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Desarrollos en la traducción automática: esperando aún una traducción de alta calidad
Rosanne Caroline Tertoolen
Caracteres : Estudios Culturales y Críticos de la Esfera Digital , 2012,
Abstract: In a world which is everytime more open and with an excess of open source data, we have the idea of having access to all information. Nonetheless, something that looks like a minor barrier at first sight keeps us from accessing all this information: the language barrier. If you don’t belong to a certain language group or if you haven’t learned the language you don’t have access to this information. In this respect, machine translation is of great importance. Despite 60 years of research we still haven′t reached a fully automatic high quality translation. In this article we describe the development in machine translation and we try to understand why translation is so dificult for computers.
Villagers into national revolutionaries? Shifting ‘communities ‘ in a period of revolutionary mobilization in the Philippines
Rosanne Rutten
Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde , 2001,
Abstract:
Agrarian Angst and Rural Resistance in Contemporary Southeast Asia
Rosanne Rutten
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 2011,
Abstract: Review of Agrarian Angst and Rural Resistance in Contemporary Southeast Asia (2009) edited by Dominique Caouette and Sarah Turner (London and New York: Routledge).
Competencies, education and training in the international animal transportation industry - sea transport
Rosanne M. Ransley
Veterinaria Italiana , 2008,
Abstract: The health and welfare of animals is a major consideration throughout Australia's livestock export chain and requires the employment of skilled personnel. LiveCorp commenced in 1998 with animal welfare as part of its mission and immediately began work on delivering a training course for cattle stockmen. This work expanded to include sheep and goat stockmen and stevedores. As the Australian live export industry has grown, so too has the inherent level of risk. After incidents on two high-profile voyages, the live export industry was reviewed and the industry standards rewritten in an effort to prevent further mishaps. The new standards make reference to competent animal handlers and direct the Australian Quarantine Inspection Service (AQIS) to accredit veterinarians who accompany consignments of livestock overseas. An online course for veterinarians delivered by Animal Health Australia ensued. The standards also require exporters for each voyage to the Middle East to prepare a consignment risk management plan utilising the heat stress model. Training in the use of the model and preparation of the plans was provided by LiveCorp. The stockman training courses delivered by LiveCorp have been a success and are in continued demand from both AQIS and the live export industry.
Environmental Risk Perception and Educational Strategies: Implications for Environmental Education in China
Hongxia DUAN,Rosanne FORTNER
International Electronic Journal of Environmental Education , 2010,
Abstract: This cross-cultural study examined college students’ environmental risk perception and their preference in terms of risk communication and educational strategies in China and the United States. The results indicated that the Chinese respondents were more concerned about environmental risk, and they perceived the environmental issues to be more harmful to health, to the environment, and to social economic development of the nation than did the Americanrespondents. Both groups desired transparent communications in decision processes and would support educational strategies that foster behavior change for reduction of environmental risks.On the basis of the findings, the paper discusses the changes that would potentially improve non-formal and formal environmental education in China from the perspectives of program foci and approaches.
Luminous Supersoft X-Ray Sources as Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae
Rosanne Di Stefano
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: In some luminous supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs), hydrogen accretes onto the surface of a white dwarf at rates more-or-less compatible with steady nuclear burning. The white dwarfs in these systems therefore have a good chance to grow in mass. Here we review what is known about the rate of Type Ia supernovae that may be associated with SSSs. Observable consequences of the conjecture that SSSs can be progenitors of Type Ia supernovae are also discussed.
Transits and Lensing by Compact Objects in the Kepler Field: Disrupted Stars Orbiting Blue Stragglers
Rosanne Di Stefano
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/141/5/142
Abstract: Kepler's first major discoveries are two hot objects orbiting stars in its field. These may be the cores of stars that have each been eroded or disrupted by a companion star. The companion, which is the star monitored today, is likely to have gained mass from its now-defunct partner, and can be considered to be a blue straggler. KOI-81 is almost certainly the product of stable mass transfer; KOI-74 may be as well, or it may be the first clear example of a blue straggler created throughthree-body interactions. We show that mass transfer binaries are common enough that Kepler should discover ~1000 white dwarfs orbiting main sequence stars. Most, like KOI-74 and KOI-81, will be discovered through transits, but many will be discovered through a combination of gravitational lensing and transits, while lensing will dominate for a subset. In fact, some events caused by white dwarfs will have the appearance of "anti-transits" --i.e., short-lived enhancements in the amount of light received from the monitored star. Lensing and other mass measurements methods provide a way to distinguish white dwarf binaries from planetary systems. This is important for the success of Kepler's primary mission, in light of the fact that white dwarf radii are similar to the radii of terrestrial planets, and that some white dwarfs will have orbital periods that place them in the habitable zones of their stellar companions. By identifying transiting and/or lensing white dwarfs, Kepler will conduct pioneering studies of white dwarfs and of the end states of mass transfer. It may also identify orbiting neutron stars or black holes. The calculations inspired by the discovery of KOI-74 and KOI-81 have implications for ground-based wide-field surveys as well as for future space-based surveys.
The Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae: II. Are they Double-Degenerate Binaries? The Symbiotic Channel
Rosanne Di Stefano
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/719/1/474
Abstract: In order for a white dwarf (WD) to achieve the Chandrasekhar mass, M_C, and explode as a Type Ia supernova (SNIa), it must interact with another star, either accreting matter from or merging with it. The failure to identify the types of binaries which produce SNeIa is the "progenitor problem". Its solution is required if we are to utilize the full potential of SNeIa to elucidate basic cosmological and physical principles. In single-degenerate models, a WD accretes and burns matter at high rates. Nuclear-burning WDs (NBWDs) with mass close to M_C are hot and luminous, potentially detectable as supersoft x-ray sources (SSSs). In previous work we showed that > 90-99% of the required number of progenitors do not appear as SSSs during most of the crucial phase of mass increase. The obvious implication is that double-degenerate (DD) binaries form the main class of progenitors. We show in this paper, however, that many binaries that later become DDs must pass through a long-lived NBWD phase during which they are potentially detectable as SSSs. The paucity of SSSs is therefore not a strong argument in favor of DD models. Those NBWDs that are the progenitors of DD binaries are likely to appear as symbiotic binaries for intervals > 10^6 years. In fact, symbiotic pre-DDs should be common, whether or not the WDs eventually produce SNeIa. The key to solving the progenitor problem lies in understanding the appearance of NBWDs. Most do not appear as SSSs most of the time. We therefore consider the evolution of NBWDs to address the question of what their appearance may be and how we can hope to detect them.
Short-duration lensing events: I. wide-orbit planets? free-floating low-mass objects? or high-velocity stars?
Rosanne Di Stefano
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/201/2/20
Abstract: Short duration lensing events tend to be generated by low-mass lenses or by lenses with high transverse velocities. Furthermore, for any given lens mass and speed, events of short duration are preferentially caused by nearby lenses (mesolenses) that can be studied in detail, or else by lenses so close to the source star that finite-source-size effects may be detected, yielding information about both the Einstein ring radius and the surface of the lensed star. Planets causing short-duration events may be in orbits with any orientation, and may have semimajor axes smaller than an AU, or they may reach the outer limits of their planetary systems, in the region corresponding to the Solar System's Oort Cloud. They can have masses larger than Jupiter's or smaller than Pluto's. Lensing therefore has a unique potential to expand our understanding of planetary systems. A particular advantage of lensing is that it can provide precision measurements of system parameters, including the masses of and projected separation between star and planet. We demonstrate how the parameters can be extracted and show that a great deal can be learned. For example, it is remarkable that the gravitational mass of nearby free-floating planet-mass lenses can be measured by complementing observations of a photometric event with deep images that detect the planet itself. A fraction of short events may be caused by high-velocity stars located within a kpc. Many high-velocity lenses are likely to be neutron stars that received large natal kicks. Other high-speed stars may be members of the halo population. Still others may be hypervelocity stars that have been ejected from the Galactic Center, or runaway stars escaped from close binaries, possibly including the progenitor binaries of Type Ia supernovae.
The Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae: Are They Supersoft Sources?
Rosanne Di Stefano
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/712/1/728
Abstract: In a canonical model, the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are accreting, nuclear-burning white dwarfs (NBWDs), which explode when the white dwarf reaches the Chandrasekhar mass, M_C. Such massive NBWDs are hot (kT ~100 eV), luminous (L ~ 10^{38} erg/s), and are potentially observable as luminous supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs). During the past several years, surveys for soft X-ray sources in external galaxies have been conducted. This paper shows that the results falsify the hypothesis that a large fraction of progenitors are NBWDs which are presently observable as SSSs. The data also place limits on sub-M_C models. While Type Ia supernova progenitors may pass through one or more phases of SSS activity, these phases are far shorter than the time needed to accrete most of the matter that brings them close to M_C.
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