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Rationale for Treatment of Common Cold and Flu with Multi-Ingredient Combination Products for Multi-Symptom Relief in Adults  [PDF]
Ron Eccles, Ingo Fietze, Uwe-Bernd Rose
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2014.43011
This up-to-date overview will look at the rationale for the recommendation of combination products for multi-symptom relief of common cold and flu. Common cold and flu are defined by their multi-symptom nature with data showing a variety of symptoms reported simultaneously each day over the first six days of illness. Multi-ingredient combination products for multi-symptom relief are formulated to safely, simply, and simultaneously treat multiple symptoms when used as directed. The rationale for the formulation combination products for common cold and flu is therefore practical, logical and reasonable. No evidence has been found that multi-symptom relief medicines are inherently less safe than single-active ingredient medicines. Multi-symptom relief combination products containing several active ingredients provide a safe, effective, cost-effective, and convenient way of treating the multiple symptoms of common cold and flu, when used as directed. This therapy requires some special information for the patient to be provided by the physician and the pharmacist.
Efficacy of a Topical Aromatic Rub (Vicks VapoRub®)-Speed of Action of Subjective Nasal Cooling and Relief from Nasal Congestion  [PDF]
Ron Eccles, Martez Jawad, David L. Ramsey, J. David Hull
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2015.51002
Abstract: Vicks VapoRub® (VVR) is a pharmaceutical preparation containing a combination of levomenthol, eucalyptus oil, turpentine oil and camphor as active ingredients, and thymol, cedarwood oil, and white soft paraffin as excipients. VVR is a petrolatum-based ointment to be either applied topically to the chest, throat, and back or added to hot water and the aromatic vapours inhaled. When used topically, the actives are evaporated by body temperature and inspired. The main therapeutic effects are the feeling of relief from nasal congestion and relief from cough. These were primarily experienced by patients as the trigeminal and olfactory impact of the aromatics and were hypothesized to be experienced within minutes. This was a randomized, single-(Investigator) blind, controlled, 2-arm (VVR vs. petrolatum), parallel design pilot study in 50 otherwise healthy adult patients suffering from common cold and experiencing nasal congestion. Speed to detection of a sensation of nasal cooling and nasal decongestion was assessed following application of the recommended amount of product. The time to first experience of a sensation of nasal cooling was significantly (p < 0.001) faster for patients who received VVR compared to control (median times of 23 and 99 seconds respectively). VVR delivered a statistically significant sensation of nasal cooling at all times from 12 seconds to 15 minutes after product application. The time to first experience of a sensation of nasal decongestion was significantly (p = 0.0102) faster for patients who received VVR compared to control (median times of 62 and 126 seconds respectively). VVR delivered a statistically significant sensation of nasal decongestion at all times from 62 seconds to 15 minutes after product application. No adverse events were reported during the study. Conclusion: Patients using Vicks VapoRub® as directed experienced significant differences from control for sensation of nasal cooling in 12 seconds and the sensation of nasal decongestion in 62 seconds.
Efficacy and safety of an antiviral Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory study in volunteers with early symptoms of the common cold
Ron Eccles, Christiane Meier, Martez Jawad, Regina Weinmüllner, Andreas Grassauer, Eva Prieschl-Grassauer
Respiratory Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-11-108
Abstract: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory trial, 35 human subjects suffering from early symptoms of common cold received Iota-Carrageenan (0.12%) in a saline solution three times daily for 4 days, compared to placebo.Administration of Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray reduced the symptoms of common cold (p = 0.046) and the viral load in nasal lavages (p = 0.009) in patients with early symptoms of common cold. Pro-inflammatory mediators FGF-2, Fractalkine, GRO, G-CSF, IL-8, IL-1α, IP-10, IL-10, and IFN-α2 were reduced in the Iota-Carrageenan group.Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray appears to be a promising treatment for safe and effective treatment of early symptoms of common cold. Larger trials are indicated to confirm the results.Common cold is the most prevalent contagious viral disease in humans. It is caused by a variety of viral pathogens with human rhinoviruses (HRV) being the most abundant ones. Affecting the upper respiratory system, symptoms like blocked nose, cough and sneezing are most common [1,2]. The socioeconomic losses associated with viral respiratory tract infections, however, are huge [3,4] with enormous direct and indirect costs for our health care system [5]. Colds also pose a threat for the very young or old, ailing and/or high risk groups like immunocompromised patients, COPD patients, asthmatics or lung transplant recipients [1,6]. A wide range of remedies is sold on prescription and over the counter, but evidence-based medicine systematic reviews conclude that there is still no reliable prevention or cure available and potential serious side effects of popular products also have to be considered. Given the multiple causes of common cold, the Cochrane collaboration suggested to focus future research efforts on non virus-specific compounds [7]. Effective formulations containing antiviral agents are needed for the safe and efficacious treatment of common cold symptoms and the containment of viral propagation. Potential side effects sh
The size of maximal systems of brick islands
Tom Eccles
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: For integers $m_1,...,m_d>0$ and a cuboid $M=[0,m_1]\times ... \times [0,m_d]\subset \mathbb{R}^d$, a brick of $M$ is a closed cuboid whose vertices have integer coordinates. A set $H$ of bricks in $M$ is a system of brick islands if for each pair of bricks in $H$ one contains the other or they are disjoint. Such a system is maximal if it cannot be extended to a larger system of brick islands. Extending the work of Lengv\'{a}rszky, we show that the minimum size of a maximal system of brick islands in $M$ is $\sum_{i=1}^d m_i - (d-1)$. Also, in a cube $C=[0,m]^d$ we define the corresponding notion of a system of cubic islands, and prove bounds on the sizes of maximal systems of cubic islands.
A stability result for the union-closed size problem
Tom Eccles
Mathematics , 2013, DOI: 10.1017/S0963548315000176
Abstract: A family of sets is called union-closed if whenever $A$ and $B$ are sets of the family, so is $A\cup B$. The long-standing union-closed conjecture states that if a family of subsets of $[n]$ is union-closed, some element appears in at least half the sets of the family. A natural weakening is that the union-closed conjecture holds for large families; that is, families consisting of at least $p_02^n$ sets for some constant $p_0$. The first result in this direction appears in a recent paper of Balla, Bollob\'as and Eccles \cite{BaBoEc}, who showed that union-closed families of at least $\frac{2}{3}2^n$ sets satisfy the conjecture --- they proved this by determining the minimum possible average size of a set in a union-closed family of given size. However, the methods used in that paper cannot prove a better constant than $\frac{2}{3}$. Here, we provide a stability result for the main theorem of \cite{BaBoEc}, and as a consequence we prove the union-closed conjecture for families of at least $(\frac{2}{3}-c)2^n$ sets, for a positive constant $c$.
Graphs of large linear size are antimagic
Tom Eccles
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: Given a graph $G=(V,E)$ and a colouring $f:E\mapsto \mathbb N$, the induced colour of a vertex $v$ is the sum of the colours at the edges incident with $v$. If all the induced colours of vertices of $G$ are distinct, the colouring is called antimagic. If $G$ has a bijective antimagic colouring $f:E\mapsto \{1,\dots,|E|\}$, the graph $G$ is called antimagic. A conjecture of Hartsfield and Ringel states that all connected graphs other than $K_2$ are antimagic. Alon, Kaplan, Lev, Roddity and Yuster proved this conjecture for graphs with minimum degree at least $c \log |V|$ for some constant $c$; we improve on this result, proving the conjecture for graphs with average degree at least some constant $d_0$.
From “Employer-Employee” to “Family of Choice”: The Development of the Relationship between Philippine Worker Immigrants and Elderly Care Recipients  [PDF]
Pnina Ron
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2015.42007
Abstract: The current study adds to the pool of findings regarding experiences of female Philippine work immigrants employed in elderly caregiving in Israel, as they cope with their role as caregivers. Based on an analysis of the qualitative interviews with 27 Philippine women, three themes emerged. The first is the manner in which these caregivers perceive the treatment and care they give their elderly employers, taking into account the initial stage of the professional relationship, the various types of support, and the employer-employee interactions. The second theme deals with the manner in which these caregivers perceive their role once the relationship with the elderly care recipient is established and the employer’s needs and preferences become familiar; that is, once there is a clear caregiver-client relationship. The third theme deals with the manner in which the caregivers perceive their relationship with their elderly employers and with the employers’ family members, and the way they believe their employer and family perceive their role as caregivers. This stage of the relationship they define as “family of choice”. The combination of the three themes presents a comprehensive picture of positive change in terms of the caregivers perception of their role, and a shift in the manner in which they perceive their employers: from a “source of income” to “parent”.
The Relationship between Attachment Styles in Adulthood and Attitudes towards Filial Responsibility: A Comparison between Three Generations of Arabs and Jewish Women  [PDF]
Pnina Ron
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.76077

Background: Care giving for an elderly parent is a universal developmental task, and in all societies is one of the women tasks; its expectations are considered norms known as filial responsibility. The aim of the study is to examine the possibility of connections between the attitudes toward filial responsibility to elderly parents and the attachment style in adulthood and age (generation) among women. Methods: The research participants were 63 Jewish and Arab university students, their mothers (N = 62) and their grandmothers (N = 63). Research instruments consisted of a self- report questionnaire, which revealed background characteristics, and measured attitudes toward filial responsibility, style of adult attachment; self-esteem; sense of mastery and, family support. Results revealed ethnicity differences as well as between-generations differences regarding normative attitudes toward filial responsibility, which may indicate a changing taking place in the Arab society’s approach concerning these attitudes. An additional finding brought to light the cross-generational differences in the relationship between the attachment style in adulthood and the attitudes regarding filial responsibility. Conclusion: It seems that in attitudes towards filial responsibility, Arab society is still traditional in terms of its approach to the institutions of clan and family mostly among the elderly Arab Muslims. All of the modern changes most likely have an effect on adults’ sense of filial responsibility, on social norms, and on familial traditions.

Aspirin plus Pseudoephedrine (Aspirin Complex) for the Treatment of Symptoms of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection  [PDF]
Michael Voelker, Ronald Eccles, Uwe Gessner
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2017.71004
Abstract: Upper respiratory tract infections or common colds are a multi-symptom disease which is usually symptomatically treated with fixed dose multi-active ingredient medicinal products which are commonly used as non-prescription and over the counter. However, the active ingredients combined require a particular and clinically sound justification. Analgesics and decongestant can be combined to treat simultaneously the prominent symptoms cold-related pain (e.g. headache, muscle aches and pains), fever, inflammationand nasal/sinus congestion. This overview provides a summary of the evidence supporting the combination of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and pseudoephedrine available in the common cold product Aspirin? Complex.
Identification of personal risk of breast cancer: genetics
Diana M Eccles
Breast Cancer Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2172
Abstract: A second major breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA2, was mapped to chromosome 13q in 1994 shortly before the sequence of the BRCA1 gene was clarified and family-specific disease-causing mutations started to be reported [5,6]. The full BRCA2 gene sequence was reported in 1995 [7]. Families with mutations in the BRCA2 gene were noted to be more likely to contain a male breast cancer case than might be expected by chance (and more than had been seen in families due to BRCA1 mutations); ovarian and fallopian tube cancers still occurred with increased frequency but overall not as frequently as in BRCA1-associated families. With the discovery of the correct gene sequences for BRCA1 and BRCA2 it became possible to offer predictive genetic testing to members of families in which the causative gene mutation had been identified. Predictive testing for breast cancer susceptibility was introduced as a clinical service from the mid-1990s in some centres in the UK [8]. Families in which mutations were identified through research studies were the first to be informed [9]. Many of these families had been identified because of their high incidence of cancer, and so inevitably the estimated lifetime chance that a carrier of one of these genes would develop cancer was high [10,11].The BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are very large, and mutation testing was either very expensive (in the USA) or very slow (in European countries) when it first became available. It soon became clear that mutations in these genes accounted for a relatively small proportion of all families with breast cancer clusters. Families with four or more cancer cases developing at young age, particularly those families in which ovarian cancers occurred, were more likely to yield pathogenic mutations when DNA from a cancer-affected family member was screened for mutations. Smaller clusters of later onset cancers, although clearly familial, were noted to have a much lower probability of harbouring a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation [
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