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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5594 matches for " Ronald Lau "
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The World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist Improves Post-Operative Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review  [PDF]
Christine S. M. Lau, Ronald S. Chamberlain
Surgical Science (SS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2016.74029
Abstract: Background: The incidence of in-hospital adverse events is about 10%, with a majority of these related to surgery, and nearly half considered preventable events. In attempts to improve patient safety, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed a checklist to be used at critical perioperative moments. This meta-analysis examines the impact of the WHO surgical safety checklist (SSC) on various patient outcomes. Methods: A comprehensive search of all published studies assessing the use of the WHO SSC in patients undergoing surgery was conducted. Studies using the WHO SSC in any surgical setting, with pre-implementation and post-implementation outcome data were included. The incidence of patient outcomes (total complications, surgical site infections, unplanned return to the operating room (OR) within 30 days, and overall mortality) and adherence to safety measures were analyzed. Results: 10 studies involving 51,125 patients (27,490 prior to implementation and 23,635 after implementation of the WHO SSC) were analyzed. The implementation of the WHO SSC significantly reduced the risk of total complications by 37.9%, surgical site infections by 45.5%, unplanned return to OR by 32.1%, and mortality by 15.3%. Increased adherence to safety measures including airway evaluation, use of pulse oximetry, prophylactic antibiotics when necessary, confirmation of patient name and surgical site, and sponge count was also observed. Conclusions: The use of the WHO SSC is associated with a significant reduction in post-operative complication rates and mortality. The WHO SSC is a valuable tool that should be universally implemented in all surgical centers and utilized in all surgical patients.
Perioperative Adjunct Magnesium Decreases Postoperative Opioid Requirements—A Meta-Analysis  [PDF]
Sudha Arumugam, Christine S. M. Lau, Ronald S. Chamberlain
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2016.75032
Abstract: Objectives: Magnesium (Mg) is the fourth most common cation in the body and has numerous physiological activities and anti-nociceptive effects. The anti-nociceptive effects are primarily mediated by regulation of calcium influx into the cell and antagonism of the N-Methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors. Opioids are widely used as analgesics to minimize postoperative pain, but their use is associated with various side effects as well as the potential for addiction and tolerance. Systemic Mg has been proposed as an adjunct to minimize postoperative pain in numerous clinical studies. This meta-analysis aims to critically examine the ability of perioperative intravenous (IV) Mg to reduce opioid use and its’ side effects. Methods: A comprehensive literature search of Pub Med, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar (1966-2016) was performed to identify all randomized control trials (RCTs) assessing the use of perioperative IV Mg in the reduction of postoperative opioid consumption. Keywords searched included combinations of “magnesium”, “pain”, “postoperative”, “preoperative”, “analgesia” and “opioid”. Inclusion criteria included RCTs comparing the use of perioperative IV Mg with a control group in adult patients (>18 yrs) undergoing elective surgery. Cumulative opioid consumption within the first 24 hours (hrs) postoperative period and the incidence of nausea and vomiting were analyzed. Results: 14 RCTs involving 910 patients were identified (455 patients received Mg and 455 patients received placebo or no therapy). Opioid consumption was significantly decreased in the systemic Mg group (standard mean difference [SMD]: 1.39, 95% CI 1.83 to -0.96; p < 0.001) at 24 hrs postoperatively. Subgroup analysis revealed a significant reduction in the morphine consumption (SMD: -1.37, 95% CI: -1.79 to -0.95; p < 0.001) with the use of IV Mg. There was a decrease in tramadol consumption; however, this did not reach statistical significance (SMD: -1.74, 95% CI: -4.62 to 1.13; p = 0.234). Systemic Mg adjunct had no significant effect on postoperative nausea and vomiting (RR = 0.63; 95% CI 0.38 to 1.04; p = 0.07). Conclusion: Perioperative IV Mg administration reduces opioid use in the first 24 hours postoperatively without any serious adverse events. The decreased need for postoperative opioids in the Mg group was not associated with a decrease in opioid-related side effects such as nausea and vomiting. Mg is an efficacious adjunct for postoperative analgesia and should be considered in multimodal analgesic
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Reduces Mortality in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest after Acute Coronary Syndrome: An Outcomes-Based Study from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample Database  [PDF]
Christine S. M. Lau, Mahyar Pourriahi, Amanda Ward, Kedar P. Kulkarni, Krishnaraj Mahendraraj, Ronald S. Chamberlain
Surgical Science (SS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2017.81004
Abstract: Introduction: Mortality following cardiac arrest (CA) is extremely high, with rates as high as 91.5% after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and 76.1% after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). This study assessed the clinical profile and outcomes of a large cohort of patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for OHCA to determine its effect on clinical outcomes and mortality. Methods: 247,456 patients with OHCA due to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were abstracted from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (2001-2011). Results: Among 247,456 OHCA patients, 11,111 (4.5%) had PCI while 236,345 (95.5%) did not. Patients who underwent PCI were younger than those who did not receive PCI (64 vs. 66 years), p < 0.001. Caucasians (79.6%) and males (66.5%) were more likely to undergo PCI, while significantly fewer African Americans (AA) (7.7%) and Hispanics (6.5%) received PCI, p < 0.001. A significantly greater percentage of patients with private insurance (35.5%) or Medicare (47.4%) underwent PCI, p < 0.001. Overall mortality was significantly lower among those undergoing PCI (28.3% vs. 65.4%), p < 0.001. Multivariate analysis identified age >65 years, female gender, AA or Hispanic race, advanced cancer, and liver dysfunction as independent factors associated with increased mortality, while PCI conferred a survival advantage in OHCA, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Treatment with PCI was associated with a significant decrease in mortality. PCI was performed most often in Caucasians, males, patients > 50 years old, and those with Medicare. PCI significantly reduces mortality in OHCA patients and should be considered in all OHCA patients. Further investigation and development of methods to overcome the apparent socioeconomic barriers to PCI is required.
Aortic Dissection after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Acute Coronary Syndrome: An Outcomes-Based Study from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample Database  [PDF]
Christine S. M. Lau, Georgia J. McRoy, Krishnaraj Mahendraraj, Kedar P. Kulkarni, Ronald S. Chamberlain
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2017.81003
Abstract: Introduction: Aortic dissection is a rare complication of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), but is associated with mortality rates of up to 20%. This study assessed the demographic and clinical profile of a large cohort of patients undergoing PCI for ACS to assess patient and clinical risk factors that may predispose to the development of aortic dissection. Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database (2001-2011) was used to abstract admission data on patients undergoing PCI for ACS. Results: 777,595 patients underwent PCI and 380 (0.05%) developed aortic dissection. Patients who developed aortic dissection were more often older (68 vs. 64 years), female (47.4% vs. 33.8%), insured through Medicare (56.2% vs. 50.7%), Medicaid (7.9% vs. 5.3%) or uninsured/self-pay (6.3% vs. 4.7%), p < 0.05. Patients with aortic dissection had a higher rate of ventricular fibrillation (6.3% vs. 1.8%), cerebrovascular accident (2.4% vs. 0.4%), longer lengths of hospitalization (9 days vs. 3 days), as well as higher mortality (13.2% vs. 1.4%), p < 0.001. Multivariate analysis identified female gender, Hispanic race, uninsured/self-pay, fluid and electrolyte disorders, and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) as independent risk factors for aortic dissection after PCI. Conclusion: Aortic dissection is a rare complication of PCI, which occurs more often in older patients with Medicare insurance status. Hispanics, females, uninsured patients and those with PVD are at the highest risk of aortic dissection. Clinicians should be more cognizant of patients at increased risk of developing PCI in order to institute earlier screening in high-risk patients.
Quality vs. quantity of publications in nanotechnology field from the People’s Republic of China
Ronald N. Kostoff,Ryan B. Barth,Clifford G. Y. Lau
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2008, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-008-0183-y
Abstract: This study evaluates trends in quality of nanotechnology and nanoscience papers produced by authors from the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The metric used to gauge quality is ratio of highly cited nanotechnology papers to total nanotechnology papers produced in sequential time frames. The USA is both the most prolific nanotechnology publishing country and most represented country on highly cited nanotechnology papers (both in absolute numbers of highly cited papers and highly cited papers relative to total publications) over the 1998–2003 time frame, based on the SCI/SSCI databases. Some of the smaller hi-tech countries have relatively high ratios (~2) of highly cited papers to total publications (e.g. Denmark, Netherlands, Switzerland). Countries that have exhibited rapid growth in SCI/SSCI nanotechnology paper production in recent years (e.g. PRC, South Korea) had ratios an order of magnitude less than that of the USA for 1998, but by 2003 had increased to about 20% that of the USA (~2.5). PRC and South Korea have climbed in the publications rankings from 6th and 9th in 1998, respectively, to 2nd and 6th in 2005, respectively. PRC’s ratio monotonically increased from 0.16 to 0.45 over the 1998–2003 period, and South Korea’s ratio increased from 0.11 to about 0.6 over that same period, indicating their papers are getting more and more citations proportionately. Thus, under rapid growth conditions, PRC and South Korea have been able to increase their share of participation in highly cited papers. As of 2003, PRC and South Korea have ratios comparable to nations like Japan, France, Italy, and Australia but not yet approaching those of the highly cited countries. None of the top ten publications producing institutions are from the USA, while all of the top ten highly cited publications producers are from the USA. Over the 1998–2003 time period, the top six total publications producing institutions (globally) remained the same, with Chinese Academy of Sciences (which consists of many research institutes) wresting the lead from Russian Academy of Sciences in 1999, and thereafter increasing the gap. Over this same time period, the USA institutions constituted about 90% of the top ten most cited papers list. For Chinese institutions specifically in the period 1998–2003, the nanotechnology publication leading Chinese Academy of Sciences has maintained an average of about 30% of nanotechnology publications over that time frame. The second tier (in terms of quantity) for the last few years has consisted of Tsinghua University, Nanjing University, University of Science and Technology of China, Peking University, Jilin University, Zhejiang University, Shandong University, and Fudan University. Hong Kong institutions have, on average, been strong in ratio, especially City University Hong Kong, and Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, indicating significant citations.
Quality vs. quantity of publications in nanotechnology field from the People’s Republic of China
Ronald N Kostoff,Ryan B Barth,Clifford G Y Lau,

科学通报(英文版) , 2008,
Abstract: This study evaluates trends in quality of nanotechnology and nanoscience papers produced by authors from the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The metric used to gauge quality is ratio of highly cited nanotechnology papers to total nanotechnology papers produced in sequential time frames. The USA is both the most prolific nanotechnology publishing country and most represented country on highly cited nanotechnology papers (both in absolute numbers of highly cited papers and highly cited papers relative to total publications) over the 1998–2003 time frame, based on the SCI/SSCI databases. Some of the smaller hi-tech countries have relatively high ratios (~2) of highly cited papers to total publications (e.g. Denmark, Netherlands, Switzerland). Countries that have exhibited rapid growth in SCI/SSCI nanotechnology paper production in recent years (e.g. PRC, South Korea) had ratios an order of magnitude less than that of the USA for 1998, but by 2003 had increased to about 20% that of the USA (~2.5). PRC and South Korea have climbed in the publications rankings from 6th and 9th in 1998, respectively, to 2nd and 6th in 2005, respectively. PRC’s ratio monotonically increased from 0.16 to 0.45 over the 1998–2003 period, and South Korea’s ratio increased from 0.11 to about 0.6 over that same period, indicating their papers are getting more and more citations proportionately. Thus, under rapid growth conditions, PRC and South Korea have been able to increase their share of participation in highly cited papers. As of 2003, PRC and South Korea have ratios comparable to nations like Japan, France, Italy, and Australia but not yet approaching those of the highly cited countries. None of the top ten publications producing institutions are from the USA, while all of the top ten highly cited publications producers are from the USA. Over the 1998–2003 time period, the top six total publications producing institutions (globally) remained the same, with Chinese Academy of Sciences (which consists of many research institutes) wresting the lead from Russian Academy of Sciences in 1999, and thereafter increasing the gap. Over this same time period, the USA institutions constituted about 90% of the top ten most cited papers list. For Chinese institutions specifically in the period 1998–2003, the nanotechnology publication leading Chinese Academy of Sciences has maintained an average of about 30% of nanotechnology publications over that time frame. The second tier (in terms of quantity) for the last few years has consisted of Tsinghua University, Nanjing University, University of Science and Technology of China, Peking University, Jilin University, Zhejiang University, Shandong University, and Fudan University. Hong Kong institutions have, on average, been strong in ratio, especially City University Hong Kong, and Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, indicating significant citations. The views in this paper are solely those of the authors, and do not represent
Alberta Diabetes and Physical Activity Trial (ADAPT): A randomized theory-based efficacy trial for adults with type 2 diabetes - rationale, design, recruitment, evaluation, and dissemination
Ronald C Plotnikoff, Kerry S Courneya, Ronald J Sigal, Jeffrey A Johnson, Nicholas Birkett, David Lau, Kim Raine, Steven T Johnson, Nandini Karunamuni
Trials , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-11-4
Abstract: Participants (N = 287) were randomly assigned to one of three groups consisting of the following intervention strategies: (1) standard printed PA educational materials provided by the Canadian Diabetes Association [i.e., Group 1/control group)]; (2) standard printed PA educational materials as in Group 1, pedometers, a log book and printed PA information matched to individuals' PA stage of readiness provided every 3 months (i.e., Group 2); and (3) PA telephone counseling protocol matched to PA stage of readiness and tailored to personal characteristics, in addition to the materials provided in Groups 1 and 2 (i.e., Group 3). PA behaviour measured by the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and related social-cognitive measures were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18-months (i.e., 6-month follow-up). Clinical (biomarkers) and health-related quality of life assessments were conducted at baseline, 12-months, and 18-months. Linear Mixed Model (LMM) analyses will be used to examine time-dependent changes from baseline across study time points for Groups 2 and 3 relative to Group 1.ADAPT will determine whether tailored but low-cost interventions can lead to sustainable increases in PA behaviours. The results may have implications for practitioners in designing and implementing theory-based physical activity promotion programs for this population.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00221234Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a serious chronic disease. The World Health Organization estimates 180 million people worldwide live with this condition. This number is likely to more than double in the next 25 years [1]. The long-term complications of diabetes, such as microvascular and macrovascular diseases, can be delayed or prevented with appropriate interventions, including drug treatment, physical activity (PA), nutrition therapy, and body weight management [2,3].Physical activity plays a key role in T2DM management [2,4-7]. In addition to providing measurable psycholo
Global Nanotechnology Research Literature
全球纳米技术研究文献计量分析

Ronald N Kostoff,Raymond G Koytcheff,Clifford GY Lau Office of Naval Research,Arlington,VA,USA Institute for Defense Analyses,Alexandria,VA,USA,
Ronald N. Kostoff
,Raymond G. Koytcheff,Clifford G.Y. Lau

科学观察 , 2007,
Abstract: Text mining was used to extract technical intelligence from the global open nanotechnology and nanoscience research literature. An extensive nanotechnology/nanosciene-focuse query (300 term) was applied to the SCI/SSCI database. A novel addition was the use of phrase auto correlation maps to show technical thrust areas based on phrase co-occurrence in Abstracts, and the use of phrase-phrase cross-correlation maps to show technical thrust areas based on phrase relations due to the sharing of common co-occurring phrases. The use of factor matrices quantified further the strength of the linkages among institutions and among countries, and validated the co-publishing networks shown graphically on the maps.
Host immune response in returning travellers infected with malaria
Gregory McMullin, Ronald Mackenzie, Rachel Lau, Julie Khang, Haibo Zhang, Nimerta Rajwans, W Conrad Liles, Dylan R Pillai
Malaria Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-148
Abstract: The patient population for the study (n = 186) was comprised of travellers returning to Toronto, Canada between 2007 and 2011. The patient blood samples’ cytokine, chemokine and angiopoietin concentrations were determined using cytokine multiplex assays, and ELISA assays.Significantly higher plasma cytokine levels of IL-12 (p40) were observed in CB compared to FB travellers, while epidermal growth factor (EGF) was observed to be higher in FB than CB travellers. Older travellers (55 years old or greater) with Plasmodium vivax infections had significantly higher mean cytokine levels for IL-6 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) than other adults with P. vivax (ages 18–55). Patients with P. vivax infections had significantly higher mean cytokine levels for monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and M-CSF than patients with Plasmodium falciparum. Angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2) was higher for patients infected with P. falciparum than P. vivax, especially when comparing just the FB groups. IL-12 (p40) was higher in FB patients with P. vivax compared to P. falciparum. Il-12 (p40) was also higher in patients infected with P. vivax than those infected with Plasmodium ovale. For patients travelling to West Africa, IFN-γ and IL-6 was lower than for patients who were in other regions of Africa.Significantly higher levels of IL-12 (p40) and lower levels of EGF in CB travellers may serve as useful prognostic markers of disease severity and help guide clinical management upon return. IL-6 and M-CSF in older adults and MCP-1, IL-12 (p40) and M-CSF for P. vivax infected patients may also prove useful in understanding age-associated and species-specific host immune responses, as could the species-specific differences in Ang-2. Regional differences in host immune response to malaria infection within the same species may speak to unique strains circulating in parts of West Africa.
Seasonal Levels of the Vibrio Predator Bacteriovorax in Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf Coast Seawater
Gary P. Richards,Michael A. Watson,E. Fidelma Boyd,William Burkhardt III,Ronald Lau,Joseph Uknalis,Johnna P. Fay
International Journal of Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/375371
Abstract: Bacteriovorax were quantified in US Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific seawater to determine baseline levels of these predatory bacteria and possible seasonal fluctuations in levels. Surface seawater was analyzed monthly for 1 year from Kailua-Kona, Hawaii; the Gulf Coast of Alabama; and four sites along the Delaware Bay. Screening for Bacteriovorax was performed on lawns of V. parahaemolyticus host cells. Direct testing of 7.5?mL portions of seawater from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts gave mean annual counts ≤12.2 PFU. Spikes in counts were observed at 3 out of 4 sites along the Delaware Bay 1 week after Hurricane Sandy. A comparison of summer versus winter counts showed significantly more Bacteriovorax ( ) in the Delaware Bay during the summer and significantly more ( ) in the Gulf during the winter, but no significant seasonal differences ( ) for Hawaiian seawater. Bacteriovorax counts only correlated with seawater salinity and temperature at one Delaware site ( and , resp.). There was a relatively strong negative correlation between temperature and Bacteriovorax levels ( ) for Gulf seawater. Selected isolates were sequenced and identified by phylogenetic analysis as Bacteriovorax clusters IX, X, XI, and XII. 1. Introduction Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are important foodborne pathogens associated with the consumption of fish and shellfish, especially oysters, which have long been known to bioconcentrate vibrios within their edible tissues [1, 2]. Vibrio vulnificus also causes life-threatening illness from wound infections acquired in the marine environment [3]. Pathogenic vibrios show seasonal predilection in seawater and shellfish, with high counts during warmer months and low to negligible counts during the colder months [2, 4, 5]. Recently, we showed that naturally occurring Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) from coastal seawater significantly reduced the levels of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in seawater and V. parahaemolyticus in seawater and oysters [6]. Among the BALOs are marine and terrestrial forms, with the marine forms associated with Bacteriovorax, which are exclusively saltwater predators [7, 8]. Bacteriovorax have shown preferential predation toward V. parahaemolyticus when compared to a broad range of potential host bacteria [9–12]. This suggests that Bacteriovorax may invade and kill V. parahaemolyticus in seawater more efficiently than other bacterial pathogens. The life cycle of Bacteriovorax and other BALOs usually involve intracellular invasion of and replication within a host cell, although
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