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Incidence and risk factors of antiretroviral treatment failure in treatment-na?ve HIV-infected patients at Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand
Nitta Khienprasit, Romanee Chaiwarith, Thira Sirisanthana, Khuanchai Supparatpinyo
AIDS Research and Therapy , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1742-6405-8-42
Abstract: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among HIV-infected patients initiating their first cART at Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand.From January 2002 to December 2008, 788 patients were enrolled; 365 were male (46.3%), and the mean age was 37.9 ± 8.6 years. The median baseline CD4 count was 57.7 cells/mm3 (IQR 22, 127). GPO-VIR? (a fixed-dose combination of lamivudine, stavudine, and nevirapine) was the most common prescribed cART (657 patients, 83.4%). Seventy-six patients developed virological failure given the cumulative incidence of 9.6%. The incidence of virological failure was 2.79 (95% CI 2.47, 3.14) cases per 100 person years. Poor adherence was the strongest predictor for virological failure. Of 535 immunologically evaluable patients, 179 (33.5%) patients developed immunological failure. A low CD4 cell count at baseline (< 100 cells/mm3) and the increment of CD4 cell count of < 50 cell/mm3 after 6 months of cART were the predictors for immunological failure (p < 0.001).This study demonstrated that even in resource-limited settings, the high rate of success could be expected in the cohort with good and sustainable drug adherence. Poor adherence, older age, and low baseline CD4 cell count are the predictors for unfavorable outcome of cART.By the year 2010, the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimate that there are 1,138,020 people living with HIV/AIDS in Thailand [1]. The mathematic model describing the epidemic trends using the Asia Epidemic Model software projected that there will be 10,835 new HIV cases each year [1]. In Thailand, it was only after the establishment of the National Access to Antiretroviral Program for People living with HIV/AIDS (NAPHA) in 2002 that combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) became widely available free of charge throughout the country [2]. In a previous study from Thailand, treatment with GPO-VIR? (a locally-produced generic fixed-dose combination of stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine) resu
Autoantibody to Interferon-gamma Associated with Adult-Onset Immunodeficiency in Non-HIV Individuals in Northern Thailand
Panuwat Wongkulab, Jiraprapa Wipasa, Romanee Chaiwarith, Khuanchai Supparatpinyo
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076371
Abstract: Background Autoantibody to interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) has been reported to be associated with adult-onset immunodeficiency in patients from Asian countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of autoantibody to IFN-γ among non-HIV patients in northern Thailand who were repeatedly infected with unusual intracellular pathogens. Methods A cross-sectional, case-control study was conducted between March 2011 and March 2012 at Chiang Mai University Hospital. 20 cases, non-HIV, aged 18–60 years, presented with at least 2 episodes of culture or histopathology proven opportunistic infections were enrolled. Controls comprised 20 HIV-infected patients and 20 healthy adults who were age- and sex-matched with cases. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the presence of antibody to IFN-γ. Results 11 participants in each group were female. The mean ages were 48.1±6.4, 48.3±6.3, and 47.1±6.5 years among cases, HIV-infected, and healthy controls, respectively. The opportunistic infections among 20 cases included disseminated non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection (19 patients/24 episodes), disseminated penicilliosis marneffei (12 patients/12 episodes), and non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia (7 patients/8 episodes). At the cutoff level of 99 percentile of controls, the prevalence of autoantibody to IFN-γ were 100%, 0%, and 0%, among cases, HIV-infected, and healthy controls, respectively (p-value <0.001). The mean concentrations of antibody to IFN-γ were 3.279±0.662 and 0.939±0.630 O.D. among cases with and without active opportunistic infection, respectively (p-value<0.001). Conclusions In northern Thailand, autoantibody to IFN-γ was strongly associated with adult-onset immunodeficiency. The level of antibody to IFN-γ in patients who had active opportunistic infection was relatively higher than those without active infection.
Comparison of Immunogenicity and Safety of Four Doses and Four Double Doses vs. Standard Doses of Hepatitis B Vaccination in HIV-Infected Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Trial
Kanokporn Chaiklang, Jiraprapa Wipasa, Romanee Chaiwarith, Jutarat Praparattanapan, Khuanchai Supparatpinyo
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080409
Abstract: Background HBV vaccination is recommended in HIV-infected adults with CD4+ cell count >200/mm3 although the efficacy is only 33.3% -65%. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of three regimens of HBV vaccination at Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand. Methods From February 4, 2011 to May 4, 2012, 132 HIV-infected adults with CD4+ cell counts >200 cells/mm3, undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA, and negative for all HBV markers were randomly assigned to receive one of three recombinant vaccine (Hepavax-Gene? Berna, Korea) regimens: 20 μg IM at months 0, 1, and 6 (Standard doses group, n=44), 20 μg IM at months 0, 1, 2, 6 (four doses group, n=44), or 40 μg IM at months 0, 1, 2, and 6 (four double doses group, n=44). The primary outcomes were to compare the immunogenicity and safety between the four-doses groups with the Standard doses group. Results At months 7 and 12, the percentages of responders (anti-HBs ≥10 mIU/mL) were 88.6% and 70.4% in the Standard doses group, 93.2% and 86.4% in the four doses group, (P=0.713 and 0.119), and 95.4% and 88.6% in the four double doses group, (P=0.434 and 0.062), respectively. Factors associated with a high titer level (anti-HBs ≥100 mIU/mL) were vaccination schedule and younger age. The most common adverse event was pain at the injection site (42.4%); this was significantly more frequent in the four double doses group compared to the Standard doses group. No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions In Northern Thailand, the standard three-doses HBV vaccination in HIV-infected adults with CD4+ cell counts >200 cells/mm3 and undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA is highly effective. Although regimens of four injections of either standard or double doses could not significantly increase the response rate, these regimens may induce higher levels of antibody to the virus. Trial registration information: ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT1289106; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01?289106
Streptococcus agalactiae in adults at chiang mai university hospital: a retrospective study
Romanee Chaiwarith, Waree Jullaket, Manasanant Bunchoo, Nontakan Nuntachit, Thira Sirisanthana, Khuanchai Supparatpinyo
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-149
Abstract: A retrospective study was conducted between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2009 at Chiang Mai University Hospital among patients aged ≥15 years, whose clinical specimens obtained from normally sterile sites grew S. agalactiae.One-hundred and eighty-six patients and 197 specimens were identified during the 4-year period. Among 186 patients, 82 were documented as having invasive infection; 42 patients were male (51.2%) with the mean age of 48.5 ± 19.4 years (range 17, 83). Fifty-three patients (64.6%) had underlying medical conditions; 17 patients (20.7%), 10 (12.2%), 8 (9.7%) had diabetes, chronic renal diseases, and malignancy, respectively. Among 40 patients (48.8%) with bloodstream infection, no other site of infection was determined in 29 (35.4%) patients. In the remaining 11 patients, 5 patients (6.1%), 5 (6.1%), and 1 (1.2%) had meningitis, arthritis, and meningitis with arthritis, respectively. Forty-two patients (51.2%) presented with localized infection, i.e., subcutaneous abscess (19 patients, 23.2%), chorioamnionitis (10 patients, 12.2%), urinary tract infection (5 patients, 6.1%), arthritis (3 patients, 3.7%), meningitis (2 patients, 2.4%), and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, uveitis, and tracheobronchitis (1 patient each, 1.2%). The overall mortality was 14.6% (12 patients).S. agalactiae infection is a growing problem in non-pregnant patients, particularly in those with underlying medical conditions. Physicians should add S. agalactiae infection in the list of differential diagnoses in patients with meningitis and/or septicemia.Streptococcus agalactiae, a group B, β-hemolytic streptococcus, is a well-known cause of postpartum infection and neonatal sepsis[1,2]. It colonizes in the gastrointestinal and urinary tract in healthy adults as well as the genital tract in healthy women[1,2]. Recently, the number of cases of invasive infection caused by S. agalactiae in non-pregnant adults is increasing; [2-10] the majority of patients had underlying medical
First Isolation of Leishmania from Northern Thailand: Case Report, Identification as Leishmania martiniquensis and Phylogenetic Position within the Leishmania enriettii Complex
Thatawan Pothirat,Adisak Tantiworawit,Romanee Chaiwarith,Narissara Jariyapan,Anchalee Wannasan,Padet Siriyasatien,Khuanchai Supparatpinyo ,Michelle D. Bates,Godwin Kwakye-Nuako,Paul A. Bates
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003339
Abstract: Since 1996, there have been several case reports of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in Thailand. Here we report a case in a 52-year-old Thai male from northern Thailand, who presented with subacute fever, huge splenomegaly and pancytopenia. Bone marrow aspiration revealed numerous amastigotes within macrophages. Isolation of Leishmania LSCM1 into culture and DNA sequence analysis (ribosomal RNA ITS-1 and large subunit of RNA polymerase II) revealed the parasites to be members of the Leishmania enriettii complex, and apparently identical to L. martiniquensis previously reported from the Caribbean island of Martinique. This is the first report of visceral leishmaniasis caused by L. martiniquensis from the region. Moreover, the majority of parasites previously identified as “L. siamensis” also appear to be L. martiniquensis.
Comparisons of Primary HIV-1 Drug Resistance between Recent and Chronic HIV-1 Infection within a Sub-Regional Cohort of Asian Patients
Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Romanee Chaiwarith, Sunee Sirivichayakul, Rossana Ditangco, Awachana Jiamsakul, Patrick C. K. Li, Pacharee Kantipong, Christopher Lee, Winai Ratanasuwan, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Annette H. Sohn, Somnuek Sungkanuparph, for the TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance Surveillance and Monitoring Studies
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062057
Abstract: Background The emergence and transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) has raised concerns after rapid global antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up. There are limited data on the epidemiology of primary HIVDR in resource-limited settings in Asia. We aimed to determine the prevalence and compare the distribution of HIVDR in a cohort of ART-na?ve Asian patients with recent and chronic HIV-1 infection. Methods Multicenter prospective study was conducted in ART-na?ve patients between 2007 and 2010. Resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) were assessed using the World Health Organization 2009 list for surveillance of primary HIVDR. Results A total of 458 patients with recent and 1,340 patients with chronic HIV-1 infection were included in the analysis. The overall prevalence of primary HIVDR was 4.6%. Recently infected patients had a higher prevalence of primary HIVDR (6.1% vs. 4.0%, p = 0.065) and frequencies of RAMs to protease inhibitors (PIs; 3.9% vs. 1.0%, p<0.001). Among those with recent infection, the most common RAMs to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) were M184I/V and T215D/E/F/I/S/Y (1.1%), to non-NRTIs was Y181C (1.3%), and to PIs was M46I (1.5%). Of patients with chronic infection, T215D/E/F/I/S/Y (0.8%; NRTI), Y181C (0.5%; non-NRTI), and M46I (0.4%; PI) were the most common RAMs. K70R (p = 0.016) and M46I (p = 0.026) were found more frequently among recently infected patients. In multivariate logistic regression analysis in patients with chronic infection, heterosexual contact as a risk factor for HIV-1 infection was less likely to be associated with primary HIVDR compared to other risk categories (odds ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.20–0.59, p<0.001). Conclusions The prevalence of primary HIVDR was higher among patients with recent than chronic HIV-1 infection in our cohort, but of borderline statistical significance. Chronically infected patients with non-heterosexual risks for HIV were more likely to have primary HIVDR.
Loss to Followup in HIV-Infected Patients from Asia-Pacific Region: Results from TAHOD
Jialun Zhou,Junko Tanuma,Romanee Chaiwarith,Christopher K. C. Lee,Matthew G. Law,Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy,Praphan Phanuphak,Yi-Ming A. Chen,Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul,Fujie Zhang,Saphonn Vonthanak,Rossana Ditangco,Sanjay Pujari,Jun Yong Choi,Tuti Parwati Merati,Evy Yunihastuti,Patrick C. K. Li,Adeeba Kamarulzaman,Van Kinh Nguyen,Thi Thanh Thuy Pham,Poh Lian Lim
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/375217
Abstract: This study examined characteristics of HIV-infected patients in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database who were lost to follow-up (LTFU) from treatment and care. Time from last clinic visit to 31 March 2009 was analysed to determine the interval that best classified LTFU. Patients defined as LTFU were then categorised into permanently LTFU (never returned) and temporary LTFU (re-entered later), and these groups compared. A total of 3626 patients were included (71% male). No clinic visits for 180 days was the best-performing LTFU definition (sensitivity 90.6%, specificity 92.3%). During 7697 person-years of follow-up, 1648 episodes of LFTU were recorded (21.4 per 100-person-years). Patients LFTU were younger ( ), had HIV viral load ≥500?copies/mL or missing ( ), had shorter history of HIV infection ( ), and received no, single- or double-antiretroviral therapy, or a triple-drug regimen containing a protease inhibitor ( ). 48% of patients LTFU never returned. These patients were more likely to have low or missing haemoglobin ( ), missing recent HIV viral load ( ), negative hepatitis C test ( ), and previous temporary LTFU episodes ( ). Our analyses suggest that patients not seen at a clinic for 180 days are at high risk of permanent LTFU, and should be aggressively traced. 1. Introduction Loss to followup (LTFU) in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy can cause serious consequences such as discontinuation of treatment and increased risk of death [1–3]. At a program level, LTFU can make it difficult to evaluate outcomes of treatment and care [4, 5]. In resource-limited settings, where treatment has become rapidly available following the rollout of antiretroviral therapy, LTFU presents even more challenging obstacles that require special consideration and approaches [6, 7]. One of the key questions in patient followup is how to define a patient as LTFU. This has varied in studies conducted in different settings [8–10]. Defining LTFU using a very early threshold, for example, a patient with no clinic visit in the last three months, may result in many patients being considered as LTFU who would return to clinic naturally at a later date. Defining LTFU with a long threshold, for example, one year, may mean delaying too long before any effort is made to track patients potentially at risk of LTFU. The majority of research into LTFU in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral treatment in resource-limited settings has been conducted in the sub-Saharan Africa region [3, 10–13]. A few studies have been conducted among Asian, mostly female, patients
Comparison of dissipation models for irregular breaking waves
Winyu Rattanapitikon,Romanee Karunchintadit
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2002,
Abstract: The irregular wave height transformation has been a subject of study for decades because of itsimportance in studying beach deformations and the design of coastal structures. The energy dissipation isan essential requirement in the computation of wave height transformation. During the past few decades, many dissipation models have been developed, for regular wave see Rattanapitikon and Leangruxa (2001). This study is undertaken to examine the accuracy of 7 existing dissipation models for irregular breaking waves, i.e., the models of Battjes and Janssen (1978), Thornton and Guza (1983) (2 models), Battjes and Stive (1984), Southgate and Nairn (1993), Baldock et al. (1998), and Rattanapitikon and Shibayama (1998).The coefficients of the models are re-calibrated and the overall accuracy of the models is compared. A large number and wide range of wave and bottom topography conditions (total 385 cases from 9 sources ofpublished laboratory data) are used to re-calibrate and compare the accuracy of the 7 models. It appears that the model of Rattanapitikon and Shibayama (1998) gives the best prediction for general cases.
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