Cancer among Titanium Dioxide Production Workers? An Emerging Issue  [PDF]
Alphonse Z. Begani, Rose K. Begani
Occupational Diseases and Environmental Medicine (ODEM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/odem.2018.62004
Abstract: This systemic literature review was conducted to find out if there was an association between exposure to TiO2 NP (Titanium dioxide nanoparticle) and occupational lung cancer among TiO2 production workers. An electronic database search was employed which generated several studies relating to TiO2 nanoparticle toxicity. From these studies only ten (10) articles were chosen for this study because they met the review criteria. Two articles were centered around cohort study design while other 8 studies were on experimental design. The two cohort studies did answer the review question that showed no association of TiO2 toxicity and respiratory diseases while the experimental design studies produced conflicting results. The conflicting results were attributed to their objective, sample size, and the study designs. Despite the different conclusions there is adequate evidence in the experimental studies that demonstrated evidence of TiO2 nanoparticle toxicity. Notable cases include cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, apoptotic and cell necrosis in rat and human cells exposed to TiO2 which is generally dose response related. The strengths and limitations of the 10 studies are also discussed. General understanding gained from these studies is for appropriate agencies to be proactive in developing mitigation and controls measures against nanoparticle exposure. This is necessary to avert repetition of previous experiences with exposure to asbestos fibers as a point of reference.
CNOT3 Is a Modifier of PRPF31 Mutations in Retinitis Pigmentosa with Incomplete Penetrance
Giulia Venturini,Anna M. Rose,Amna Z. Shah,Shomi S. Bhattacharya,Carlo Rivolta
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003040
Abstract: Heterozygous mutations in the PRPF31 gene cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP), a hereditary disorder leading to progressive blindness. In some cases, such mutations display incomplete penetrance, implying that certain carriers develop retinal degeneration while others have no symptoms at all. Asymptomatic carriers are protected from the disease by a higher than average expression of the PRPF31 allele that is not mutated, mainly through the action of an unknown modifier gene mapping to chromosome 19q13.4. We investigated a large family with adRP segregating an 11-bp deletion in PRPF31. The analysis of cell lines derived from asymptomatic and affected individuals revealed that the expression of only one gene among a number of candidates within the 19q13.4 interval significantly correlated with that of PRPF31, both at the mRNA and protein levels, and according to an inverse relationship. This gene was CNOT3, encoding a subunit of the Ccr4-not transcription complex. In cultured cells, siRNA–mediated silencing of CNOT3 provoked an increase in PRPF31 expression, confirming a repressive nature of CNOT3 on PRPF31. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that CNOT3 directly binds to a specific PRPF31 promoter sequence, while next-generation sequencing of the CNOT3 genomic region indicated that its variable expression is associated with a common intronic SNP. In conclusion, we identify CNOT3 as the main modifier gene determining penetrance of PRPF31 mutations, via a mechanism of transcriptional repression. In asymptomatic carriers CNOT3 is expressed at low levels, allowing higher amounts of wild-type PRPF31 transcripts to be produced and preventing manifestation of retinal degeneration.
Imitation in autism: why action kinematics matter
Emma Gowen
Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fnint.2012.00117
O comportamento preventivo das acadêmicas de enfermagem sobre o cancer ginecológico
Rosely Erlach Goldman,Rose Mary Valle Bóz Lacava,Ana Paula Borges Ménès,Adriane Katayama
Saúde Coletiva , 2010,
Abstract: El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar el comportamiento preventivo de las académicas del Curso de Graduación en Enfermería en las prácticas preventivas de cáncer ginecológico. Tratase de un estudio descriptivo y transversal envolviendo 64 académicas del 4 a o de una Universidad Federal ubicada en el municipio de S o Paulo, S o Paulo, Brasil. Las académicas son mujeres jóvenes, saludables en edad reproductiva y la gran mayoría con vida sexual activa, con aparcero fijo, 66.7% adhirieron al uso de los preservativos en las relaciones sexuales. La figura materna fue la responsable por la primera visita al médico ginecólogo. La citología oncótica asociada al examen clínicos de las mamas fue citado como método preventivo, pero el olvidamiento es el factor principal para la dificultad de realizar exámenes preventivos, seguido por la falta de tiempo y el sentimiento de verguenza. Los conocimientos que las académicas detenían acerca de las enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles y sus complicaciones son originados principalmente en la graduación. Concluyese que las académicas de enfermería poseen un comportamiento preventivo acerca del cáncer ginecológico pero deben ser estimuladas al uso de preservativos en las relaciones sexuales. La educación y una sólida base de conocimiento son fundamentales para la realización de medidas preventivas, resultando en la promoción de la salud.
Orthostatic Change in Blood Pressure and Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation: Results from a Bi-Ethnic Population Based Study
Sunil K. Agarwal, Alvaro Alonso, Seamus P. Whelton, Elsayed Z. Soliman, Kathryn M. Rose, Alanna M. Chamberlain, Ross J. Simpson, Josef Coresh, Gerardo Heiss
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079030
Abstract: Background Autonomic fluctuations are associated with the initiation and possibly maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, little is known about the relationship between orthostatic blood pressure change, a common manifestation of autonomic dysfunction, and incident AF. Methods We examined whether supine-to-standing changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) are associated with incident AF in 12,071 African American and white men and women aged 45–64 years, enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risks in Communities (ARIC) study. Orthostatic hypotension (OH) was defined as a supine-standing drop in SBP by ≥20 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure by ≥10 mmHg. AF cases were identified based on study scheduled 12-lead ECG, hospital discharge ICD codes, and death certificates through 2009. Results OH was seen in 603 (5%) at baseline. During an average follow-up of 18.1 years, 1438 (11.9%) study participants developed AF. Incident AF occurred more commonly among those with OH than those without, a rate of 9.3 vs. 6.3 per 1000 person years, (p<0.001). The age, gender, and race adjusted hazard ratio (95%CI) of AF among those with OH compared to those without was 1.62 (1.34, 2.14). This association was attenuated after adjustment for common AF risk factors to HR 1.40 (1.15, 1.71), a strength similar to that of diabetes or hypertension with AF in the same model. A non-linear relationship between orthostatic change in SBP and incident AF was present after multivariable adjustment. Conclusions OH is associated with higher AF incidence. Whether interventions that decrease OH can reduce AF risk remains unknown.
Gap Detection for Genome-Scale Constraint-Based Models
J. Paul Brooks,William P. Burns,Stephen S. Fong,Chris M. Gowen,Seth B. Roberts
Advances in Bioinformatics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/323472
Abstract: Constraint-based metabolic models are currently the most comprehensive system-wide models of cellular metabolism. Several challenges arise when building an in silico constraint-based model of an organism that need to be addressed before flux balance analysis (FBA) can be applied for simulations. An algorithm called FBA-Gap is presented here that aids the construction of a working model based on plausible modifications to a given list of reactions that are known to occur in the organism. When applied to a working model, the algorithm gives a hypothesis concerning a minimal medium for sustaining the cell in culture. The utility of the algorithm is demonstrated in creating a new model organism and is applied to four existing working models for generating hypotheses about culture media. In modifying a partial metabolic reconstruction so that biomass may be produced using FBA, the proposed method is more efficient than a previously proposed method in that fewer new reactions are added to complete the model. The proposed method is also more accurate than other approaches in that only biologically plausible reactions and exchange reactions are used. 1. Introduction Flux balance analysis (FBA) is the use of a linear program (LP) to model the flow of metabolites through the network of reactions in a cell [1]. FBA simulations give insight into the relative rates at which reactions occur when the cell is optimized for a specific objective. A fundamental assumption of FBA is that organisms can function optimally (often as a result of adaptive evolution) in that they make optimal use of scarce resources to serve the needs of the organism. This characterization of cell behavior naturally leads to a math programming modeling paradigm. FBA has been used to predict growth rates, gene essentiality, and other features of multiple organisms [2–5]. Several related challenges are encountered in the building of metabolic reconstructions. To apply FBA to a constraint-based model, both a reaction network (representing organism-specific biochemical capabilities) and an objective (representing a desired or measurable physiological goal) need to be specified. Currently, complete reaction networks for organisms are not known. There may be reactions in a cell that must be active for the production of biomass that have not been cataloged in biological databases or documented in the literature. Another challenge is modeler error; the modeler can mistakenly omit a reaction or transport process that is necessary for the production of biomass. Aside from establishing a model that can
Full-Exon Resequencing Reveals Toll-Like Receptor Variants Contribute to Human Susceptibility to Tuberculosis Disease
Xin Ma, Yuhua Liu, Brian B. Gowen, Edward A. Graviss, Andrew G. Clark, James M. Musser
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001318
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death worldwide due to an infectious agent. Data have accumulated over decades suggesting that variability in human susceptibility to TB disease has a genetic component. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in initiating the innate immune response to many pathogens in mouse models, but little is known about their role in human infections. Human TLRs have been reported to recognize mycobacterial antigens and initiate an immune response. We tested the hypothesis that amino acid-altering polymorphisms in five TLRs were associated with susceptibility to TB disease using a population-based case-control study with 1,312 adult TB patients and controls. Full-coding region sequencing of the five TLR genes in all 1,312 subjects yielded a data set in excess of 16 Mb. Rare nonsynonymous polymorphisms in TLR6-TLR1-TLR10 were significantly overrepresented among African-American TB cases compared with ethnically-matched control subjects. Common nonsynonymous polymorphisms in TLR6-TLR1-TLR10 also were significantly associated with TB disease in certain ethnic groups. Among African Americans, homozygotes for the common-variant haplotype TLR1-248S, TLR1-602I, and TLR6-249S had a significantly increased TB disease risk. A transmission/disequilibrium test on an independent sample found that the TLR1-248S variant was preferentially transmitted to diseased children, thereby confirming disease association. These results are consistent with recent reports implicating TLR1 variants, including TLR1-602, in significantly altered innate immune responses. Also consistent with disease association, rare TLR6 variants were defective in their ability to mediate NF-κB signal transduction in transfected human cells. Taken together, the data suggest that variant TLRs contribute to human susceptibility to TB disease. Extensive full-exon resequencing was critical for revealing new information about the role of TLRs in human-pathogen interactions and the genetic basis of innate immune function.
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