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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4215 matches for " Ronald Jandacek "
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Adult Medication-Free Schizophrenic Patients Exhibit Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Risk
Robert K. McNamara,Ronald Jandacek,Therese Rider,Patrick Tso
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/796462
Adult Medication-Free Schizophrenic Patients Exhibit Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Risk
Robert K. McNamara,Ronald Jandacek,Therese Rider,Patrick Tso,Yogesh Dwivedi,Ghanshyam N. Pandey
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/796462
Abstract: Deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn ? 3) fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n ? 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n ? 3), has been implicated in the pathoetiology of cardiovascular disease, a primary cause of excess premature mortality in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). In the present study, we determined erythrocyte EPA + DHA levels in adult medication-free patients SZ ( ) and age-matched healthy controls ( ). Erythrocyte EPA + DHA composition exhibited by SZ patients (3.5%) was significantly lower than healthy controls (4.5%, ?22%, ). The majority of SZ patients (72%) exhibited EPA+DHA levels ≤4.0% compared with 37% of controls (Chi-square, ). In contrast, the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4 ) (+9%, ) and the AA:EPA + DHA ratio (+28%, ) were significantly greater in SZ patients. Linoleic acid (18:2 ) was significantly lower (?12%, ) and the erythrocyte 20:3/18:2 ratio (an index of delta6-desaturase activity) was significantly elevated in SZ patients. Compared with same-gender controls, EPA + DHA composition was significantly lower in male (?19%, ) but not female (?13%, ) SZ patients, whereas the 20:3/18:2 ratio was significantly elevated in both male (+22%, ) and female (+22%, ) SZ patients. These results suggest that the majority of SZ patients exhibit low LCn ? 3 fatty acid levels which may place them at increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. 1. Introduction Patients with schizophrenia (SZ) have two- to three-fold higher mortality rates compared with the general population, corresponding to an average 15-year reduction in life expectancy, and cross-sectional epidemiological studies have found that cardiovascular disease is a primary cause of excess premature mortality in SZ patients [1–6]. The etiology of elevated cardiovascular risk in SZ is likely multifactorial, potentially involving excessive smoking and alcohol use, lack of exercise, and poor diets [7, 8]. Moreover, second generation antipsychotic (SGA) medications are associated with cardiovascular risk factors including dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and weight gain [9–13], though these risk factors have also been reported in SGA-na?ve first-episode SZ patients [14–16]. Together, these data highlight an urgent need to identify risk and resilience factors associated with elevated cardiovascular disease risk in SZ. An emerging body of evidence suggests that low levels of long-chain omega-3 (LCn ? 3) fatty acids, principally eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n ? 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n ? 3), are a modifiable risk factor for
A high throughput live transparent animal bioassay to identify non-toxic small molecules or genes that regulate vertebrate fat metabolism for obesity drug development
Kevin S Jones, Alexander P Alimov, Horacio L Rilo, Ronald J Jandacek, Laura A Woollett, W Todd Penberthy
Nutrition & Metabolism , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-5-23
Abstract: Zebrafish larvae were incubated with daily refreshing of nile red containing media starting from a developmental stage of equivalent fat content among siblings (3 days post-fertilization, dpf) and continuing with daily refreshing until 7 dpf.PPAR activators, beta-adrenergic agonists, SIRT-1 activators, and nicotinic acid treatment all caused predicted changes in fat, cholesterol, and gene expression consistent with a high degree of evolutionary conservation of fat metabolism signal transduction extending from man to zebrafish larvae. All changes in fat content were visually quantifiable in a relative fashion using live zebrafish larvae nile red fluorescence microscopy. Resveratrol treatment caused the greatest and most consistent loss of fat content. The resveratrol tetramer Vaticanol B caused loss of fat equivalent in potency to resveratrol alone. Significantly, the direct administration of NAD decreased fat content in zebrafish. Results from knockdown of a zebrafish G-PCR ortholog previously determined to decrease fat content in C. elegans support that future GPR142 antagonists may be effective non-toxic anti-obesity therapeutics.Owing to the apparently high level of evolutionary conservation of signal transduction pathways regulating lipid metabolism, the zebrafish can be useful for identifying non-toxic small molecules or pharmacological target gene products for developing molecular therapeutics for treating clinical obesity. Our results support the promising potential in applying NAD or resveratrol where the underlying target protein likely involves Sirtuin family member proteins. Furthermore data supports future studies focused on determining whether there is a high concentration window for resveratrol that is effective and non-toxic in high fat obesity murine models.Obesity has been increasing in every state in the nation [1] and has reached an all time high in children [2]. Due to the adverse health affects of obesity the total cost for medical care and disa
A Non-Human Primate Model for Gluten Sensitivity
Michael T. Bethune, Juan T. Borda, Erin Ribka, Michael-Xun Liu, Kathrine Phillippi-Falkenstein, Ronald J. Jandacek, Gaby G. M. Doxiadis, Gary M. Gray, Chaitan Khosla, Karol Sestak
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001614
Abstract: Background and Aims Gluten sensitivity is widespread among humans. For example, in celiac disease patients, an inflammatory response to dietary gluten leads to enteropathy, malabsorption, circulating antibodies against gluten and transglutaminase 2, and clinical symptoms such as diarrhea. There is a growing need in fundamental and translational research for animal models that exhibit aspects of human gluten sensitivity. Methods Using ELISA-based antibody assays, we screened a population of captive rhesus macaques with chronic diarrhea of non-infectious origin to estimate the incidence of gluten sensitivity. A selected animal with elevated anti-gliadin antibodies and a matched control were extensively studied through alternating periods of gluten-free diet and gluten challenge. Blinded clinical and histological evaluations were conducted to seek evidence for gluten sensitivity. Results When fed with a gluten-containing diet, gluten-sensitive macaques showed signs and symptoms of celiac disease including chronic diarrhea, malabsorptive steatorrhea, intestinal lesions and anti-gliadin antibodies. A gluten-free diet reversed these clinical, histological and serological features, while reintroduction of dietary gluten caused rapid relapse. Conclusions Gluten-sensitive rhesus macaques may be an attractive resource for investigating both the pathogenesis and the treatment of celiac disease.
Intervention with Muslim Filipino Families:The Implications of Spirituality for Psychology  [PDF]
Ronald Hall
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2010.11007
Abstract: Political repercussions following destructive events of September 11, 2001 have the potential to dampen enthusiasm for the incorporation of spirituality by psychologists who see Muslim Filipino families. Among various Muslim Filipino populations, spirituality is fundamental. Psychologists who are conscientious would be remiss to exclude such a critical aspect of life when it is essential. The implications of spirituality for psychology intervention with Muslim Filipino families include the need to acknowledge and, when appropriate, apply values, belief systems, and other culture specific criteria. To do otherwise will bias intervention with Muslim Filipino families, rendering psychology less potent in its ability to accommodate such families.
A Psychogenesis of Color-Based Racism: The Implications of Colonialism for People of Color  [PDF]
Ronald Hal
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.23034
Abstract: Influenced by European colonization people of color have internalized a disdain for dark skin i.e.: color-based racism. In addition to the historical literature and litigation color-based racism is here substantiated empirically. The contingency coefficient reflected a moderate correlation between the variables, therefore the null hypothesis was rejected and the research hypothesis was accepted. To educate Psychologists about the significance of color-based racism among people of color will require an acknowledgement of its existence. In the aftermath, people of color and the practitioners who serve them will move Psychology to the next level of service technol-ogy.
Civil Rights Tourism in Mississippi: Openings, Closures, Redemption and Remuneration  [PDF]
Ronald Loewe
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2014.41011

Unlike Georgia and Alabama which have had large civil rights museums for many years, Mississippi is just beginning to acknowledge and memorialize this part of its history. Since 2005, visitors to Neshoba County, infamous for the murder of civil rights workers Goodman, Schwerner and Chaney, have been able to obtain copies of the African-American Heritage Driving Tour which directs tourists to nine points of interest associated with the 1964 killings. In examining this development, my aim is to highlight the diverse political, economic and psychological motives underlying civil rights tourism and the formation of the Philadelphia Coalition which came together to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the murders. In specific, this paper argues that civil rights tourism rests on four convergent trends: 1) the interest of the business community in re-imaging Mississippi, 2) the formation of a fragile alliance between white conservatives and moderate African-American leaders, 3) the search for redemption among white Christians, and 4) a growing concern over who will write Mississippi’s recent history.

The Chinese ba as a Verb: A Constructional-Cognitive Approach  [PDF]
Ronald Fong
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2015.51005
Abstract: Although there have been various studies on the Chinese ba-construction, this article presents some unconventional views. Most studies do not treat ba as a verb. This article argues that ba is a verb, although it has some non-typical verbal properties. Firstly, the argument establishes that it is a verb based upon the “gradient” analysis, which has not been applied to ba before. Secondly, having been treated as a verb, ba shows special properties of its own such as marking subordination. Apart from this non-traditional view, ba is shown to be highly transitive, which is also a verbal feature. Different from previous analyses, this article argues that ba is a radial category showing various associated meanings. Finally, ba is shown to produce blending with other verb complements, such as the resultative construction, through its ability to create mental spaces.
Experiences Analyzing Faults in a Hybrid Distributed System with Access Only to Sanitized Data  [PDF]
Ronald J. Leach
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.35050
Abstract: In this paper we report on a work in progress assessing the faults observed and reported in a distributed, safety-critical, largely embedded system with both electrical and mechanical components. We illustrate why standard software testing techniques are not sufficient and indicate some of the technical and non-technical problems encountered in examining the faults and the initial results obtained. While the application domain is elevator operation, the techniques described here are general enough to apply to many other domains. Much of the data analyzed here would be considered imprecise in the software industry if it were used in software testing or to help increase fault tolerance. The paper includes a discussion of the use of multiple views of data, assessment of missing data, and analysis of informal information to produce its conclusions about fault avoidance and fault tolerance.
Reducing hospital inpatient complications: A four year experience  [PDF]
Ronald Lagoe, Joseph Bick
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.41A017

This study described the use of administrative data and a computer software algorithm, Potentially Preventable Complications, to support reduction of inpatient hospital complications. The study was carried out between 2008 and2012 inSt. Joseph’s Hospital Health Center in Syracuse, New York. The hospital generates approximately 23,000 inpatient discharges annually. The study employed summary tables for individual inpatient complications and patient specific spreadsheets to evaluate and follow adverse outcomes. The spreadsheets were employed by hospital staff to determine whether patient medical records confirm each complication identified by the software. This process resulted in improvement of the accuracy of administrative data describing inpatient complications. The administrative data and the software were also used in conjunction with medical records to Identify patients who received program interventions and still experienced inpatient complications. This process enabled hospital staff to ensure that interventions were being provided and evaluate their effecttiveness. The study demonstrated that, at the aggregate level, the inpatient complication rate per 1000 discharges declined by 33.4 percent, from 56.11 to 37.37 between 2008 and 2011. The principal drivers of this decline were high volume complications such as pneumonia, where the rate declined by 45.7 percent and urinary tract infection where the rate declined by 23.7 percent. The project provided a means of communicating and managing outcomes data that could be implemented and understood by a wide range of health care providers.

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