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Genetic Programming for Multibiometrics
Romain Giot,Christophe Rosenberger
Computer Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.eswa.2011.08.066
Abstract: Biometric systems suffer from some drawbacks: a biometric system can provide in general good performances except with some individuals as its performance depends highly on the quality of the capture. One solution to solve some of these problems is to use multibiometrics where different biometric systems are combined together (multiple captures of the same biometric modality, multiple feature extraction algorithms, multiple biometric modalities...). In this paper, we are interested in score level fusion functions application (i.e., we use a multibiometric authentication scheme which accept or deny the claimant for using an application). In the state of the art, the weighted sum of scores (which is a linear classifier) and the use of an SVM (which is a non linear classifier) provided by different biometric systems provide one of the best performances. We present a new method based on the use of genetic programming giving similar or better performances (depending on the complexity of the database). We derive a score fusion function by assembling some classical primitives functions (+, *, -, ...). We have validated the proposed method on three significant biometric benchmark datasets from the state of the art.
Performance Evaluation of Biometric Template Update
Romain Giot,Christophe Rosenberger,Bernadette Dorizzi
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Template update allows to modify the biometric reference of a user while he uses the biometric system. With such kind of mechanism we expect the biometric system uses always an up to date representation of the user, by capturing his intra-class (temporary or permanent) variability. Although several studies exist in the literature, there is no commonly adopted evaluation scheme. This does not ease the comparison of the different systems of the literature. In this paper, we show that using different evaluation procedures can lead in different, and contradictory, interpretations of the results. We use a keystroke dynamics (which is a modality suffering of template ageing quickly) template update system on a dataset consisting of height different sessions to illustrate this point. Even if we do not answer to this problematic, it shows that it is necessary to normalize the template update evaluation procedures.
Local Water Diffusion Phenomenon Clustering From High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI)
Romain Giot,Christophe Charrier,Maxime Descoteaux
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: The understanding of neurodegenerative diseases undoubtedly passes through the study of human brain white matter fiber tracts. To date, diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is the unique technique to obtain information about the neural architecture of the human brain, thus permitting the study of white matter connections and their integrity. However, a remaining challenge of the dMRI community is to better characterize complex fiber crossing configurations, where diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is limited but high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) now brings solutions. This paper investigates the development of both identification and classification process of the local water diffusion phenomenon based on HARDI data to automatically detect imaging voxels where there are single and crossing fiber bundle populations. The technique is based on knowledge extraction processes and is validated on a dMRI phantom dataset with ground truth.
Hybrid Template Update System for Unimodal Biometric Systems
Romain Giot,Christophe Rosenberger,Bernadette Dorizzi
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Semi-supervised template update systems allow to automatically take into account the intra-class variability of the biometric data over time. Such systems can be inefficient by including too many impostor's samples or skipping too many genuine's samples. In the first case, the biometric reference drifts from the real biometric data and attracts more often impostors. In the second case, the biometric reference does not evolve quickly enough and also progressively drifts from the real biometric data. We propose a hybrid system using several biometric sub-references in order to increase per- formance of self-update systems by reducing the previously cited errors. The proposition is validated for a keystroke- dynamics authentication system (this modality suffers of high variability over time) on two consequent datasets from the state of the art.
Keystroke Dynamics Authentication For Collaborative Systems
Romain Giot,Mohamad El-Abed,Christophe Rosenberger
Computer Science , 2009, DOI: 10.1109/CTS.2009.5067478
Abstract: We present in this paper a study on the ability and the benefits of using a keystroke dynamics authentication method for collaborative systems. Authentication is a challenging issue in order to guarantee the security of use of collaborative systems during the access control step. Many solutions exist in the state of the art such as the use of one time passwords or smart-cards. We focus in this paper on biometric based solutions that do not necessitate any additional sensor. Keystroke dynamics is an interesting solution as it uses only the keyboard and is invisible for users. Many methods have been published in this field. We make a comparative study of many of them considering the operational constraints of use for collaborative systems.
Fast computation of the performance evaluation of biometric systems: application to multibiometric
Romain Giot,Mohamad El-Abed,Christophe Rosenberger
Computer Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.future.2012.02.003
Abstract: The performance evaluation of biometric systems is a crucial step when designing and evaluating such systems. The evaluation process uses the Equal Error Rate (EER) metric proposed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO/IEC). The EER metric is a powerful metric which allows easily comparing and evaluating biometric systems. However, the computation time of the EER is, most of the time, very intensive. In this paper, we propose a fast method which computes an approximated value of the EER. We illustrate the benefit of the proposed method on two applications: the computing of non parametric confidence intervals and the use of genetic algorithms to compute the parameters of fusion functions. Experimental results show the superiority of the proposed EER approximation method in term of computing time, and the interest of its use to reduce the learning of parameters with genetic algorithms. The proposed method opens new perspectives for the development of secure multibiometrics systems by speeding up their computation time.
Web-Based Benchmark for Keystroke Dynamics Biometric Systems: A Statistical Analysis
Romain Giot,Mohamad El-Abed,Christophe Rosenberger
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Most keystroke dynamics studies have been evaluated using a specific kind of dataset in which users type an imposed login and password. Moreover, these studies are optimistics since most of them use different acquisition protocols, private datasets, controlled environment, etc. In order to enhance the accuracy of keystroke dynamics' performance, the main contribution of this paper is twofold. First, we provide a new kind of dataset in which users have typed both an imposed and a chosen pairs of logins and passwords. In addition, the keystroke dynamics samples are collected in a web-based uncontrolled environment (OS, keyboards, browser, etc.). Such kind of dataset is important since it provides us more realistic results of keystroke dynamics' performance in comparison to the literature (controlled environment, etc.). Second, we present a statistical analysis of well known assertions such as the relationship between performance and password size, impact of fusion schemes on system overall performance, and others such as the relationship between performance and entropy. We put into obviousness in this paper some new results on keystroke dynamics in realistic conditions.
Uncontrolled Drilling: Exposing a Global Threat to Groundwater Sustainability  [PDF]
Romain Chesnaux
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.49084
Abstract: Untold numbers of boreholes are drilled into the earth’s crust every year. Most constitute a potential threat to groundwater quality by creating a preferred pathway for contaminant migration. Some solutions, including “well-pooling”, are proposed to better protect groundwater resources through the efficient management of boreholes.
Agarose Gel Electrophoresis - Applications in Clinical Chemistry
Jean-Francois Giot
Journal of Medical Biochemistry , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10011-009-0033-8
Abstract: Agarose gel electrophoresis is a well established technique routinely used in clinical laboratories for screening protein abnormalities in various biological fluids (serum, urine, CSF). It is based on the principles of zone electrophoresis. Electrophoretograms are evaluated visually for the presence of quantitatively or qualitatively abnormal protein bands. The technique is used for electrophoresis of serum, urine, CSF proteins, enzymes (ALP, LDH and CK), lipoproteins and hemoglobin. Serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) is a very commonly used analytical method in clinical chemistry. Changes in the relative concentration of fractions allow easy recognition of pathological disorders associated with nephrotic syndrome, inflammatory reaction and hepatic diseases. SPE is a screening test for detecting the M component (MC). Immunofixation (IFE) with use of specific antisera allows detection of the type of MC. SPE is also a method for the quantification of MC and monitoring of disease that is essential for clinical evaluation and follow-up of patients with plasma cell disorders.
Cardiomyocytes Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: An In-Vitro Model to Predict Cardiac Effects of Drugs  [PDF]
Romain Sube, Eric A. Ertel
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2017.1011040
Abstract: Introduction: Cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-CM) form spontaneously beating syncytia in-vitro. We evaluated whether hiPSC-CM are a compelling model of human cardiac pharmacology useful for early drug development. Methods: We measured hiPSC-CM beating frequency using Ca-sensitive dyes and a high-throughput screening system. We quantified the effects of 640 drugs with various structures and pharmacologies. Results: When tested at 1 μM, most drugs without direct effects on heart rhythm or with effects at high concentrations do not change frequency, indicating specificity. In contrast, the preparation detects compounds with direct activity on heart rhythm, demonstrating sensitivity. In particular, β-adrenergic agonists increase frequency and the model differentiates β2 from β1 agonists, as well as partial from full agonists. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors have subtype-specific actions and PDE4 is particularly important in controlling frequency. The preparation is sensitive to cardiac ion channel blockers: L-type calcium channel blockers, Class-I and Class-III antiarrhythmics change frequency but drugs acting on KATP channels do not. The assay detects compounds blocking the cardiac rapid delayed-rectifier K channel and is an alternative to the classic “hERG test”. Conclusion: hiPSC-CM are a useful in-vitro cardiac model in drug development since they respond appropriately to drugs that modify heart rate in humans.
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